References of "Perceptual and Motor Skills"
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See detailMotivational Effects of Enhanced Expectancies for Motor Learning in Individuals With High and Low Self-Efficacy
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

in Perceptual and Motor Skills (2019)

Previous research has shown that enhanced expectancies can foster a person’s motivational state and facilitate motor learning. However, the effects of enhanced expectancies on motivational state and ... [more ▼]

Previous research has shown that enhanced expectancies can foster a person’s motivational state and facilitate motor learning. However, the effects of enhanced expectancies on motivational state and subsequent motor learning in individuals with varied motivational states (e.g., self-efficacy; SE) are not well understood. This study examined the effects of enhanced expectancies on motivational state and motor learning in individuals with high and low SE by manipulating the type of knowledge of results (KR). We selected 60 participants from 251 male undergraduate students, based on their SE level, and assigned them to four groups: (a) Good Performance KR and High SE, (b) Poor Performance KR and High SE, (c) Good Performance KR and Low SE, and (d) Poor Performance KR and Low SE. We asked participants to throw beanbags at a target with their nondominant hand during an acquisition phase (10 blocks of six trials each) and during subsequent retention and transfer tests. During acquisition, the Good KR groups received KR from their three most accurate trials in each training block, whereas the Poor KR groups received KR from their three poorest attempts in each block. We measured accuracy scores and changes in SE as dependent variables. Results showed that KR from good trials, relative to KR from poor trials, led to better accuracy scores during acquisition and retention and transfer tests, independent of participants’ initial SE levels. Moreover, KR on good trials enhanced SE in the Good KR and Low SE group and kept SE at a high level in the Good KR and High SE group during acquisition and on the retention and transfer tests. These results provide support for the OPTIMAL (optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning) theory of motor learning, and we discuss results in terms of the potential effects of positive feedback on motor performance in professional athletes. [less ▲]

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See detailThrowing skills: Analysis of movement phases in early motor learning
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

in Perceptual and Motor Skills (2017), 124(1), 1-12

Traditionally, motor learning scientists have evaluated the process of learning a new motor skill by considering the skill as a whole. Yet, motor skills comprises various phases, and in the motor learning ... [more ▼]

Traditionally, motor learning scientists have evaluated the process of learning a new motor skill by considering the skill as a whole. Yet, motor skills comprises various phases, and in the motor learning literature, it is not clear whether new learner show similar or different learning across various phases. We provide exploratory data on learning movement phases by novices, using baseball pitching as the learning task. Eight participants (four male, four female, M age ¼ 23.7 years, SD ¼ 2.4) performed five trials each in the pretest followed by three blocks of 10 trials each in the acquisition phase. Finally, two retention tests of five trials were conducted by each participant 10 minutes and 7 days after the last acquisition block, respectively. Intraand interlimb coordination of upper and lower body segments were measured as dependent variables. We found significant differences between the stride phase and the other phases at pretest, during the acquisition phase, and on both retention tests across all kinematic variables. Participants experienced more trouble coordinating the stride phase than the other phases of pitching, perhaps because the stride phase is the only phase in which the participants had to move their upper and lower body parts simultaneously. We discuss implications for motor learning generally. [less ▲]

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See detailTime perception, estimation paradigm, and temporal relevance.
Klapproth, Florian UL

in Perceptual and Motor Skills (2007), 104

52 women and 20 men (M age = 25.3 yr., SD = 4.1) reproduced one of three durations (15, 30, and 45 sec.) of a uniform visual stimulus in either a prospective or a retrospective estimation paradigm. In ... [more ▼]

52 women and 20 men (M age = 25.3 yr., SD = 4.1) reproduced one of three durations (15, 30, and 45 sec.) of a uniform visual stimulus in either a prospective or a retrospective estimation paradigm. In contrast to the prospective conditions, the participants in the retrospective conditions did not know that time estimation would be required subsequently. However, temporal relevance in the retrospective conditions was raised explicitly by instructing the participants to wait for the termination of a visual stimulus and to press a button immediately after the stimulus had disappeared. The results contrasted with most findings of comparisons between prospective and retrospective duration judgments: there were no differences between the conditions regarding their mean estimates. However, intersubject variability of temporal judgments was higher in the retrospective conditions than in the prospective conditions. The results were interpreted within the framework of attentional models of temporal information processing. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 119 (4 UL)