References of "Journal of Affective Disorders"
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See detailHeart and brain: cortical representation of cardiac signals is disturbed in borderline personality disorder, but unaffected by oxytocin administration
Schmitz, M.; Müller, L. E.; Schulz, André UL et al

in Journal of Affective Disorders (in press)

Background: Emotional dysregulation, a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has recently been linked to deficits in the cortical representation of bodily signals. Oxytocin modulates the ... [more ▼]

Background: Emotional dysregulation, a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has recently been linked to deficits in the cortical representation of bodily signals. Oxytocin modulates the salience of external social cues. However, its role in interoception is still not fully understood. The aim of the current study was to replicate reduced heartbeatevoked potentials (HEPs) as a marker for the cortical representation of cardiac signals in BPD and to explore potential effects of oxytocin on HEP amplitude. Methods: Fifty-three medication-free women with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BPD and sixty healthy female controls (HCs) participated in the study. In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, participants self-administered either 24 I.U. of oxytocin or placebo and took part in a 5-minute resting-state electrocardiogram (ECG) with parallel electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement. In addition, emotional dysregulation and BPD symptomatology were assessed with self-report questionnaires. Results: Patients with BPD had significantly lower mean HEP amplitudes than HCs. Furthermore, HEP amplitudes were negatively correlated with emotional dysregulation in the whole sample. However, oxytocin had no significant effect on HEP amplitude. Limitations: Only female participants were investigated and no clinicial controls were included. Conclusions: This is the first replication from an independent sample showing a reduced cortical representation of cardiac signals in BPD patients. This, together with other bodyrelated symptoms, suggests deficits in the processing of bodily signals, which seem to be associated with emotional dysregulation. Whether oxytocin influences HEP during emotion regulation tasks needs to be investigated in future studies. [less ▲]

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See detailSuicide Prevention: Using the Number of Health Complaints as an Indirect Alternative for Screening Suicidal Adolescents
Heinz, Andreas UL; Catunda, Carolina UL; van Duin, Claire UL et al

in Journal of Affective Disorders (2020), 260

Background: Suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescents. Screening for persons at risk usually includes asking about suicidal ideation, which is considered inappropriate in some societies ... [more ▼]

Background: Suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescents. Screening for persons at risk usually includes asking about suicidal ideation, which is considered inappropriate in some societies and situations. To avoid directly addressing suicide, this paper investigates whether the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Symptom Checklist (HBSC-SCL), a validated non-clinical measure of eight subjective health complaints (e.g. headache, feeling low), could be used as a tool for screening suicidal ideation and behavior in adolescents. Methods: 5262 secondary school students aged 12-18 answered the Luxembourgish HBSC 2014 survey, including the HBSC-SCL items and suicidal ideation and behavior questions. Results: Each HBSC-SCL item correlates with suicidal ideation and behavior. A sum score was calculated ranging from zero to eight health complaints to predict respondents who considered suicide (area under the ROC curve = .770). The ideal cut-off for screening students who consider suicide is three or more health complaints: sensitivity is 66.3%, specificity is 75.9% and positive predictive value is 32.9%. Limitations: One limitation is HBSC-SCL's low positive predictive value. This is a general problem of screening rare events: the lower the prevalence, the lower the positive predictive value. Sensitivity and specificity could be improved by taking age-, gender- and country-specific cut-off values, but such refinements would make the score calculation more complicated. Conclusions: The HBSC-SCL is short, easy to use, with satisfactory screening properties. The checklist can be used when suicide cannot be addressed directly, and also in a more general context, e.g. by school nurses when screening adolescents. [less ▲]

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See detailThe joint role of impulsivity and distorted cognitions in recreational and problem gambling: A cluster analytic approach.
Devos, Mr Gaetan; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta et al

in Journal of affective disorders (2020), 260

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Pathways Model (Blaszczynski & Nower, 2002) posits that problem gambling is a heterogeneous disorder with distinct subgroups (behaviorally conditioned gamblers, emotionally ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Pathways Model (Blaszczynski & Nower, 2002) posits that problem gambling is a heterogeneous disorder with distinct subgroups (behaviorally conditioned gamblers, emotionally vulnerable gamblers, and antisocial-impulsivist gamblers). Impulsivity traits and gambling-related cognitions are recognized as two key psychological factors in the onset and maintenance of problem gambling. To date, these constructs have been explored separately, and their joint role in determining problem gambling subtypes has received little attention. The goal of our study was to identify subgroups of gamblers based on impulsivity traits and gambling-related cognitions, and to determine whether this approach is consistent with the Pathways model. METHODS: Gamblers from the community (N=709) and treatment-seeking pathological gamblers (N=122) completed questionnaires measuring gambling habits, disordered gambling symptoms, gambling-related cognitions, and impulsivity traits. RESULTS: Cluster analyses revealed that three clusters globally aligned with the pathways proposed by Blaszczynski & Nower (2002). Two other clusters emerged: (1) impulsive gamblers without cognitive-related cognitions; and (2) gamblers without impulsivity or gambling-related cognitions. Gamblers with both heightened impulsive traits and gambling-related cognitions had more severe problem gambling symptoms. CONCLUSION: We successfully identified, based on an a priori theoretical framework, different subtypes of gamblers that varied in terms of problem gambling symptoms and clinical status. The diversity of the cluster profiles supports the development of personalized prevention strategies and psychological interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailEscaping reality through videogames is linked to an implicit preference for virtual over real-life stimuli
Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Schimmenti, Adriano et al

in Journal of Affective Disorders (2019), 245

From the theory of compensatory Internet use, escapism through videogames may constitute a coping strategy that is sometimes helpful but, in some cases, maladaptive. Yet, evidence supporting this view has ... [more ▼]

From the theory of compensatory Internet use, escapism through videogames may constitute a coping strategy that is sometimes helpful but, in some cases, maladaptive. Yet, evidence supporting this view has, to date, been gathered only through the use of explicit self-reported questionnaires, which are known to be biased. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to test whether the escapism motive is related to a preference for the virtual environment. Method. A laboratory task that allowed the measurement of implicit attitudes, namely, the Affect Misattribution Procedure was created with stimuli from real world and videogames. The task was administered online with a series of questionnaire and completed by 273 online gamers from the community. Results. The results showed that participants had more positive attitudes toward pictures depicting virtual environments than toward those depicting real environments. Furthermore, those participants who frequently used videogames to escape real life and were highly engaged in video gaming had a more pronounced positive implicit attitude toward the virtual environment. Discussion. This study contributes to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying escapism in videogames and calls for a refinement of the escapism construct, which can be related to both problematic (i.e., potential coping strategy) and nonproblematic patterns of videogame use. Among the limitations, it should be noted that the selection of stimuli related to videogames is restricted to one genre of game, and that the participants’ environment could not be controlled due to the online design. [less ▲]

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See detailParental divorce is associated with an increased risk to develop mental disorders in women
Schaan, Violetta UL; Schulz, André UL; Schächinger, Hartmut et al

in Journal of Affective Disorders (2019), 257(1), 91-99

Background: Parental divorce has been associated with reduced well-being in young adults. It is, however, unclear whether this finding is clinically relevant as studies using structural clinical ... [more ▼]

Background: Parental divorce has been associated with reduced well-being in young adults. It is, however, unclear whether this finding is clinically relevant as studies using structural clinical interviews are missing. This study, therefore, investigated if young adults with divorced parents are at risk to develop mental disorders. Furthermore, differences in parental care, social connectedness, chronic stress and traumatic experiences between children of divorced and non-divorced parents were investigated. Methods: 121 women (mean age: 23 years) were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIV Axis I (i.e., major mental disorders) and II (i.e., personality disorders) Disorders and asked to complete questionnaires assessing parental care, social connectedness (loneliness, attachment anxiety and avoidance), chronic stress, childhood trauma and depression. Results: Young adults of divorced parents had a higher risk for Axis I but not Axis II disorders as compared to young adults of non-divorced parents. Participants from divorced families as compared to non-divorced families reported more depression, loneliness, childhood trauma, attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, chronic stress and less parental care. Limitations: Due to the cross-sectional design of this study, conclusions about causality remain speculative. Conclusion: The increased vulnerability of children of divorced parents to develop mental disorders, and to experience more chronic stress, loneliness, attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and traumatic experiences during childhood is alarming and highlights the importance of prevention programs and psycho-education during the process of parental divorce. Parental support with regard to adequate caregiving is needed to help parents to better support their children during and after their divorce. [less ▲]

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See detailDepression Burden in Luxembourg: Individual Risk Factors, Geographic Variations and the Role of Migration, 2013-2015 European Health Examination Survey
Ruiz-Castell, Maria; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Perquin, Magali et al

in Journal of Affective Disorders (2017), 222

Background: Depression is a complex mental disorder that affects an increasing proportion of the worldwide population. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

Background: Depression is a complex mental disorder that affects an increasing proportion of the worldwide population. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Luxembourg, associated risk factors and geographic variations. Additionally, it aims to assess whether first and second generation immigrants are at higher risk for depressive symptoms compared to non-immigrants. Methods: Representative cross-sectional data from 1499 residents of Luxembourg, aged 25 to 64 years, were collected from the Luxembourg European Health Survey (EHES-LUX). Depressive symptoms were defined as a score of ≥5 on the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9) (i.e. mild, moderate or severe). Standard and Bayesian regression models were used to examine associations between depressive symptoms, immigration status and geographic distribution across Luxembourg. Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 21.55% (15.54% mild, 3.54% moderate, and 2.49% moderately severe to severe). The odds of having depressive symptoms was higher among second generation immigrants compared to non-immigrants (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.41), independent of socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Healthier diet, higher social support and good health perception were protective towards experiencing depressive symptoms. One of the highest likelihoods of reporting depressive symptoms was observed in the South-West of the country with a positive effect at 80% credible region [CR] (1.42 [0.92, 2.73]). Limitations: The participation rate was low (26.7%). The cross-sectional nature of the study does not allow us to establish causality. Conclusions: Depression constitutes an important public health challenge in Luxembourg due to the impact on the overall health of the population. Social programs of health promotion should be developed to improve mental wellbeing in immigrants, especially those of second generation. [less ▲]

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