References of "Molecular Endocrinology"
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See detailDeletion of deoxyribonucleic acid binding domain of the vitamin D receptor abrogates genomic and nongenomic functions of vitamin D.
Erben, Reinhold G.; Soegiarto, Desi W.; Weber, Karin et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (2002), 16(7), 1524-37

The vitamin D hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)], the biologically active form of vitamin D, is essential for an intact mineral metabolism. Using gene targeting, we sought to generate ... [more ▼]

The vitamin D hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)], the biologically active form of vitamin D, is essential for an intact mineral metabolism. Using gene targeting, we sought to generate vitamin D receptor (VDR) null mutant mice carrying the reporter gene lacZ driven by the endogenous VDR promoter. Here we show that our gene-targeted mutant mice express a VDR with an intact hormone binding domain, but lacking the first zinc finger necessary for DNA binding. Expression of the lacZ reporter gene was widely distributed during embryogenesis and postnatally. Strong lacZ expression was found in bones, cartilage, intestine, kidney, skin, brain, heart, and parathyroid glands. Homozygous mice are a phenocopy of mice totally lacking the VDR protein and showed growth retardation, rickets, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and alopecia. Feeding of a diet high in calcium, phosphorus, and lactose normalized blood calcium and serum PTH levels, but revealed a profound renal calcium leak in normocalcemic homozygous mutants. When mice were treated with pharmacological doses of vitamin D metabolites, responses in skin, bone, intestine, parathyroid glands, and kidney were absent in homozygous mice, indicating that the mutant receptor is nonfunctioning and that vitamin D signaling pathways other than those mediated through the classical nuclear receptor are of minor physiological importance. Furthermore, rapid, nongenomic responses to 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) in osteoblasts were abrogated in homozygous mice, supporting the conclusion that the classical VDR mediates the nongenomic actions of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailIdentification of the critical sequence elements in the cytoplasmic domain of leptin receptor isoforms required for Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription activation by receptor heterodimers
Bahrenberg, G.; Behrmann, Iris UL; Barthel, A. et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (2002), 16(4), 859-72

Two predominant splice variants of the leptin receptor (LEPR) are coexpressed in leptin-responsive tissues: the long form, LEPRb, characterized as the signal-transducing receptor, and the signaling ... [more ▼]

Two predominant splice variants of the leptin receptor (LEPR) are coexpressed in leptin-responsive tissues: the long form, LEPRb, characterized as the signal-transducing receptor, and the signaling-defective short form, LEPRa. It is unknown whether heterodimers of these isoforms are capable of signal transduction via the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway. To address this question, chimeric receptors were constructed consisting of the transmembrane and intracellular parts of LEPRb and LEPRa fused with the extracellular domains of either the alpha- or beta-subunit of the IL-5 receptor. This strategy allows the directed heterodimerization of different LEPR cytoplasmic tails and excludes homodimerization. In COS-7 and HEPG2 cells, chimeric receptor heterodimers of LEPRa and LEPRb failed to activate the JAK/STAT pathway, whereas receptor dimers of LEPRb gave rise to the expected ligand-dependent activation of JAK2, phosphorylation of STAT3, and STAT3-dependent promoter activity. Markedly lower amounts of JAK2 were found to be associated with immunoprecipitated LEPRa chimeras than with LEPRb chimeras. Analysis of a series of deletion constructs indicated that a segment of 15 amino acids in addition to the 29 amino acids common to LEPRa and LEPRb was required for partial restoration of JAK/STAT activation. Site-directed mutagenesis of the critical sequence indicated that two hydrophobic residues (Leu896, Phe897) not present in LEPRa were indispensable for receptor signaling. These findings show that LEPRa/LEPRb heterodimers cannot activate STAT3 and identify sequence elements within the LEPR that are critical for the activation of JAK2 and STAT3. [less ▲]

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