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See detailVarying stimulus duration reveals consistent neural activity and behavior for human face individuation
Retter, Talia UL; Jiang, Fang; Webster, Michael A. et al

in Neuroscience (2021), 472

Establishing consistent relationships between neural activity and behavior is a challenge in human cognitive neuroscience research. We addressed this issue using variable time constraints in an oddball ... [more ▼]

Establishing consistent relationships between neural activity and behavior is a challenge in human cognitive neuroscience research. We addressed this issue using variable time constraints in an oddball frequency-sweep design for visual discrimination of complex images (face exemplars). Sixteen participants viewed sequences of ascending presentation durations, from 25 to 333 ms (40–3 Hz stimulation rate) while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Throughout each sequence, the same unfamiliar face picture was repeated with variable size and luminance changes while different unfamiliar facial identities appeared every 1 s (1 Hz). A neural face individuation response, tagged at 1 Hz and its unique harmonics, emerged over the occipito-temporal cortex at 50 ms stimulus duration (25–100 ms across individuals), with an optimal response reached at 170 ms stimulus duration. In a subsequent experiment, identity changes appeared non-periodically within fixed-frequency sequences while the same participants performed an explicit face individuation task. The behavioral face individuation response also emerged at 50 ms presentation time, and behavioral accuracy correlated with individual participants’ neural response amplitude in a weighted middle stimulus duration range (50–125 ms). Moreover, the latency of the neural response peaking between 180 and 200 ms correlated strongly with individuals’ behavioral accuracy in this middle duration range, as measured independently. These observations point to the minimal (50 ms) and optimal (170 ms) stimulus durations for human face individuation and provide novel evidence that inter-individual differences in the magnitude and latency of early, high-level neural responses are predictive of behavioral differences in performance at this function. [less ▲]

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See detailAcylated and unacylated ghrelin confers neuroprotection to mesencephalic neurons
Wagner, J; Vulinovic, F; Grünewald, Anne UL et al

in Neuroscience (2017)

The polypeptide ghrelin is an endogenous ligand at the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a. To ghrelin multiple functions have been ascribed including promotion of gastrointestinal motility ... [more ▼]

The polypeptide ghrelin is an endogenous ligand at the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a. To ghrelin multiple functions have been ascribed including promotion of gastrointestinal motility. Postprandial ghrelin levels have been reported to be reduced in patients suffering from Parkinson disease (PD). Experimental studies revealed neuroprotective effects of ghrelin in different PD models. The purpose of the present study was (i) to further elucidate the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective action of ghrelin and (ii) to determine whether these effects occur with both the acylated and the unacylated form. The study was conducted in primary mesencephalic cultures treated with mitochondrial complex I and complex II inhibitors. We show that protective effects of ghrelin against complex I inhibition with MPP+ were independent of the acylation status of ghrelin, although acylated ghrelin appeared to be more potent. Protection by both forms was also observed when neurons were exposed to the complex II inhibitor 3-NP. Both forms led to higher oxygen consumption rates upon electron transport chain uncoupling, indicating that the two peptides may exert uncoupling effects themselves. We demonstrate that the rescue provided by ghrelin required calcium influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Whereas the protective effects of acylated ghrelin required receptor binding, effects of the unacylated form remained unaffected by treatment with a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Importantly, inhibition of ghrelin O-acyltransferase failed to reduce the activity of unacylated ghrelin. Overall, our data suggest that both acylated and unacylated ghrelin afford protection to dopamine neurons but through mechanisms that only partially overlap. [less ▲]

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See detailSubstance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in primary afferent neurons of the cat`s knee joint
Hanesch, Ulrike UL; Heppelmann, Bernd; Schmidt, Robert

in Neuroscience (1991), 45

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See detailc-Fos immunoreactivity in rat brainstem neurons following noxious chemical stimulation of the nasal mucosa
Anton, Fernand UL; Herdegen, Thomas; Peppel, Petra et al

in Neuroscience (1991), 41(2-3), 629-641

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See detailCentral projections of trigeminal primary afferents innervating the nasal mucosa: a horseradish peroxidase study in the rat
Anton, Fernand UL; Peppel, Petra

in Neuroscience (1991), 41(2-3), 617-628

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See detailSpinal lamina I projection neurons in the rat: collateral innervation of parabrachial area and thalamus
Hylden, Janice LK; Anton, Fernand UL; Nahin, Richard L

in Neuroscience (1989), 28(1), 27-37

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See detailDifferences between neurons in the cat`s thalamic ventroposterolateral nucleus (VPL) and its ventral periphery (VPLvp): a morphometric analysis
Hanesch, Ulrike UL; Haumann, Petra; Kniffki, Klaus-Dietrich et al

in Neuroscience (1987), 22

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (0 UL)