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See detailHippocampal extracellular matrix levels and stochasticity in synaptic protein expression increase with age and are associated with age-dependent cognitive decline.
Vegh, Marlene J.; Rausell, Antonio; Loos, Maarten et al

in Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP (2014)

Age-related cognitive decline is a serious health concern in our aging society. Decreased cognitive function observed during healthy brain aging is most likely caused by changes in brain connectivity and ... [more ▼]

Age-related cognitive decline is a serious health concern in our aging society. Decreased cognitive function observed during healthy brain aging is most likely caused by changes in brain connectivity and synaptic dysfunction in particular brain regions. Here we show that aged C57BL/6J wildtype mice have hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairments. To identify the molecular mechanisms that are relevant to these memory deficits we investigated the temporal profile of mouse hippocampal synaptic proteome changes at 20, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 weeks of age. Extracellular matrix proteins were the only group of proteins that showed a robust and progressive upregulation over time. This was confirmed by immunoblotting and histochemical analysis, indicating that the increased levels of hippocampal extracellular matrix may limit synaptic plasticity as a potential cause of age-related cognitive decline. In addition, we observed that stochasticity in synaptic protein expression increased with age, in particular for proteins that were previously linked with various neurodegenerative diseases, whereas low variance in expression was observed for proteins that play a basal role in neuronal function and synaptic neurotransmission. Together, our findings show that both specific changes and increased variance in synaptic protein expression are associated with aging and may underlie reduced synaptic plasticity and impaired cognitive performance at old age. [less ▲]

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See detailElongation of axons during regeneration involves retinal crystallin beta b2 (crybb2).
Liedtke, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Schroer, Uwe et al

in Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP (2007), 6(5), 895-907

Adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can regenerate their axons in vitro. Using proteomics, we discovered that the supernatants of cultured retinas contain isoforms of crystallins with crystallin beta b2 ... [more ▼]

Adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can regenerate their axons in vitro. Using proteomics, we discovered that the supernatants of cultured retinas contain isoforms of crystallins with crystallin beta b2 (crybb2) being clearly up-regulated in the regenerating retina. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of crybb within the retina, including in filopodial protrusions and axons of RGCs. Cloning and overexpression of crybb2 in RGCs and hippocampal neurons increased axonogenesis, which in turn could be blocked with antibodies against beta-crystallin. Conditioned medium from crybb2-transfected cell cultures also supported the growth of axons. Finally real time imaging of the uptake of green fluorescent protein-tagged crybb2 fusion protein showed that this protein becomes internalized. These data are the first to show that axonal regeneration is related to crybb2 movement. The results suggest that neuronal crystallins constitute a novel class of neurite-promoting factors that likely operate through an autocrine mechanism and that they could be used in neurodegenerative diseases. [less ▲]

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