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See detailSubtyping attenuated psychotic symptoms: A cluster analytic approach
Laloyaux, Julien; Larøi, Frank; Nuyens, Filip et al

in Journal of Clinical Psychology (2018), 74(12), 2117-2133

Objective The aim of the present study is to examine the heterogeneity of attenuated psychotic symptoms (PS) and related personality factors using a cluster analytic approach. Method A large sample of ... [more ▼]

Objective The aim of the present study is to examine the heterogeneity of attenuated psychotic symptoms (PS) and related personality factors using a cluster analytic approach. Method A large sample of participants from the general population was evaluated in terms of attenuated symptomatology (psychotic and affective) and two personality factors: encoding style and impulsivity traits. Results Cluster analysis emphasized the existence of five independent clusters: High Psychosis, High Positive, High Negative, High Impulsive-Low Psychosis, and Low Psychosis. Cluster comparisons demonstrated that the personality factors and PS are differentially involved in the clusters. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that reliable and relatively distinct clusters of individuals from the general population can be identified based on established PS and related personality factors. The fact that a variety of profiles was observed contributes to a better understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity characterizing PS and has clear theoretical and clinical implications. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of metacognitive therapy in improving mental health: A meta-analysis of single-case studies
Rochat, Lucien; Manolov, Rumen; Billieux, Joël UL

in Journal of Clinical Psychology (2018), 74(6), 896-915

Context. Metacognitive therapy and one of its treatment components, the attention training technique are increasingly being delivered to improve mental health. Objective. To examine the efficacy of ... [more ▼]

Context. Metacognitive therapy and one of its treatment components, the attention training technique are increasingly being delivered to improve mental health. Objective. To examine the efficacy of metacognitive therapy and/or attention training technique on mental health outcomes from single-case studies. Methods. Fourteen studies (53 patients) were included. The d-statistic for multiple baseline data and the percentage change index were used to compute the effect sizes. Results. Metacognitive therapy has a large effect on depression, anxiety, other psychopathological symptoms, and all outcomes together. Effect sizes were significantly moderated by the number of sessions, the severity and duration of symptoms, and patient gender, but not by study quality or attention training technique when used as a stand-alone treatment. At the follow-up, 77.36% of the individuals were considered recovered or had maintained improvement. Conclusion. Metacognitive therapy and attention training technique strongly contribute to improving mental health outcomes. This study effectively informs evidence-based practice in the clinical milieu. [less ▲]

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See detailDetecting coached feigning using the test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the structured inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS)
Jelicic, Marko; Ceunen, Erik UL; Peters, Maarten J.V. et al

in Journal of Clinical Psychology (2011), 67(9), 850-855

Undergraduate students were administered the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Structured Inventory of the Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) and asked to respond honestly, or instructed to feign ... [more ▼]

Undergraduate students were administered the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Structured Inventory of the Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) and asked to respond honestly, or instructed to feign cognitive dysfunction due to head injury. Before both instruments were administered, symptom-coached feigners were provided with some information about brain injury, while feigners who received a mix of symptom-coaching and test-coaching were given the same information plus advice on how to defeat symptom validity tests. Results show that, although the accuracy of both instruments appears to be somewhat reduced by a mix of symptom coaching and test coaching, the TOMM and SIMS are relatively resistant to different kinds of coaching. [less ▲]

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