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See detailImplicit motives and children's salivary cortisol reactivity to an adapted version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)
Spengler, Benedikt; Hofer, Jan; Busch, Holger et al

in Personality and Individual Differences (2020), 162

This research addresses the interplay between two implicit motives, that are power (nPow) and affiliation (nAff), and the cortisol reactivity (CR) to a psychosocial stressor (an adaption of the Trier ... [more ▼]

This research addresses the interplay between two implicit motives, that are power (nPow) and affiliation (nAff), and the cortisol reactivity (CR) to a psychosocial stressor (an adaption of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children; TSST-C; Buske-Kirschbaum et al., 1997) in 89 healthy children (45 female; Mage = 7.74, SDAge = 0.46). We assessed implicit motives by a 6-image Picture Story Exercise (PSE) and cortisol by 6 saliva samples. As hypothesized, the procedure triggered a significant cortisol reaction, F(1.44, 127.05Greenhouse-Geisser) = 8.22, p = .002, η²part = 0.09. Contrary to our hypothesis, children high in nPow showed no significant increase in CR (β = 0.06, p = .60). However, our results were in line with the findings of Wegner, Schüler, and Budde (2014) that a high implicit affiliation motive is associated with an attenuated CR (β = −0.21, p = .05). Perspectives for future research on implicit motives and children's CR to psychosocial stress are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTrait emotional intelligence and problematic online behaviors among adolescents: The mediating role of mindfulness, rumination, and depression
Kircaburun, Kagan; Griffiths, Mark D.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Personality and Individual Differences (2019), 139

Preliminary studies have shown that trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) can be a risk factor for higher problematic use of specific online activities. However, the possible mediating role of ... [more ▼]

Preliminary studies have shown that trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) can be a risk factor for higher problematic use of specific online activities. However, the possible mediating role of mindfulness and rumination on the relationship of trait EI with problematic social media use (PSMU) and problematic online gaming (POG) is unclear. Among a sample of 470 adolescents, the present study examined the direct and indirect associations of trait EI with PSMU and POG and the potential mediational role of mindfulness, rumination, and depression while controlling for gender and age. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that trait EI was indirectly associated with PSMU via mindfulness, rumination, and depression, and with POG via mindfulness and rumination. Furthermore, rumination affected PSMU positively. The study provides empirical evidence of the theoretical assumption that different types of specific problematic online behaviors are related to both shared and specific risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding procrastination: A motivational approach
Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES (2018), 121

Procrastination is often seen as a self-regulatory failure. We want to offer a perspective that shifts the focus from volitional to motivational aspects of procrastination. In an attempt to demystify the ... [more ▼]

Procrastination is often seen as a self-regulatory failure. We want to offer a perspective that shifts the focus from volitional to motivational aspects of procrastination. In an attempt to demystify the phenomenon, we combine two studies exploring the motivational foundations of procrastination with a study aiming to uncover its implicit normative connotations. Study 1 investigated the link between value orientations and procrastination at a general level, showing that people high in procrastination entertain low achievement and high well-being value orientations. Study 2 investigated the link between self-determination and procrastination within and across daily activities. Low self-determination related to low levels of activity completion and to procrastination in general. Finally, Study 3 investigated the link between value as well as political orientations and perceptions of procrastination. Individuals who favored modern, conservative values were more likely to attribute academic procrastination as personal failure, whereas individuals who endorsed post-modern, liberal values were more likely to consider situational causes of academic procrastination. Against this background, we argue for a less normative view on procrastination and recommend motivational (e.g., goal selection) rather than volitional (e.g., goal implementation) interventions to prevent procrastination. [less ▲]

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See detailThe choice between what you want now and what you want most. Self-control explains academic achievement beyond cognitive ability
Stadler, Matthias UL; Aust, Miriam; Becker, Nicolas et al

in Personality and Individual Differences (2016), 94

Achieving a university degree is a demanding long-term goal, and students often show varying levels of academic achievement despite similar intellectual abilities. In order to help students, researchers ... [more ▼]

Achieving a university degree is a demanding long-term goal, and students often show varying levels of academic achievement despite similar intellectual abilities. In order to help students, researchers thereby need to understand the origins of these individual differences. However, it remains unclear whether self-control is important for students' academic achievement beyond their general cognitive ability. To answer this question,N= 150 German university students completed a measure of general cognitive ability as well as a German translation of the Brief Self-Control Scale. Grade point average (GPA) served as an objective indicator of academic achievement, complemented by personal ratings as a measure of subjective academic achievement (SAA). Both cognitive ability and self-control explained substantial amounts of variance in GPA; however, only self-control accounted for variance in SAA. The study's keyfinding was that self-control indeed contributed to explaining GPA and SAA, even when cognitive ability was controlled for. On the basis of these results, we argue that self-control holds important explanatory value for both objective and subjective academic achievement, and we discuss the results' practical relevance with regard to student success at university. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining the relationship between personality and coping with professional demands: Where and why do optimism, self-regulation, and self-efficacy matter?
Gottschling, Juliana UL; Hahn, E.; Maas, H. et al

in Personality and Individual Differences (2016), 100

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See detailComparing creative profiles: Architects, social scientists and the general population
Kirsch, Christiane UL; Lubart, Todd; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Personality and Individual Differences (2016), 94

The aim of this article is to investigate the hybrid approach of creativity, according to which some features are more domain-general whereas others are more domain-specific. The total sample consisted of ... [more ▼]

The aim of this article is to investigate the hybrid approach of creativity, according to which some features are more domain-general whereas others are more domain-specific. The total sample consisted of 359 participants. The hybrid approach was confirmed. Whereas fluid intelligence had a domain-general importance, the role of ego-strength was very domain-specific. Ego-strength was positively involved in adaptive creativity among student architects but negatively in creativity with the social science students: whereas student architects tended to show a “scientific” creative profile, social science students showed an “artistic” creative profile. Finally, as anticipated, people from the general population demonstrated the expected profile for everyday creativity. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy do children differ in motivation to learn: Insights from over 13,000 twins from 6 countries.
Kovas, Y.; Garon-Carrier, G.; Boivin, M. et al

in Personality and Individual Differences (2015), 80

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See detailPersonality in childhood – a longitudinal behavior genetic approach
Spengler, M.; Gottschling, Juliana UL; Spinath, F.M.

in Personality and Individual Differences (2012), 53

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See detailAre all facets of impulsivity related to self-reported compulsive buying behavior?
Billieux, Joël UL; Rochat, L.; Rebetez, M. M. L. et al

in Personality and Individual Differences (2008), 44(6), 1432-1442

Compulsive buying is defined as uncontrolled and excessive purchases leading to personal and family distress. While compulsive buying is generally considered to be an impulse control disorder, very few ... [more ▼]

Compulsive buying is defined as uncontrolled and excessive purchases leading to personal and family distress. While compulsive buying is generally considered to be an impulse control disorder, very few studies have explored its relationships with the multidimensional construct of impulsivity. Consequently, the aim of the present study is to investigate the role of the various components of impulsivity in compulsive buying. To this end, 150 volunteer participants from the community were screened using a questionnaire assessing compulsive buying, and the French version of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. This scale identifies four distinct components associated with impulsive behaviors: urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. The results showed that (1) compulsive buying is positively correlated with three facets of impulsivity (urgency, lack of perseverance and lack of premeditation), and (2) multiple linear regression analysis revealed urgency to be the only significant predictor of compulsive buying tendencies when gender, age, educational level and depression were controlled for. Those findings are discussed in light of the psychological processes underlying the various components of impulsivity in relation to the occurrence of compulsive buying behaviors. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA French adaptation of a short version of the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ)
Lardi, C.; Billieux, Joël UL; d'Acremont, M. et al

in Personality and Individual Differences (2008), 45(8), 722-725

According to Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray, 1982), personality results from the interaction of three major systems: a Behavioural Activation System (BAS), a Behavioural Inhibition ... [more ▼]

According to Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray, 1982), personality results from the interaction of three major systems: a Behavioural Activation System (BAS), a Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and a Fight/Flight System (FFS). Based on this model, Torrubia, Avila, Molto, and Caseras (2001) developed an instrument, the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ), which assesses the two major systems that explain individual differences in sensitivity and reactions to punishing and rewarding stimuli. In the present study, we have proposed a short version of the SPSRQ, based on O'Connor, Colder, and Hawk's (2004) findings. To this end, 360 participants were screened using the French translation of a short version of the SPSRQ. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor model has acceptable fit. Moreover, the results indicated that there was very good internal reliability for both the sensitivity to reward and sensitivity to punishment scales. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe association of respiratory symptom report with depressive mood is distinct from the association with anxiety
Petersen, Sibylle UL; Ritz, Thomas

in Personality and Individual Differences (2008), 46

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