References of "Journal of Problem Solving (The)"
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See detailPerspectives on problem solving in cognitive research and educational assessment: analytical, interactive, and collaborative problem solving
Greiff, Samuel UL; Holt, Daniel; Funke, Joachim

in Journal of Problem Solving (The) (2013), 5

Problem solving has received broad public interest as an important competency in modern societies. In educational large-scale assessments paper-pencil based analytical problem solving was included first ... [more ▼]

Problem solving has received broad public interest as an important competency in modern societies. In educational large-scale assessments paper-pencil based analytical problem solving was included first (e.g., Programme for International Student Assessment, PISA 2003). With growing interest in more complex situations, the focus has shifted to interactive problem solving (e.g., PISA 2012) requiring identification and control of complex systems. In the future, collaborative problem solving represents the next step in assessing problem solving ability (e.g., PISA 2015). This paper describes these different approaches to assessing problem solving ability in large-scale assessments considering theoretical questions as well as assessment issues. For each of the three types of problem solving, the definition and understanding of the construct is explained, items examples are shown together with some empirical results, and limitations of the respective approach are discussed. A final discussion centers on the connection of cognitive and differential psychology within educational research and assessment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe process of solving complex problems
Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel UL; Funke, Joachim

in Journal of Problem Solving (The) (2012), 4

This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), and a formal definition and a ... [more ▼]

This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), and a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application concerning the goal-oriented control of ystems that contain many highly interrelated elements (i.e., complex systems). The impact of mplicit and explicit knowledge as well as systematic strategy selection on the solution process are discussed, emphasizing the importance of (1) information generation (due to the initial intransparency of the situation), (2) information reduction (due to the overcharging complexity of the problem’s structure), (3) model building (due to the interconnectedness of the variables), (4) dynamic decision making (due to the eigendynamics of the system), and (5) evaluation (due to many, interfering and/or ill-defined goals). [less ▲]

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