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See detailThe chemoattractants, IL-8 and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, regulate granulocyte colony-stimulating factor signaling by inducing suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 expression.
Stevenson, Nigel J.; Haan, Serge UL; McClurg, Angela E. et al

in Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (2004), 173(5), 3243-9

Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are encoded by immediate early genes known to inhibit cytokine responses in a classical feedback loop. SOCS gene expression has been shown to be induced by many ... [more ▼]

Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are encoded by immediate early genes known to inhibit cytokine responses in a classical feedback loop. SOCS gene expression has been shown to be induced by many cytokines, growth factors, and innate immune stimuli, such as LPS. In this paper, we report that the chemoattractants, IL-8 and fMLP, up-regulate SOCS1 mRNA in human myeloid cells, primary human neutrophils, PBMCs, and dendritic cells. fMLP rapidly up-regulates SOCS1, whereas the induction of SOCS1 upon IL-8 treatment is delayed. IL-8 and fMLP did not signal via Jak/STATs in primary human macrophages, thus implicating the induction of SOCS by other intracellular pathways. As chemoattractant-induced SOCS1 expression in neutrophils may play an important role in regulating the subsequent response to growth promoting cytokines like G-CSF, we investigated the effect of chemoattractant-induced SOCS1 on cytokine signal transduction. We show that pretreatment of primary human neutrophils with fMLP or IL-8 blocks G-CSF-mediated STAT3 activation. This study provides evidence for cross-talk between chemoattractant and cytokine signal transduction pathways involving SOCS proteins, suggesting that these chemotactic factors may desensitize neutrophils to G-CSF via rapid induction of SOCS1 expression. [less ▲]

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See detailActivation of STAT3 by IL-6 and IL-10 in primary human macrophages is differentially modulated by suppressor of cytokine signaling 3.
Niemand, Claudia; Nimmesgern, Ariane; Haan, Serge UL et al

in Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (2003), 170(6), 3263-72

On human macrophages IL-10 acts as a more potent anti-inflammatory cytokine than IL-6, although both cytokines signal mainly via activation of the transcription factor STAT3. In this study we compare IL ... [more ▼]

On human macrophages IL-10 acts as a more potent anti-inflammatory cytokine than IL-6, although both cytokines signal mainly via activation of the transcription factor STAT3. In this study we compare IL-10 and IL-6 signaling in primary human macrophages derived from blood monocytes. Pretreatment of macrophages with PMA or the proinflammatory mediators LPS and TNF-alpha blocks IL-6-induced STAT3 activation, whereas IL-10-induced activation of STAT3 remains largely unaffected. Although LPS induces the feedback inhibitor suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in macrophages, inhibition of IL-6 signal transduction by LPS occurs rapidly and does not depend on gene transcription. We also found that pretreatment of macrophages with IL-10 inhibits subsequent STAT3 activation by IL-6, whereas IL-10-induced STAT3 activation is not affected by preincubation with IL-6. This cross-inhibition is dependent on active transcription and might therefore be explained by different sensitivities of IL-10 and IL-6 signaling toward the feedback inhibitor SOCS3, which is induced by both cytokines. In contrast to the IL-6 signal transducer gp130, which has been previously shown to recruit SOCS3 to one of its phosphotyrosine residues (Y759), peptide precipitation experiments suggest that SOCS3 does not interact with phosphorylated tyrosine motifs of the IL-10R. Taken together, different sensitivities of IL-10 and IL-6 signaling toward mechanisms that inhibit the Janus kinase/STAT pathway define an important mechanism that contributes to the different anti-inflammatory potencies of these two cytokines. [less ▲]

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See detailSuppressor of cytokine signaling-3 is recruited to the activated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor and modulates its signal transduction.
Hortner, Michael; Nielsch, Ulrich; Mayr, Lorenz M. et al

in Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (2002), 169(3), 1219-27

G-CSF is a polypeptide growth factor used in treatment following chemotherapy. G-CSF regulates granulopoiesis and acts on its target cells by inducing homodimerization of the G-CSFR, thereby activating ... [more ▼]

G-CSF is a polypeptide growth factor used in treatment following chemotherapy. G-CSF regulates granulopoiesis and acts on its target cells by inducing homodimerization of the G-CSFR, thereby activating intracellular signaling cascades. The G-CSFR encompasses four tyrosine motifs on its cytoplasmic tail that have been shown to recruit a number of regulatory proteins. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3), also referred to as cytokine-inducible Src homolgy 2-containing protein 3, is a member of a recently discovered family of feedback inhibitors that have been shown to inhibit the Janus kinase/STAT pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that human SOCS-3 is rapidly induced by G-CSF in polymorphonuclear neutrophils as well as in the myeloid precursor cell line U937 and that SOCS-3 negatively regulates G-CSFR-mediated STAT activation. Most importantly, we show that SOCS-3 is recruited to the G-CSFR in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and we identify phosphotyrosine (pY)729 as the major recruitment site for SOCS-3. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SOCS-3 directly binds to this pY motif. Surface plasmon resonance analysis reveals a dissociation constant (K(D)) for this interaction of around 2.8 microM. These findings strongly suggest that the recruitment of SOCS-3 to pY729 is important for the modulation of G-CSFR-mediated signal transduction by SOCS-3. [less ▲]

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