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See detailA Sport for Everyone? Inclusion and Exclusion in the Organisation of the First Olympic Modern Pentathlon
Heck, Sandra UL

in International Journal of the History of Sport (2014), 31(5), 526541

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See detailModern Pentathlon at the London 2012 Olympics: Between Traditional Heritage and Modern Changes for Survival
Heck, Sandra UL

in International Journal of the History of Sport (2013), 30(7),

In London, in 2012, the modern pentathlon (fencing, swimming, horse riding, shooting and running) celebrated its centenary. In its 100 years of Olympic history several rule changes have taken place ... [more ▼]

In London, in 2012, the modern pentathlon (fencing, swimming, horse riding, shooting and running) celebrated its centenary. In its 100 years of Olympic history several rule changes have taken place. Directly after its Olympic debut in Stockholm in 1912, the International Olympic Committee headed by Pierre de Coubertin evaluated the event and criticised the shortcomings between the supposed idea behind the sport and its implementation. After Coubertin's death, the sport continued to develop; recently running and shooting have been joined in a so called combined event. In all cases, the presidents of the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne (UIPM) argued the associated rule changes by referring to the original idea of the modern pentathlon. The sport's insecure future after the Games in Rio in 2016 provides sufficient reason to investigate the discrepancy between the marketing strategy of the UIPM and the ideological origins of the modern pentathlon. It finally allows an analysis of select historical rule changes that fitted the original idea behind the events and those that served purely modern strategies of survival. Thus, the topic also stands as an example of the policies of a contemporary international sports federation that uses (select parts of its) history and (invented) traditions as strong and successful marketing tools. [less ▲]

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See detailBreaking down the Sex Barrier: The Emancipation of Female Modern Pentathlon in West Germany (1967-1981)
Heck, Sandra UL

in International Journal of the History of Sport (2012), 29(2), 318338

Fencing, shooting, horse-riding, swimming and running – five good reasons for men to argue that women are wrong when asking to be modern pentathletes but also five good reasons for women to counter that ... [more ▼]

Fencing, shooting, horse-riding, swimming and running – five good reasons for men to argue that women are wrong when asking to be modern pentathletes but also five good reasons for women to counter that they are definitely right. Even though as early as 1912 a British woman had asked to compete in the sport, another 69 years passed until the first female World Championships were held in London in 1981. This paper deals with women's struggle towards an equal participation in modern pentathlon. Whereas the development of men's modern pentathlon remained for the first 37 years exclusively within the Olympic domain, the female movement primary gained ground through regional and national activities. Germany was among the most active countries. After the president of the German Modern Pentathlon Federation had paved the way for women's participation by fighting for its administrative recognition at the end of the 1960s, the strength of female modern pentathlon slowly increased at home as well as abroad. However, men still stood against an equal sports practice of both sexes for more than a decade. The creation of female modern pentathlon World Championships in 1981 was finally not only a result of women's enthusiasm, tenacity and patience but also of men's concession to a female competency which could not be denied any longer. [less ▲]

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See detailThe History of the ‘Revier-Derby’ between Schalke 04 and Borussia Dortmund (1947-2007)
Heck, Sandra UL; Nierhaus, Paul; Luh, Andreas

in International Journal of the History of Sport (2012), 29(14), 20302049

For the Ruhr district, an urban area in the North-West of Germany, the meeting of the two most popular and successful football clubs in the region, Schalke 04 and Borussia Dortmund, has for years been a ... [more ▼]

For the Ruhr district, an urban area in the North-West of Germany, the meeting of the two most popular and successful football clubs in the region, Schalke 04 and Borussia Dortmund, has for years been a polarising, emotional and sensational sporting event. No where else in the country and in no other sport more than in football is the rivalry between the football clubs and its fans so strong still today. Is this so called Revier derby a constructed myth or real history? Considering the derbies in the regional print media with the help of a content analysis and facing them with sport and regional history show at least two things: from the 1930s till the 1970s a long period of friendly partnership existed between the two clubs. Later, the emotional derby character of the match increased while a general regional identity developed in the Ruhr district since the 1980s, and even more since the 1990s. The socio-economical crisis in the mining industry and the increasing violence in the football stadiums supported this trend. The claim of a ‘historical’ existence of the Revier derby traced back till the early period of the Revier football is hence a media-prone, artificially created myth. [less ▲]

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