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See detailAchievement motivation in students' everyday lives: Its relationship to momentary positive and negative activation and the moderating role of mindfulness
Grund, Axel UL; Galla, Brian; Fries, Stefan

in Learning and Individual Differences (2022), 97

In achievement motive theory, need for achievement is conceptualized as an explanatory variable that triggers certain experiences and behaviors spontaneously. Experience sampling should therefore be an ... [more ▼]

In achievement motive theory, need for achievement is conceptualized as an explanatory variable that triggers certain experiences and behaviors spontaneously. Experience sampling should therefore be an ideal approach for capturing such motive-specific affective contingencies. However, given that not all students seem to be aware of their underlying motives, the link between self-reported need for achievement and daily experiences may depend on their mindfulness level. In a sample of university students (N = 107), self-reported fear of failure predicted momentary negative activation across activity contexts in everyday life. In addition, hope of success predicted positive activation in more mindful students and in nonroutine situations (e.g., studying, working, or leisure time). Together, these findings are a first step toward illuminating the phenomenological and excitatory nature of need for achievement in students' everyday lives and illustrate the necessity of noticing motive-specific cues in order to integrate them into the explicit motivational self-concept. [less ▲]

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See detailStudent profiles of self-concept and interest in four domains: A latent transition analysis
Franzen, Patrick UL; Arens, A. Katrin; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2022), 95(5), 102-139

Dimensional comparisons lead to contrast effects between academic self-concepts, implying that students view themselves as a math-type or a verbal-type. This study examined the short-term stability of ... [more ▼]

Dimensional comparisons lead to contrast effects between academic self-concepts, implying that students view themselves as a math-type or a verbal-type. This study examined the short-term stability of these types and their generalizability to academic interest. N = 382 students completed questionnaires on self-concept and interest in math, physics, German, and English at two measurement waves over five weeks. Latent transition analyses were conducted with self-concepts and interests as indicators, revealing four profiles for both constructs. For self-concept a math + high profile, verbal + high profile, verbal + low profile and generally-moderate profile were found. For interest a math profile, verbal profile, generally-high profile, and generally-low profile were found. These profiles indicated that the formation of domain-specific self-concept and interest differs between groups of students. The profiles were stable across measurement waves. Relations to school grades and gender matched theoretical assumptions. [less ▲]

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See detailNeed for Cognition and its relation to academic achievement in different learning environments
Colling, Joanne UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL; Keller, Ulrich UL et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2022), 93

The present study investigates how Need for Cognition (NFC), an individual's tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking, relates to academic achievement in 9th grade students (N = 3.355) attending different ... [more ▼]

The present study investigates how Need for Cognition (NFC), an individual's tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking, relates to academic achievement in 9th grade students (N = 3.355) attending different school tracks to understand whether school track moderates this relation when controlling for student background variables. Using structural regression analyses, our findings revealed small and significant positive relations between NFC and academic achievement in German, French and Math. Relations were strongest in the highest and weakest in the lowest track. No significant track difference between the highest and the intermediary track could be identified; significant differences of small effect size between the intermediary and the lowest track were found in favor of the intermediary track in the relation between NFC and academic achievement in German and Math. These findings underpin the importance of NFC in academic settings, while highlighting that the relation between NFC and achievement varies with the characteristics of different learning environments. [less ▲]

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See detailMindfulness and Academic Emotions: A Field Study During a Lecture
Senker, Kerstin; Dietrich, Julia; Fries, Stefan et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2021)

The aim of the present study was to examine whether mindfulness and academic emotions are beneficially related in specific learning situations. For that purpose, we conducted a field study during two ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to examine whether mindfulness and academic emotions are beneficially related in specific learning situations. For that purpose, we conducted a field study during two lecture sessions in which we measured momentary mindfulness and academic emotions of N = 105 university students repeatedly, resulting in N = 551 measurements. As expected, multilevel analyses indicated that students who were more mindful during the lecture felt more positive and less negative activating emotions, better valence, and were more optimistic about an upcoming exam. In contrast to our hypotheses, trait mindfulness was not found to be related to current academic emotions. Multilevel mediation analyses point towards an indirect effect of trait mindfulness via momentary mindfulness during the lecture sessions. These findings suggest that mindfulness is of high relevance to academic emotions which in turn are important for learning, achievement, and well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailCircadian preference as a typology: Latent-class analysis of adolescents' morningness/eveningness, relation with sleep behavior, and with academic outcomes
Preckel, Franzis; Fischbach, Antoine UL; Scherrer, Vsevolod et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2020), 78

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See detailStudents' beliefs and attitudes toward mathematics across time: A longitudinal examination of the theory of planned behavior
Niepel, Christoph UL; Burrus, Jeremy; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2018), 63

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See detailMotivational foundations of self-control and mindfulness and their role in study-leisure conflicts
Grund, Axel UL; Senker, Kerstin

in LEARNING AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES (2018), 68

In the present paper, we compared two self-regulatory capacities, trait self-control and mindfulness, with respect to their potential to help students deal with motivational conflicts between studying and ... [more ▼]

In the present paper, we compared two self-regulatory capacities, trait self-control and mindfulness, with respect to their potential to help students deal with motivational conflicts between studying and leisure time, by either promoting a selective, normatively oriented versus open-minded, non-judgmental stance toward conflicting motivations. We also investigated the role of value orientations and need satisfaction is this regard. Study 1 (N = 196) initially showed that trait self-control, but not trait mindfulness, goes along with a preference for achievement-oriented over well-being-oriented values, which might explain the academic benefits associated with self-control. Study 2 (N = 306) replicated the link between value orientations and trait self-control. In line with this motivational pattern, we found context-specific effects for self-control in study leisure conflict scenarios, consolidating academic engagement, but not leisure engagement. Consolidating effects for trait mindfulness were context-transcending and independent from value orientations. Finally, in Study 3 (N = 160), we found evidence that the total effects of trait self-control and mindfulness are differentially mediated via either activity preferences (self-control) or need satisfaction (mindfulness). We discuss motivational interpretations for self-control and mindfulness with respect to the daily juggle between students' academic and leisure-related strivings. [less ▲]

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See detailThe power of vowels: Contributions of vowel, consonant and digit RAN to clinical approaches in reading development
Hornung, Caroline UL; Martin, Romain UL; Fayol, Michel UL

in Learning and Individual Differences (2017), 57

The main purpose of this study was to examine the specific contributions of rapid automatized naming (RAN) measures with different visually presented stimuli (e.g., vowels, consonants, digits) to reading ... [more ▼]

The main purpose of this study was to examine the specific contributions of rapid automatized naming (RAN) measures with different visually presented stimuli (e.g., vowels, consonants, digits) to reading outcomes in first and second grade. Previous studies have shown that RAN is an independent and robust predictor for reading skills in children. Less research investigated the incremental contributions of distinct RAN measures to reading skills in beginning readers. Ninety-three children from kindergarten and first grade completed four different RAN measures involving color, digit, vowel, and consonant naming at the end of the school year. Six months later these children were either in first or in second grade and completed several reading measures. The results emphasize that vowel RAN was a strong and unique predictor for reading accuracy in first grade. Vowel RAN and digit RAN were both significant predictors for reading speed in second grade. The current findings underline that vowel RAN is a promising predictor for reading outcomes (i.e., accuracy and speed) at the beginning of elementary school. RAN performance did however not significantly predict second grade reading comprehension. Results and practical implications will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAssimilation and contrast effects in the formation of problem-solving self-concept
Mustafic, Maida UL; Niepel, Christoph UL; Greiff, Samuel UL

in Learning and Individual Differences (2017), 54

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See detailNeed for cognition in children and adolescents. Correlates and relations to intelligence and academic performance
Luong, Cäcilia; Strobel, Anja; Wollschläger, Rachel UL et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2017)

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See detailTeacher judgments as measures of children's cognitive ability: A multilevel analysis
Baudson, Tanja Gabriele UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL; Preckel, Franzis

in Learning and Individual Differences (2016), 52

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See detailPrediction of Complex Problem Solving and school grades by working memory and ability self-concept
Meißner, Anja; Greiff, Samuel UL; Frischkorn, Gidon T. et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2016), 49

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See detailShort-term and medium-term effects of grade retention in secondary school on academic achievement and psychosocial outcome variables
Klapproth, Florian; Schaltz, Paule UL; Brunner, Martin et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2016), 50

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See detailAssessing analytic and interactive aspects of problem solving competency
Fischer, A.; Greiff, Samuel UL; Wüstenberg, Sascha UL et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2015), 39

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See detailCross-national gender differences in complex problem solving and their determinants.
Wüstenberg, Sascha UL; Greiff, Samuel UL; Molnár, Gyöngyvér et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2014), 29

The present study examined cross-national gender differences in domain-general complex problem solving (CPS) and their determinants. A CPS test relying on the MicroDYN approach was applied to a sample of ... [more ▼]

The present study examined cross-national gender differences in domain-general complex problem solving (CPS) and their determinants. A CPS test relying on the MicroDYN approach was applied to a sample of 890 Hungarian and German high school students attending 8th to 11th grade. Results based on multi-group confirmatory factor analyses showed that measurement invariance of CPS was found across gender and nationality. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that males outperformed females and German students outperformed Hungarian students. However, these results were caused by Hungarian females performing worse than all other groups. Further analyses of logfiles capturing process data of the interaction of participants with the task showed that Hungarian females less often used vary-one-thing-at-a-time strategy, which lead to considerably worse knowledge acquisition. Results imply that analyzing process data such as use of strategies is highly advisable to identify determinants of overall performance differences in CPS across groups of interest. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the relation of Complex Problem Solving, personality, fluid intelligence, and academic achievement
Greiff, Samuel UL; Neubert, Jonas UL

in Learning and Individual Differences (2014), 36

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See detailPISA proficiency scores predict educational outcomes
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Keller, Ulrich UL; Preckel, Franzis et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2013), 24

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See detailDo teacher judgments of student intelligence predict life outcomes?
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Baudson, Tanja Gabriele UL; Preckel, Franzis et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2013), 27

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See detailMotivational profiles in study-leisure conflicts: Quality and quantity of motivation matter
Grund, Axel UL

in Learning and Individual Differences (2013), 26

The effects of the quality and quantity of motivation were compared in relation to students' levels of experienced internal conflict in a specific study-leisure conflict using a person-oriented analysis ... [more ▼]

The effects of the quality and quantity of motivation were compared in relation to students' levels of experienced internal conflict in a specific study-leisure conflict using a person-oriented analysis on self-reports of 336 college students. Latent-profile-analysis identified three motivational profiles for learning and two motivational profiles for leisure. Consistent with a qualitative perspective on motivation, students with Good quality profiles for "reading papers" reported the least internal conflict under the temptation of a social activity. However, in accordance with the quantitative perspective on motivational interference, students with High quantity profiles for learning reported more internal conflict while imagining themselves socializing than students with Good and Poor quality profiles did. Similar effects for the leisure profiles and additional variable-oriented analyses confirmed the assumption that the quality of motivation best explains students' ongoing experience during a focal activity, whereas the effects of indirect motivational costs stemming from the motivational characteristics of missed activities are best described quantitatively. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailValidity of the MicroDYN approach: Complex problem solving predicts school grades beyond working memory capacity
Schweizer, Fabian; Wüstenberg, Sascha UL; Greiff, Samuel UL

in Learning and Individual Differences (2013), 24

This study examines the validity of the complex problemsolving (CPS) test MicroDYN by investigating a) the relation between its dimensions – rule identification (exploration strategy), rule knowledge ... [more ▼]

This study examines the validity of the complex problemsolving (CPS) test MicroDYN by investigating a) the relation between its dimensions – rule identification (exploration strategy), rule knowledge (acquired knowledge), rule application (control performance) – and working memory capacity (WMC), and b) whether CPS predicts school grades in different domains beyond WMC. A sample of n=393 German high school students (age M=17.07, SD=1.12) completed the computer-based tests Memory Updating Numerical and the CPS scenario MicroDYN. Using structural equation modeling, WMC predicted rule knowledge and rule application, which remained substantially correlated after controlling forWMC. Rule knowledge predicted school grades in science and social studies beyondWMC, but not in language subjects. Explanations for the differential concurrent validity of CPS as well as prerequisites for valid CPS assessment are discussed. [less ▲]

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