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See detailEconomic development, weather shocks and child marriage in South Asia: A machine learning approach
Dietrich, Stephan; Meysonnat, Aline; Rosales, Francisco et al

in PLoS ONE (2022), 17(9), 0271373

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See detailAvoiding bias when inferring race using name-based approaches
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Murray, Dakota S.; Bell, Alexis et al

in PLoS ONE (2022), 3(17), 0264270

Racial disparity in academia is a widely acknowledged problem. The quantitative understanding of racial-based systemic inequalities is an important step towards a more equitable research system. However ... [more ▼]

Racial disparity in academia is a widely acknowledged problem. The quantitative understanding of racial-based systemic inequalities is an important step towards a more equitable research system. However, because of the lack of robust information on authors’ race, few large-scale analyses have been performed on this topic. Algorithmic approaches offer one solution, using known information about authors, such as their names, to infer their perceived race. As with any other algorithm, the process of racial inference can generate biases if it is not carefully considered. The goal of this article is to assess the extent to which algorithmic bias is introduced using different approaches for name-based racial inference. We use information from the U.S. Census and mortgage applications to infer the race of U.S. affiliated authors in the Web of Science. We estimate the effects of using given and family names, thresholds or continuous distributions, and imputation. Our results demonstrate that the validity of name-based inference varies by race/ethnicity and that threshold approaches underestimate Black authors and overestimate White authors. We conclude with recommendations to avoid potential biases. This article lays the foundation for more systematic and less-biased investigations into racial disparities in science. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom communities to protein complexes: A local community detection algorithm on PPI networks
Dilmaghani, Saharnaz; Brust, Mathias UL; Ribeiro, Carlos H. et al

in PLoS ONE (2022), 17(1), 1-17

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See detailSubjective age, worry and risk-related perceptions in older adults in times of a pandemic
Tingvold, Maiken UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine et al

in PLoS ONE (2022)

During the Covid-19 pandemic, older people have been in the spotlight of the public debate. Given their higher risk of severe outcomes of the disease, they have been described as especially vulnerable and ... [more ▼]

During the Covid-19 pandemic, older people have been in the spotlight of the public debate. Given their higher risk of severe outcomes of the disease, they have been described as especially vulnerable and as a burden to others and society. We thus wanted to investigate how older people’s perception of their own age, that is their subjective age, as well as their Covid-19 related risks and worries were related during the pandemic and whether these relationships varied according to participants’ subjective health. We used data from the longitudinal CRISIS study which was conducted in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg in June and October 2020. Participants were aged 60–98 and responded on questionnaires regarding their subjective age, worry of falling ill with Covid-19, perceived risk of contracting the virus, perceived risk of falling seriously ill if they contracted Covid-19, as well as their subjective health and covariates. Three cross-lagged panel models were constructed to explore the longitudinal, bidirectional relationships between the variables. Cross-sectionally, a higher subjective age was related to more perceived risk of a serious course of disease. Longitudinally, subjective age and worry did not show any significant association over time, and neither did subjective age and perceived risk of contracting the virus. However, subjective health significantly moderated the relationship of worry and subjective age, showing different trajectories in the relationship depending on whether subjective health was good or bad. Higher perceived risk of falling seriously ill increased subjective age over time. Again, subjective health moderated this relationship: the perceived risk of falling seriously ill affected subjective age only for those with better subjective health. Our findings show the interactive relationship between subjective age and Covid-19 related cognitions and emotions and provide guidance for identifying older people that are most susceptible for negative age-related communication during the pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital twinning of Cellular Capsule Technology: emerging outcomes from the perspective of porous media mechanics
Urcun, Stéphane UL

in PLoS ONE (2021)

Spheroids encapsulated within alginate capsules are emerging as suitable in vitro tools to investigate the impact of mechanical forces on tumor growth since the internal tumor pressure can be retrieved ... [more ▼]

Spheroids encapsulated within alginate capsules are emerging as suitable in vitro tools to investigate the impact of mechanical forces on tumor growth since the internal tumor pressure can be retrieved from the deformation of the capsule. Here we focus on the particular case of Cellular Capsule Technology (CCT). We show in this contribution that a modeling approach accounting for the triphasic nature of the spheroid (extracellular matrix, tumor cells and interstitial fluid) offers a new perspective of analysis revealing that the pressure retrieved experimentally cannot be interpreted as a direct picture of the pressure sustained by the tumor cells and, as such, cannot therefore be used to quantify the critical pressure which induces stress-induced phenotype switch in tumor cells. The proposed multiphase reactive poro-mechanical model was cross-validated. Parameter sensitivity analyses on the digital twin revealed that the main parameters determining the encapsulated growth configuration are different from those driving growth in free condition, confirming that radically different phenomena are at play. Results reported in this contribution support the idea that multiphase reactive poro-mechanics is an exceptional theoretical framework to attain an in-depth understanding of CCT experiments, to confirm their hypotheses and to further improve their design. We show in this contribution that a modeling approach accounting for the triphasic nature of the spheroid (extracellular matrix, tumor cells and interstitial fluid) offers a new perspective of analysis revealing that the pressure retrieved experimentally cannot be interpreted as a direct picture of the pressure sustained by the tumor cells and, as such, cannot therefore be used to quantify the critical pressure which induces stress-induced phenotype switch in tumour cells. The proposed multiphase reactive poro-mechanical model was cross-validated. Parameter sensitivity analyses on the digital twin revealed that the main parameters determining the encapsulated growth configuration are different from those driving growth in free condition, confirming that radically different phenomena are at play.Results reported in this contribution support the idea that multiphase reactive poro-mechanics is an exceptional theoretical framework to attain an in-depth understanding of CCT experiments, to confirm their hypotheses and to further improve their design. [less ▲]

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See detailIs This Time Really Different? Flight-to-Safety and the COVID-19 Crisis
Löwen, Celina; Kchouri, Bilal UL; Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in PLoS ONE (2021), 16(5),

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See detailLatent Dirichlet Allocation Models for World Trade Analysis
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Semeshenko, Viktoriya; Molinari, Andrea

in PLoS ONE (2021), 16(2), 0245393

The international trade is one of the classic areas of study in economics. Nowadays, given the availability of data, the tools used for the analysis can be complemented and enriched with new methodologies ... [more ▼]

The international trade is one of the classic areas of study in economics. Nowadays, given the availability of data, the tools used for the analysis can be complemented and enriched with new methodologies and techniques that go beyond the traditional approach. The present paper shows the application of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation Models, a well known technique from the area of Natural Language Processing, to search for latent dimensions in the product space of international trade, and their distribution across countries over time. We apply this technique to a dataset of countries' exports of goods from 1962 to 2016. The findings show the possibility to generate higher level classifications of goods based on the empirical evidence, and also allow to study the distribution of those classifications within countries. The latter show interesting insights about countries' trade specialisation. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamical SPQEIR model assesses the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions against COVID-19 epidemic outbreaks.
Proverbio, Daniele UL; Kemp, Francoise UL; Magni, Stefano UL et al

in PloS one (2021), 16(5), 0252019

Against the current COVID-19 pandemic, governments worldwide have devised a variety of non-pharmaceutical interventions to mitigate it. However, it is generally difficult to estimate the joint impact of ... [more ▼]

Against the current COVID-19 pandemic, governments worldwide have devised a variety of non-pharmaceutical interventions to mitigate it. However, it is generally difficult to estimate the joint impact of different control strategies. In this paper, we tackle this question with an extended epidemic SEIR model, informed by a socio-political classification of different interventions. First, we inquire the conceptual effect of mitigation parameters on the infection curve. Then, we illustrate the potential of our model to reproduce and explain empirical data from a number of countries, to perform cross-country comparisons. This gives information on the best synergies of interventions to control epidemic outbreaks while minimising impact on socio-economic needs. For instance, our results suggest that, while rapid and strong lockdown is an effective pandemic mitigation measure, a combination of social distancing and early contact tracing can achieve similar mitigation synergistically, while keeping lower isolation rates. This quantitative understanding can support the establishment of mid- and long-term interventions, to prepare containment strategies against further outbreaks. This paper also provides an online tool that allows researchers and decision makers to interactively simulate diverse scenarios with our model. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial representations and interface layout: A new way of enhancing persuasive technology applied to organ donation
Barbier, Mathilde UL; Moták, Ladislav; De Gasquet, Camille et al

in PLoS ONE (2020)

Although campaigns promoting organ donation have proved their effectiveness, increasing the number of people who explicitly agree to become donors is still difficult. Based on the social marketing notion ... [more ▼]

Although campaigns promoting organ donation have proved their effectiveness, increasing the number of people who explicitly agree to become donors is still difficult. Based on the social marketing notion of persuasive technology, we reasoned that it was timely to focus on the design of this persuasive technology and to analyze its contribution in particularly challenging contexts such as organ donation. More specifically, the originality of the present study lay in the way we linked the field of persuasive technology to the theory of social representations, and combined them with an analysis of the ergonomic aspects of interface layout. This study had two complementary goals. The first was to determine whether the sociocognitive salience of the central elements of social representations (i.e., the most frequent and important themes related to the subject—here, organ donation—for individuals), can be used to achieve persuasive outcomes. The second was to determine whether interface layout, in terms of information location and background characteristics (color and contrast), can strengthen the persuasive impact. University students (N > 200) were exposed to a computer screen displaying a message involving either central or peripheral elements of the social representations of organ donation (status), placed either in the middle or on one side of the screen (location), and shown against either a white or a blue background (background). Eye-tracking data were recorded, in addition to self-reported data. In line with the elaboration likelihood model, results showed that participants who were exposed to central (vs. peripheral) elements of the social representations of organ donation followed the central route in processing information. Moreover, they had stronger attitudes, and more of them stated that they were actual organ donors. Importantly, however, at least for some variables, these status-related effects were not independent of the interface layout. More specifically, the persuasive impact of the central elements was enhanced when the information was displayed in the middle (vs. the side) of the screen and when it was displayed on a white (vs. blue) background. We discuss the theoretical and practical issues raised by these results. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome-wide linkage analysis of families with primary hyperhidrosis
Schote, Andrea B.; Schiel, Florian; Schmitt, Benedict et al

in PLoS ONE (2020)

Primary focal hyperhidrosis (PFH, OMIM %144110) is a genetically influenced condition characterised by excessive sweating. Prevalence varies between 1.0–6.1% in the general population, dependent on ... [more ▼]

Primary focal hyperhidrosis (PFH, OMIM %144110) is a genetically influenced condition characterised by excessive sweating. Prevalence varies between 1.0–6.1% in the general population, dependent on ethnicity. The aetiology of PFH remains unclear but an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, incomplete penetrance and variable phenotypes have been reported. In our study, nine pedigrees (50 affected, 53 non-affected individuals) were included. Clinical characterisation was performed at the German Hyperhidrosis Centre, Munich, by using physiological and psychological questionnaires. Genome-wide parametric linkage analysis with GeneHunter was performed based on the Illumina genome-wide SNP arrays. Haplotypes were constructed using easyLINKAGE and visualised via HaploPainter. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) with 100x coverage in 31 selected members (24 affected, 7 non-affected) from our pedigrees was achieved by next generation sequencing. We identified four genome-wide significant loci, 1q41-1q42.3, 2p14-2p13.3, 2q21.2-2q23.3 and 15q26.3-15q26.3 for PFH. Three pedigrees map to a shared locus at 2q21.2-2q23.3, with a genome-wide significant LOD score of 3.45. The chromosomal region identified here overlaps with a locus at chromosome 2q22.1-2q31.1 reported previously. Three families support 1q41-1q42.3 (LOD = 3.69), two families share a region identical by descent at 2p14-2p13.3 (LOD = 3.15) and another two families at 15q26.3 (LOD = 3.01). Thus, our results point to considerable genetic heterogeneity. WES did not reveal any causative variants, suggesting that variants or mutations located outside the coding regions might be involved in the molecular pathogenesis of PFH. We suggest a strategy based on whole-genome or targeted next generation sequencing to identify causative genes or variants for PFH. [less ▲]

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See detailFear and Stock Price Bubbles
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in PLoS ONE (2020), 15 (5)(e0233024), 1-11

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See detailAgainst mass media trends: Minority growth in cultural globalization
Cosenza, M. G.; Gavidia, Marino UL; Gonzalez-Avella, J. C.

in PLoS ONE (2020)

We investigate the collective behavior of a globalized society under the influence of endogenous mass media trends. The mass media trend is a global field corresponding to the statistical mode of the ... [more ▼]

We investigate the collective behavior of a globalized society under the influence of endogenous mass media trends. The mass media trend is a global field corresponding to the statistical mode of the states of the agents in the system. The interaction dynamics is based on Axelrod’s rules for the dissemination of culture. We find situations where the largest minority group, possessing a cultural state different from that of the predominant trend transmitted by the mass media, can grow to almost half of the size of the population. We show that this phenomenon occurs when a critical number of long-range connections are present in the underlying network of interactions. We have numerically characterized four phases on the space of parameters of the system: an ordered phase; a semi-ordered phase where almost half of the population consists of the largest minority in a state different from that of the mass media; a disordered phase; and a chimera-like phase where one large domain coexists with many very small domains. [less ▲]

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See detailHighs and lows: Genetic susceptibility to daily events
Sicorello, M.; Dieckmann, L.; Moser, D. et al

in PLoS ONE (2020), 15(8 August),

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See detailEffects of rejection intensity and rejection sensitivity on social approach behavior in women
Schaan, Violetta; Schulz, André UL; Bernstein, Michael et al

in PLoS ONE (2020), 15(1), 0227799

Objective: Perceived rejection plays an important role for mental health and social integration. This study investigated the impact of rejection intensity and rejection sensitivity on social approach ... [more ▼]

Objective: Perceived rejection plays an important role for mental health and social integration. This study investigated the impact of rejection intensity and rejection sensitivity on social approach behavior. Method: 121 female participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions differing in the degree of induced rejection (inclusion, medium rejection, severe rejection). Thereafter they were asked to interact with an unknown person during a touch-based cooperative task. Results: Participants high in rejection sensitivity sought significantly less physical contact than participants low in rejection sensitivity. Individuals in the medium rejection condition touched their partners more often than those in the included condition, while no difference between included and severely rejected participants could be observed. Conclusions: The results suggest that the intensity of rejection matters with regard to coping. While participants in the medium intensity rejection condition aimed to ‘repair’ their social self by seeking increased contact with others, severely rejected participants did not adapt their behavior compared to included participants. Implications for therapy are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThinking in action: Need for Cognition predicts Self-Control together with Action Orientation
Grass, Julia; Krieger, Florian UL; Paulus, Philipp et al

in PLoS ONE (2019), 14(8),

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See detailAsset Pricing Implications of Good Governance
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in PLoS ONE (2019), 14 (4)(e0214930), 1-14

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See detailLower plasma insulin levels during overnight closed loop in schoolchildren with type 1 diabetes: potential advantage?
Schierloh, Ulrike; Wilinska, M.; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL et al

in PLoS ONE (2019), 14(3: e0212013), 1-11

Background Studies have shown that overnight closed-loop insulin delivery can improve glucose control and reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and hence may improve metabolic outcomes and reduce burden for ... [more ▼]

Background Studies have shown that overnight closed-loop insulin delivery can improve glucose control and reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and hence may improve metabolic outcomes and reduce burden for children with type 1 diabetes and their families. However, research so far has not reported insulin levels while comparing closed-loop to open-loop insulin delivery in children. Therefore, in this study we obtained glucose levels as well plasma insulin levels in children with type 1 diabetes to evaluate the efficacy of a model - based closed-loop algorithm compared to an open-loop administration. Methods Fifteen children with type 1 diabetes, 6-12 years, participated in this open-label single center study. We used a randomized cross over design in which we compared overnight closed-loop insulin delivery with sensor augmented pump therapy for two nights in both the hospital and at home (i.e., 1 night in-patient stay and at home per treatment condition). Only during the in-patient stay, hourly plasma insulin and blood glucose levels were assessed and are reported in this paper. Results Results of paired sample t-tests revealed that although plasma insulin levels were significantly lower during the closed-loop than in the open-loop (Mean difference 36.51 pmol/l; t(13)=2.13, p=.03, effect size d= 0.57), blood glucose levels did not vary between conditions (mean difference 0.76 mmol/l; t(13)=1.24, p=.12, d=0.37). The administered dose of insulin was significantly lower during the closed-loop compared with the open-loop (mean difference 0.10 UI; t(12)=2.45, p=.02, d=0.68). Conclusions Lower insulin doses were delivered in the closed-loop, resulting in lower plasma insulin levels , whereby glucose levels were not affected negatively. This suggests that the closed-loop administration is better targeted and hence could be more effective. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep learning image recognition enables efficient genome editing in zebrafish by automated injections
Cordero Maldonado, Maria Lorena UL; Perathoner, Simon; van der Kolk, Kees-Jan et al

in PLoS ONE (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 154 (2 UL)