References of "Hormones and Behavior"
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See detailTestosterone and androgen receptor gene polymorphism are associated with confidence and competitiveness in men
Eisenegger, C.; Kumsta, Robert UL; Naef, M. et al

in Hormones and Behavior (2017), 92

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See detailEffects of basal and acute cortisol on cognitive flexibility in an emotional task switching paradigm in men
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Arlt, Lea Esther; Roelofs et al

in Hormones and Behavior (2016), 81

The stress hormone cortisol is assumed to influence cognitive functions. While cortisol-induced alterations of declarative memory in particular are well-investigated, considerably less is known about its ... [more ▼]

The stress hormone cortisol is assumed to influence cognitive functions. While cortisol-induced alterations of declarative memory in particular are well-investigated, considerably less is known about its influence on executive functions. Moreover, most research has been focused on slow effects, and rapid non-genomic effects have not been studied. The present study sought to investigate the impact of acute cortisol administration as well as basal cortisol levels on cognitive flexibility, a core executive function, within the non-genomic time frame. Thirty-eight healthy male participants were randomly assigned to intravenously receive either cortisol or a placebo before performing a task switching paradigm with happy and angry faces as stimuli. Cortisol levels were measured at six points during the experiment. Additionally, before the experiment, basal cortisol measures for the cortisol awakening response were collected on three consecutive weekdays immediately following awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min after. First and foremost, results showed a pronounced impact of acute and basal cortisol on reaction time switch costs, particularly for angry faces. In the placebo group, low basal cortisol was associated with minimal switch costs, whereas high basal cortisol was related to maximal switch costs. In contrast, after cortisol injection, basal cortisol levels showed no impact. These results show that cognitive flexibility-enhancing effects of acute cortisol administration are only seen in men with high basal cortisol levels. This result supports the context dependency of cortisol administration and shows the relevance of taking basal cortisol levels into account. [less ▲]

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See detailPrepubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog leads to exaggerated behavioral and emotional sex differences in sheep
Wojniusz, Slawomir; Vögele, Claus UL; Ropstad, Erik et al

in Hormones and Behavior (2011), 59(1), 22-27

In mammals, sex specialization is reflected by differences in brain anatomy and function. Measurable differences are documented in reproductive behavior, cognition, and emotion. We hypothesized that ... [more ▼]

In mammals, sex specialization is reflected by differences in brain anatomy and function. Measurable differences are documented in reproductive behavior, cognition, and emotion. We hypothesized that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a crucial role in controlling the extent of the brain's sex specificity and that changes in GnRH action during critical periods of brain development, such as puberty, will result in altered sex-specific behavioral and physiological patterns. We blocked puberty in half of the 48 same-sex Scottish mule Texel cross sheep twins with GnRH analog (GnRHa) goserelin acetate every 3 weeks, beginning just before puberty. To determine the effects of GnRHa treatment on sex-specific behavior and emotion regulation in different social contexts, we employed the food acquisition task (FAT) and measurement of heart rate variability (HRV). ANOVA revealed significant sex and sex × treatment interaction effects, suggesting that treated males were more likely to leave their companions to acquire food than untreated, while the opposite effect was observed in females. Concordant results were seen in HRV; treated males displayed higher HRV than untreated, while the reverse pattern was found in females, as shown by significant sex and sex × treatment interaction effects. We conclude that long-term prepubertal GnRHa treatment significantly affected sex-specific brain development, which impacted emotion and behavior regulation in sheep. These results suggest that GnRH is a modulator of cognitive function in the developing brain and that the sexes are differentially affected by GnRH modulation. [less ▲]

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See detailPrenatal exposure to maternal psychosocial stress and HPA axis regulation in young adults
Entringer, S.; Kumsta, Robert UL; Hellhammer, D. H. et al

in Hormones and Behavior (2009), 55(2), 292-298

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