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See detailUniversity vs. Research Institute? The Dual Pillars of German Science Production, 1950–2010
Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Baker, David UL et al

in Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy (2020), 58(3), 319-342

The world’s third largest producer of scientific research, Germany, is the origin of the research university and the independent, extra-university research institute. Its dual-pillar research policy ... [more ▼]

The world’s third largest producer of scientific research, Germany, is the origin of the research university and the independent, extra-university research institute. Its dual-pillar research policy differentiates these organizational forms functionally: universities specialize in advanced research-based teaching; institutes specialize intensely on research. Over the past decades this policy affected each sector differently: while universities suffered a lingering “legitimation crisis,” institutes enjoyed deepening “favored sponsorship”—financial and reputational advantages. Universities led the nation’s reestablishment of scientific prominence among the highly competitive European and global science systems after WWII. But sectoral analysis of contributions to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medical and health journal publications (1950–2010) finds that Germany’s small to medium-sized independent research institutes have made significant, growing contributions, particularly in publishing in higher impact journals proportionally more than their size. Simultaneously—despite dual-pillar policy implications—the university sector continues to be absolutely and relatively successful; not eclipsed by the institutes. Universities have consistently produced two-thirds of the nation’s publications in the highest quality journals since at least 1980 and have increased publications at a logarithmic rate; higher than the international mean. Indeed, they led Germany into the global mega-science style of production. Contrary to assumed benefits of functional differentiation, our results indicate that relative to their size, each sector has produced approximately similar publication records. While institutes have succeeded, the larger university sector, despite much less funding growth, has remained fundamental to German science production. Considering these findings, we discuss the future utility of the dual-pillar policy. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutional Logics in the Global Higher Education Landscape: Differences in Organizational Characteristics by Sector and Founding Era
Buckner, Elizabeth; Zapp, Mike UL

in Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy (2020)

This article examines patterns in the global higher education landscape associated with sector (i.e., public or private) and founding era. Using data on the formal and academic structure of 15,133 higher ... [more ▼]

This article examines patterns in the global higher education landscape associated with sector (i.e., public or private) and founding era. Using data on the formal and academic structure of 15,133 higher education institutions (ISCED 6+) from 183 countries and territories, we examine factors associated with the student body size, number of degree-granting programs, doctorate degrees, and curricular offerings. We find that only sector and age are associated with an institution’s student body size, while sector, age, and founding era are all associated with degree and curricular offerings. Private universities tend to be smaller and are more likely to offer business degrees, while public universities offer more degree programs on average, and are more likely to offer programs in science and technology and doctoral degrees. Meanwhile, in both sectors, universities founded after 1990 are less likely to offer doctoral degrees and more likely to offer degrees in business, science, and technology. Despite some regional variation, these trends are found worldwide. To interpret these findings, we argue that both sector- and era-specific institutional logics link higher education to knowledge production and the labor market in distinct and path-dependent ways. Notably, the expansion of higher education post- 1990 has been accomplished by establishing new teaching-focused institutions and orienting academic programs to the labor market in both sectors. [less ▲]

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See detailScience Production in Germany, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg: Comparing the Contributions of Research Universities and Institutes to Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Health
Powell, Justin J W UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL

in Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy (2017), 55

Charting significant growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century in four EU member states, this neo-institutional analysis describes the development and current state of universities and ... [more ▼]

Charting significant growth in scientific productivity over the 20th century in four EU member states, this neo-institutional analysis describes the development and current state of universities and research institutes that bolsters Europe’s position as a key region in global science. On-going internationalization and Europeanization of higher education and science has been accompanied by increasing competition as well as collaboration. Despite the political goals to foster innovation and further expand research capacity, in cross-national and historical comparison, neither the level of R&D investments nor country size accounts completely for the differential growth of scientific productivity. Based on a comprehensive historical database, this analysis uncovers both stable and dynamic patterns of productivity from 1975 to 2010 in Ger- many, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Measured in peer-reviewed research articles collected in Thomson Reuters Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we show the varying contributions of different organizational forms, especially research universities and research institutes. Comparing the institutionalization pathways that created the conditions necessary for continuous and strong growth in scientific productivity in the European center of global science emphasizes that the research university is key organizational form across countries. [less ▲]

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See detailDemocratizing Decision-Making on Food-Safety in the E.U.: Closing gaps between principles of governance and practice
König, Ariane UL

in Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy (2007), 45(3), 275-294

Food safety is a preoccupation of the European Commission, but there are major shortcomings in its governance. Reviewing legislation and practice, this paper explores the background of EU food safety ... [more ▼]

Food safety is a preoccupation of the European Commission, but there are major shortcomings in its governance. Reviewing legislation and practice, this paper explores the background of EU food safety institutions, and develops recommendations to make the EU decision process more transparent, accountable, and democratic. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 164 (9 UL)