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See detailCalcium signaling and regulation of neutrophil functions: Still a long way to go.
Hann, Justine UL; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Tolle, Fabrice UL et al

in Journal of leukocyte biology (2019)

Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood and disruption in their functions often results in an increased risk of serious infections and inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Following recent ... [more ▼]

Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood and disruption in their functions often results in an increased risk of serious infections and inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Following recent discoveries in their influence over disease progression, a resurgence of interest for neutrophil biology has taken place. The multitude of signaling pathways activated by the engagement of numerous types of receptors, with which neutrophils are endowed, reflects the functional complexity of these cells. It is therefore not surprising that there remains a huge lack in the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlining neutrophil functions. Moreover, studies on neutrophils are undoubtedly limited by the difficulty to efficiently edit the cell's genome. Over the past 30 years, compelling evidence has clearly highlighted that Ca(2+) -signaling is governing the key processes associated with neutrophil functions. The confirmation of the role of an elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration has come from studies on NADPH oxidase activation and phagocytosis. In this review, we give an overview and update of our current knowledge on the role of Ca(2+) mobilization in the regulation of pro-inflammatory functions of neutrophils. In particular, we stress the importance of Ca(2+) in the formation of NETs and cytokine secretion in the light of newest findings. This will allow us to embrace how much further we have to go to understand the complex dynamics of Ca(2+) -dependent mechanisms in order to gain more insights into the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. The potential for therapeutics to regulate the neutrophil functions, such as Ca(2+) influx inhibitors to prevent autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, has been discussed in the last part of the review. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine-mediated modulation of the hepatic miRNome: miR-146b-5p is an IL-6-inducible miRNA with multiple targets.
Kirchmeyer, Melanie; Servais, Florence UL; Hamdorf, Matthias et al

in Journal of leukocyte biology (2018)

Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-type cytokines play important roles in liver (patho-)biology. For instance, they regulate the acute phase response to inflammatory signals and are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis ... [more ▼]

Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-type cytokines play important roles in liver (patho-)biology. For instance, they regulate the acute phase response to inflammatory signals and are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Much is known about the regulation of protein-coding genes by cytokines whereas their effects on the miRNome is less well understood. We performed a microarray screen to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) in human hepatocytes which are modulated by IL-6-type cytokines. Using samples of 2 donors, 27 and 68 miRNAs (out of 1,733) were found to be differentially expressed upon stimulation with hyper-IL-6 (HIL-6) for up to 72 h, with an overlap of 15 commonly regulated miRNAs. qPCR validation revealed that miR-146b-5p was also consistently up-regulated in hepatocytes derived from 2 other donors. Interestingly, miR-146b-5p (but not miR-146a-5p) was induced by IL-6-type cytokines (HIL-6 and OSM) in non-transformed liver-derived PH5CH8 and THLE2 cells and in Huh-7 hepatoma cells, but not in HepG2 or Hep3B hepatoma cells. We did not find evidence for a differential regulation of miR-146b-5p expression by promoter methylation, also when analyzing the TCGA data set on liver cancer samples. Inducible overexpression of miR-146b-5p in PH5CH8 cells followed by RNA-Seq analysis revealed effects on multiple mRNAs, including those encoding IRAK1 and TRAF6 crucial for Toll-like receptor signaling. Indeed, LPS-mediated signaling was attenuated upon overexpression of miR-146b-5p, suggesting a regulatory loop to modulate inflammatory signaling in hepatocytes. Further validation experiments suggest DNAJC6, MAGEE1, MPHOSPH6, PPP2R1B, SLC10A3, SNRNP27, and TIMM17B to be novel targets for miR-146b-5p (and miR-146a-5p). [less ▲]

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See detailThe PD-L1- and IL6-mediated dampening of the IL27/STAT1 anticancer responses are prevented by a-PD-L1 or a-IL6 antibodies
Rolvering, Catherine UL; Zimmer, Andreas David UL; Ginolhac, Aurélien UL et al

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2018), 104

Interleukin-27 (IL27) is a type-I cytokine of the IL6/IL12 family and is predominantly secreted by activated macrophages and dendritic cells.We show that IL27 induces STAT factor phosphorylation in ... [more ▼]

Interleukin-27 (IL27) is a type-I cytokine of the IL6/IL12 family and is predominantly secreted by activated macrophages and dendritic cells.We show that IL27 induces STAT factor phosphorylation in cancerous cell lines of different tissue origin. IL27 leads to STAT1 phosphorylation and recapitulates an IFN-𝛾-like response in the microarray analyses, with up-regulation of genes involved in antiviral defense, antigen presentation, and immune suppression. Like IFN-𝛾, IL27 leads to an up-regulation of TAP2 and MHC-I proteins, which mediate increased tumor immune clearance. However, both cytokines also upregulate proteins such as PD-L1 (CD274) and IDO-1, which are associatedwith immune escape of cancer. Interestingly, differential expression of these geneswas observed within the different cell lines and when comparing IL27 to IFN-𝛾. In coculture experiments of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells with peripheral blood mononuclear cells, pre-treatment of the HCC cells with IL27 resulted in lowered IL2 production by anti-CD3/-CD28 activated T-lymphocytes. Addition of anti-PD-L1 antibody, however, restored IL2 secretion. The levels of other TH1 cytokines were also enhanced or restored upon administration of anti-PD-L1. In addition, we show that the suppression of IL27 signaling by IL6-type cytokine prestimulation— mimicking a situation occurring, for example, in IL6-secreting tumors or in tumor inflammation–induced cachexia—can be antagonized by antibodies against IL6-type cytokines or their receptors. Therapeutically, the antitumor effects of IL27 (mediated, e.g., by increased antigen presentation) might thus be increased by combining IL27with blocking antibodies against PD-L1 or/and IL6-type cytokines. [less ▲]

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See detailAn essential role of syntaxin 3 protein for granule exocytosis and secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12b, and CCL4 from differentiated HL-60 cells
Naegelen, Isabelle UL; Plançon, Sébastien UL; Nicot, Nathalie et al

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2014), 97

Besides their roles in the killing of pathogens, neutrophils have the capacity to package a variety of cytokines into cytoplasmic granules for subsequent release upon inflammatory conditions. Because the ... [more ▼]

Besides their roles in the killing of pathogens, neutrophils have the capacity to package a variety of cytokines into cytoplasmic granules for subsequent release upon inflammatory conditions. Because the rapid secretion of cytokines orchestrates the action of other immune cells at the infection site and thus, can contribute to the development and chronicity of inflammatory diseases, we aimed to determine the intracellular SNARE machinery responsible for the regulation of cytokine secretion and degranulation. From a constructed gene-expression network, we first selected relevant cytokines for functional validation by the CBA approach. We established a cytokine-secretion profile for human neutrophils and dHL-60 cells, underlining their similar ability to secrete a broad variety of cytokines within proinflammatory conditions mimicked by LPS stimulation. Secondly, after screening of SNARE genes by microarray experiments, we selected STX3 for further functional studies. With the use of a siRNA strategy, we show that STX3 is clearly required for the maximal release of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12b, and CCL4 without alteration of other cytokine secretion in dHL-60 cells. In addition, we demonstrate that STX3 is involved in MMP-9 exocytosis from gelatinase granules, where STX3 is partly localized. Our results suggest that the secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12b, and CCL4 occurs during gelatinase degranulation, a process controlled by STX3. In summary, these findings provide first evidence that STX3 has an essential role in trafficking pathways of cytokines in neutrophil granulocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailSphingosine kinases regulate NOX2 activity via p38 MAPK-dependent translocation of S100A8/A9
Schenten, Véronique UL; Melchior, Chantal UL; Steinckwich, Nathalie et al

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2011), 89(4), 587-596

Neutrophils play a fundamental role in host defense by neutralizing pathogens through the generation of ROS by NOX2. In nonexcitable cells, Ca(2+) influx is essentially mediated via SOCE, a complex ... [more ▼]

Neutrophils play a fundamental role in host defense by neutralizing pathogens through the generation of ROS by NOX2. In nonexcitable cells, Ca(2+) influx is essentially mediated via SOCE, a complex mechanism in which depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores from the ER results in Ca(2+) entry through Ca(2+) SOCs at the plasma membrane. In this regard, it is well established that extracellular Ca(2+) entry participates to NOX2 activation. S1P, produced by SphKs, has been involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis and thus, could intervene in NOX2 regulation. The aim of this study was to characterize the importance of SphKs in NOX2 activation and the signaling cascade involved in this mechanism. Treatment of neutrophil-like dHL-60 cells by DHS, a SphK inhibitor, and SphK siRNA inhibited fMLF-induced NOX2 activity. Sequential activation of cells by thapsigargin and the phorbol ester PMA revealed that SphK-regulated NOX2 activity relies on intracellular Ca(2+) store depletion. Confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis showed that stimulation by thapsigargin and PMA mediated S100A8/A9 recruitment to the plasma membrane and p38 MAPK activation. S100A8/A9 translocation decreased when SphK activity was blocked. This result was confirmed in purified human neutrophils, which were physiologically stimulated by fMLF. In addition, p38 MAPK was found to be regulated by SphKs. These results define a pathway leading to NOX2 activation, in which p38 MAPK-mediated S100A8/A9 translocation is regulated by Ca(2+) store depletion-dependent SphK activation. [less ▲]

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See detailOAG induces an additional PKC-, PI3K-, and Rac2-mediated signaling pathway up-regulating NOX2 activity, independently of Ca 2+ entry
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Salsmann, Alexandre UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2009), 85(4), 638-647

The requirement of calcium ion (Ca(2)(+)) entry for neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX2) regulation is clearly established. However, its role in the signaling pathway leading to NOX2 activation is still ... [more ▼]

The requirement of calcium ion (Ca(2)(+)) entry for neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX2) regulation is clearly established. However, its role in the signaling pathway leading to NOX2 activation is still elusive. 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) causes an increase in NOX2 activity and has been shown to directly modulate Ca(2)(+) channels unrelated to the well-known store-operated Ca(2)(+) entry (SOCE) mechanism. In our study, we have investigated the potential role of OAG in Ca(2)(+) influx-mediated NOX2 activity in neutrophil-like-differentiated HL-60 cells to further characterize second signals involved in the regulation of NOX2. OAG inhibited fMLF- and thapsigargin-induced Ca(2)(+) entry, a phenomenon that was not restored by protein kinase C (PKC) or PI3K blockade. Addition of OAG resulted in a rapid decrease of maximal intracellular Ca(2)(+) concentration induced by thapsigargin. Both results suggest that OAG has an inhibitory effect, independent of PI3K and PKC, on the regulation of SOCE. In contrast to SOCE inhibition, OAG-induced NOX2 activation was mediated by PKC and PI3K. Our data establish that both kinases exert their effects through the regulation of Rac2 activity. In addition, OAG potentiated the effect of fMLF on the activation of NOX2 and led to a discernible activity of NOX2 upon thapsigargin stimulation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that an additional PKC- and/or PI3K-dependent signal may act in synergy with Ca(2)(+) influx to trigger NOX2 activation. [less ▲]

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See detailCould spaceflight-associated immune system weakening preclude the expansion of human presence beyond Earth’s orbit?
Gueguinou, Nathan UL; Huin-Schohn, Cécile UL; Bascove, Matthieu et al

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2009), 86(5), 1027-1038

This year, we celebrate the 40th birthday of the first landing of humans on the moon. By 2020, astronauts should return to the lunar surface and establish an outpost there that will provide a technical ... [more ▼]

This year, we celebrate the 40th birthday of the first landing of humans on the moon. By 2020, astronauts should return to the lunar surface and establish an outpost there that will provide a technical basis for future manned missions to Mars. This paper summarizes major constraints associated with a trip to Mars, presents immunological hazards associated with this type of mission, and shows that our current understanding of the immunosuppressive effects of spaceflight is limited. Weakening of the immune system associated with spaceflight is therefore an area that should be considered more thoroughly before we undertake prolonged space voyages. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of superoxide production in neutrophils: role of calcium influx
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2008), 84(5), 1223-1237

Upon stimulation, activation of NADPH oxidase complexes in neutrophils produces a burst of superoxide anions contributing to oxidative stress and the development of inflammatory process. Store-operated ... [more ▼]

Upon stimulation, activation of NADPH oxidase complexes in neutrophils produces a burst of superoxide anions contributing to oxidative stress and the development of inflammatory process. Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), whereby the depletion of intracellular stores induces extracellular calcium influx, is known to be a crucial element of NADPH oxidase regulation. However, the mechanistic basis mediating SOCE is still only partially understood, as is the signal-coupling pathway leading to modulation of store-operated channels. This review emphasizes the role of calcium influx in the control of the NADPH oxidase and summarizes the current knowledge of pathways mediating this extracellular calcium entry in neutrophils. Such investigations into the cross-talk between NADPH oxidase and calcium might allow the identification of novel pharmacological targets with clinical use, particularly in inflammatory diseases. [less ▲]

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