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See detailUltrafast multidimensional spectroscopy with field resolution and noncollinear geometry at mid-infrared frequencies
Deckert, Thomas UL; Allerbeck, Jonas; Kurihara, Takayuki et al

in New Journal of Physics (2022)

Energetic correlations and their dynamics govern the fundamental properties of condensed matter materials. Ultrafast multidimensional spectroscopy in the mid infrared is an advanced technique to study ... [more ▼]

Energetic correlations and their dynamics govern the fundamental properties of condensed matter materials. Ultrafast multidimensional spectroscopy in the mid infrared is an advanced technique to study such coherent low-energy dynamics. The intrinsic many-body phenomena in functional solid-state materials, in particular few-layer samples, remain widely unexplored to this date, because complex and weak sample responses demand versatile and sensitive detection. Here, we present a novel setup for ultrafast multidimensional spectroscopy with noncollinear geometry and complete field resolution in the 15–40 THz range. Electric fields up to few-100 kV cm−1 drive coherent dynamics in a perturbative regime, and an advanced modulation scheme allows to detect nonlinear signals down to a few tens of V cm−1 entirely background-free with high sensitivity and full control over the geometric phase-matching conditions. Our system aims at the investigation of correlations and many-body interactions in condensed matter systems at low energy. Benchmark measurements on bulk indium antimonide reveal a strong six-wave mixing signal and map ultra- fast changes of the band structure with access to amplitude and phase information. Our results pave the way towards the investigation of functional thin film materials and few-layer samples. [less ▲]

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See detailKerr and Faraday rotations in topological flat and dispersive band structures
Habibi, Alireza; Musthofa, Ahmad Z.; Adibi, Elaheh et al

in New Journal of Physics (2022), 24(6), 063003

Integer quantum Hall (IQH) states and quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) states show the same static dc response but distinct dynamical ac response. In particular, the ac anomalous Hall conductivity profile σ ... [more ▼]

Integer quantum Hall (IQH) states and quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) states show the same static dc response but distinct dynamical ac response. In particular, the ac anomalous Hall conductivity profile σ yx (ω) is sensitive to the band shape of QAH states. For example, dispersive QAH bands shows resonance profile without a sign change at the band gap while the IQH states shows the sign change resonance at the cyclotron energy. We argue by flattening the dispersive QAH bands, σ yx (ω) should recover to that of flat Landau bands in IQH, thus it is necessary to know the origin of the sign change. Taking a topological lattice model with tunable bandwidth, we found that the origin of the sign change is not the band gap but the van Hove singularity energy of the QAH bands. In the limit of small bandwidth, the flat QAH bands recovers σ yx (ω) of the IQH Landau bands. Because of the Hall response, these topological bands exhibit giant polarization rotation and ellipticity in the reflected waves (Kerr effect) and rotation in the order of fine structure constant in the transmitted waves (Faraday effect) with profile resembles σ yx (ω). Our results serve as a simple guide to optical characterization for topological flat bands. [less ▲]

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See detailUhlmann fidelity and fidelity susceptibility for integrable spin chains at finite temperature: exact results
Białończyk, Michał; Gomez-Ruiz, Fernando Javier; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL

in New Journal of Physics (2021)

We derive the exact expression for the Uhlmann fidelity between arbitrary thermal Gibbs states of the quantum XY model in a transverse field with finite system size. Using it, we conduct a thorough ... [more ▼]

We derive the exact expression for the Uhlmann fidelity between arbitrary thermal Gibbs states of the quantum XY model in a transverse field with finite system size. Using it, we conduct a thorough analysis of the fidelity susceptibility of thermal states for the Ising model in a transverse field.We compare the exact results with a common approximation that considers only the positive-parity subspace, which is shown to be valid only at high temperatures. The proper inclusion of the odd parity subspace leads to the enhancement of maximal fidelity susceptibility in the intermediate range of temperatures. We show that this enhancement persists in the thermodynamic limit and scales quadratically with the system size. The correct low-temperature behavior is captured by an approximation involving the two lowest many-body energy eigenstates, from which simple expressions are obtained for the thermal susceptibility and specific heat. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneralized Chern numbers based on open system Green's functions
Farias, Maria Belen UL; Groenendijk, Solofo; Schmidt, Thomas UL

in New Journal of Physics (2021), 23

We present an alternative approach to studying topology in open quantum systems, relying directly on Green's functions and avoiding the need to construct an effective non-Hermitian (nH) Hamiltonian. We ... [more ▼]

We present an alternative approach to studying topology in open quantum systems, relying directly on Green's functions and avoiding the need to construct an effective non-Hermitian (nH) Hamiltonian. We define an energy-dependent Chern number based on the eigenstates of the inverse Green's function matrix of the system which contains, within the self-energy, all the information about the influence of the environment, interactions, gain or losses. We explicitly calculate this topological invariant for a system consisting of a single 2D Dirac cone and find that it is half-integer quantized when certain assumptions about the self-energy are made. Away from these conditions, which cannot or are not usually considered within the formalism of nH Hamiltonians, we find that such a quantization is usually lost and the Chern number vanishes, and that in special cases, it can change to integer quantization. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-reversal symmetry violations and entropy production in field theories of polar active matter
Borthne, Øyvind L; Fodor, Etienne UL; Cates, Michael E

in New Journal of Physics (2020), 22

We investigate the steady-state entropy production rate (EPR) in the hydrodynamic Vicsek model (HVM) and diffusive flocking model (DFM). Both models display a transition from an isotropic gas to a polar ... [more ▼]

We investigate the steady-state entropy production rate (EPR) in the hydrodynamic Vicsek model (HVM) and diffusive flocking model (DFM). Both models display a transition from an isotropic gas to a polar liquid (flocking) phase, in addition to travelling polar clusters and microphase-separation in the miscibility gap. The phase diagram of the DFM, which may be considered an extension of the HVM, contains additional structure at low densities where we find a novel crystal phase in which a stationary hexagonal lattice of high-density ridges surround low density valleys. From an assessment of the scaling of the EPR at low noise, we uncover that the dynamics in this limit may be organised into three main classes based on the dominant contribution. Truly nonequilibrium dynamics is characterised by a divergent EPR in this limit, and sustains global time-reversal symmetry (TRS) violating currents at zero noise. On the other hand, marginally nonequilibrium and effectively equilibrium dynamics have a finite EPR in this limit, and TRS is broken only at the level of fluctuations. For the latter of these two cases, detailed balance is restored in the small noise limit and we recover effective Boltzmann statistics to lowest nontrivial order.We further demonstrate that the scaling of the EPR may change depending on the dynamical variables that are tracked when it is computed, and the protocol chosen for time-reversal. Results acquired from numerical simulations of the dynamics confirm both the asymptotic scaling relations we derive and our quantitative predictions. [less ▲]

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See detailDissipation controls transport and phase transitions in active fluids: mobility, diffusion and biased ensembles
Fodor, Etienne UL; Nemoto, Takahiro; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan

in NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS (2020), 22(1),

Active fluids operate by constantly dissipating energy at the particle level to perform a directed motion, yielding dynamics and phases without any equilibrium equivalent. The emerging behaviors have been ... [more ▼]

Active fluids operate by constantly dissipating energy at the particle level to perform a directed motion, yielding dynamics and phases without any equilibrium equivalent. The emerging behaviors have been studied extensively, yet deciphering how local energy fluxes control the collective phenomena is still largely an open challenge. We provide generic relations between the activity-induced dissipation and the transport properties of an internal tracer. By exploiting a mapping between active fluctuations and disordered driving, our results reveal how the local dissipation, at the basis of self-propulsion, constrains internal transport by reducing the mobility and the diffusion of particles. Then, we employ techniques of large deviations to investigate how interactions are affected when varying dissipation. This leads us to shed light on a microscopic mechanism to promote clustering at low dissipation, and we also show the existence of collective motion at high dissipation. Overall, these results illustrate how tuning dissipation provides an alternative route to phase transitions in active fluids. [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic thermodynamics of all-to-all interacting many-body systems
Herpich, Tim; Cossetto, Tommaso UL; Falasco, Gianmaria UL et al

in New Journal of Physics (2020), 22(6), 063005

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See detailThermodynamics of non-elementary chemical reaction networks
Avanzini, Francesco UL; Falasco, Gianmaria UL; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in New Journal of Physics (2020), 22(9), 093040

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See detailUnifying thermodynamic uncertainty relations
Falasco, Gianmaria UL; Esposito, Massimiliano UL; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

in New Journal of Physics (2020), 22(5), 053046

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See detailThermodynamics of optical Bloch equations
Elouard, Cyril; Herrera-Marti, David; Esposito, Massimiliano UL et al

in New Journal of Physics (2020), 22(10), 103039

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See detailComposite boson signature in the interference pattern of atomic dimer condensates
Shiau, S.-Y.; Chenu, Aurélia UL; Combescot, Monique

in New Journal of Physics (2019), 21

We predict the existence of high frequency modes in the interference pattern of two condensates made of fermionic-atom dimers. These modes, which result from fermion exchanges between condensates ... [more ▼]

We predict the existence of high frequency modes in the interference pattern of two condensates made of fermionic-atom dimers. These modes, which result from fermion exchanges between condensates, constitute a striking signature of the dimer composite nature. From the 2-coboson spatial correlation function, that we derive analytically, and the Shiva diagrams that visualize many-body effects specific to composite bosons, we identify the physical origin of these high frequency modes and determine the conditions to see them experimentally by using bound fermionic-atom pairs trapped on optical lattice sites. The dimer granularity which appears in these modes comes from Pauli blocking that prevents two dimers to be located at the same lattice site. [less ▲]

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See detailMaximum power and corresponding efficiency for two-level heat engines and refrigerators: optimality of fast cycles
Erdman, Paolo Andrea; Cavina, Vasco UL; Fazio, Rosario et al

in New Journal of Physics (2019)

We study how to achieve the ultimate power in the simplest, yet non-trivial, model of a thermal machine, namely a two-level quantum system coupled to two thermal baths. Without making any prior assumption ... [more ▼]

We study how to achieve the ultimate power in the simplest, yet non-trivial, model of a thermal machine, namely a two-level quantum system coupled to two thermal baths. Without making any prior assumption on the protocol, via optimal control we show that, regardless of the microscopic details and of the operating mode of the thermal machine, the maximum power is universally achieved by a fast Otto-cycle like structure in which the controls are rapidly switched between two extremal values. A closed formula for the maximum power is derived, and finite-speed effects are discussed. We also analyze the associated efficiency at maximum power showing that, contrary to universal results derived in the slow-driving regime, it can approach Carnot's efficiency, no other universal bounds being allowed. [less ▲]

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See detailNegative differential response in chemical reactions
Falasco, Gianmaria UL; Cossetto, Tommaso UL; Penocchio, Emanuele UL et al

in New Journal of Physics (2019), 21

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See detailShortcuts to adiabaticity in Fermi gases
Diao, Pengpeng; Deng, Shujin; Li, Fang et al

in New Journal of Physics (2018)

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See detailPerformance of various density-functional approximations for cohesive properties of 64 bulk solids
Zhang, Guo-Xu; Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL et al

in New Journal of Physics (2018), 20

Accurate and careful benchmarking of different density-functional approximations (DFAs) represents an important source of information for understanding DFAs and how to improve them. In this work we have ... [more ▼]

Accurate and careful benchmarking of different density-functional approximations (DFAs) represents an important source of information for understanding DFAs and how to improve them. In this work we have studied the lattice constants, cohesive energies, and bulk moduli of 64 solids using six functionals, representing the local, semi-local, and hybrid DFAs on the first four rungs of Jacob’s ladder. The set of solids considered consists of ionic crystals, semiconductors, metals, and transition metal carbides and nitrides. To minimize numerical errors and to avoid making further approximations, the full-potential, all-electron FHI-aims code has been employed, and all the reported cohesive properties include contributions from zero-point vibrations. Our assessment demonstrates that current DFAs can predict cohesive properties with mean absolute relative errors of 0.6% for the lattice constant and6%for both the cohesive energy and the bulk modulus over the whole database of 64 solids. For semiconducting and insulating solids, the recently proposed SCAN meta-GGA functional represents a substantial improvement over the other functionals. However, when considering the different types of solids in the set, all of the employed functionals exhibit some variance in their performance. There are clear trends and relationships in the deviations of the cohesive properties, pointing to the need to consider, for example, long-range van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This point is also demonstrated by consistent improvements in predictions for cohesive properties of semiconductors when augmentingGGAand hybrid functionals with a screened Tkatchenko– Scheffler vdW energy term. [less ▲]

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See detailThermodynamically consistent coarse graining of biocatalysts beyond Michaelis–Menten
Wachtel, Artur UL; Rao, Riccardo UL; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in New Journal of Physics (2018), 20(4), 042002

Starting from the detailed catalytic mechanism of a biocatalyst we provide a coarse-graining procedure which, by construction, is thermodynamically consistent. This procedure provides stoichiometries ... [more ▼]

Starting from the detailed catalytic mechanism of a biocatalyst we provide a coarse-graining procedure which, by construction, is thermodynamically consistent. This procedure provides stoichiometries, reaction fluxes (rate laws), and reaction forces (Gibbs energies of reaction) for the coarse-grained level. It can treat active transporters and molecular machines, and thus extends the applicability of ideas that originated in enzyme kinetics. Our results lay the foundations for systematic studies of the thermodynamics of large-scale biochemical reaction networks. Moreover, we identify the conditions under which a relation between one-way fluxes and forces holds at the coarse-grained level as it holds at the detailed level. In doing so, we clarify the speculations and broad claims made in the literature about such a general flux–force relation. As a further consequence we show that, in contrast to common belief, the second law of thermodynamics does not require the currents and the forces of biochemical reaction networks to be always aligned. [less ▲]

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See detailConservation Laws Shape Dissipation
Rao, Riccardo UL; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in New Journal of Physics (2018), 20

Starting from the most general formulation of stochastic thermodynamics—i.e. a thermodynamically consistent nonautonomous stochastic dynamics describing systems in contact with several reservoirs —we ... [more ▼]

Starting from the most general formulation of stochastic thermodynamics—i.e. a thermodynamically consistent nonautonomous stochastic dynamics describing systems in contact with several reservoirs —we define a procedure to identify the conservative and the minimal set of nonconservative contributions in the entropy production. The former is expressed as the difference between changes caused by time-dependent drivings and a generalized potential difference. The latter is a sum over the minimal set of flux-force contributions controlling the dissipative flows across the system. When the system is initially prepared at equilibrium (e.g. by turning off drivings and forces), a finite-time detailed fluctuation theorem holds for the different contributions. Our approach relies on identifying the complete set of conserved quantities and can be viewed as the extension of the theory of generalized Gibbs ensembles to nonequilibrium situations. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-phase and anti-phase flagellar synchronization by waveform compliance and basal coupling
Klindt, Gary; Ruloff, Christian; Wagner, Christian UL et al

in New Journal of Physics (2017)

Cilia and flagella exhibit regular bending waves that perform mechanical work on the surrounding fluid, to propel cellular swimmers and pump fluids inside organisms. Here, we quantify a force-velocity ... [more ▼]

Cilia and flagella exhibit regular bending waves that perform mechanical work on the surrounding fluid, to propel cellular swimmers and pump fluids inside organisms. Here, we quantify a force-velocity relationship of the beating flagellum, by exposing flagellated Chlamydomonas cells to controlled microfluidic flows. A simple theory of flagellar limit-cycle oscillations, calibrated by measurements in the absence of flow, reproduces this relationship quantitatively. We derive a link between the energy efficiency of the flagellar beat and its ability to synchronize to oscillatory flows. [less ▲]

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See detailFocus on quantum thermodynamics
Esposito, Massimiliano UL; Anders, Janet

in New Journal of Physics (2017)

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See detailFluctuating hydrodynamics and mesoscopic effects of spatial correlations in dissipative systems with conserved momentum
Lasanta, Antonio; Manacorda, Alessandro UL; Prados, Antonio et al

in New Journal of Physics (2015)

We introduce a model described in terms of a scalar velocity field on a 1D lattice, evolving through collisions that conserve momentum but do not conserve energy. Such a system possesses some of the main ... [more ▼]

We introduce a model described in terms of a scalar velocity field on a 1D lattice, evolving through collisions that conserve momentum but do not conserve energy. Such a system possesses some of the main ingredients of fluidized granular media and naturally models them. We deduce non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamics equations for the macroscopic velocity and temperature fields, which replicate the hydrodynamics of shear modes in a granular fluid. Moreover, this Landau-like fluctuating hydrodynamics predicts an essential part of the peculiar behaviour of granular fluids, like the instability of homogeneous cooling state at large size or inelasticity. We also compute the exact shape of long range spatial correlations which, even far from the instability, have the physical consequence of noticeably modifying the cooling rate. This effect, which stems from momentum conservation, has not been previously reported in the realm of granular fluids. [less ▲]

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