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See detailAn evaluation of high-throughput approaches to QTL mapping in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Wilkening, Stefan; Lin, Gen; Fritsch, Emilie S. et al

in Genetics (2014), 196(3), 853-65

Dissecting the molecular basis of quantitative traits is a significant challenge and is essential for understanding complex diseases. Even in model organisms, precisely determining causative genes and ... [more ▼]

Dissecting the molecular basis of quantitative traits is a significant challenge and is essential for understanding complex diseases. Even in model organisms, precisely determining causative genes and their interactions has remained elusive, due in part to difficulty in narrowing intervals to single genes and in detecting epistasis or linked quantitative trait loci. These difficulties are exacerbated by limitations in experimental design, such as low numbers of analyzed individuals or of polymorphisms between parental genomes. We address these challenges by applying three independent high-throughput approaches for QTL mapping to map the genetic variants underlying 11 phenotypes in two genetically distant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, namely (1) individual analysis of >700 meiotic segregants, (2) bulk segregant analysis, and (3) reciprocal hemizygosity scanning, a new genome-wide method that we developed. We reveal differences in the performance of each approach and, by combining them, identify eight polymorphic genes that affect eight different phenotypes: colony shape, flocculation, growth on two nonfermentable carbon sources, and resistance to two drugs, salt, and high temperature. Our results demonstrate the power of individual segregant analysis to dissect QTL and address the underestimated contribution of interactions between variants. We also reveal confounding factors like mutations and aneuploidy in pooled approaches, providing valuable lessons for future designs of complex trait mapping studies. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolomics- and proteomics-assisted genome annotation and analysis of the draft metabolic network of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
May, Patrick UL; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Kempa, Stefan et al

in Genetics (2008), 179(1), 157-66

We present an integrated analysis of the molecular repertoire of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under reference conditions. Bioinformatics annotation methods combined with GCxGC/MS-based metabolomics and LC/MS ... [more ▼]

We present an integrated analysis of the molecular repertoire of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under reference conditions. Bioinformatics annotation methods combined with GCxGC/MS-based metabolomics and LC/MS-based shotgun proteomics profiling technologies have been applied to characterize abundant proteins and metabolites, resulting in the detection of 1069 proteins and 159 metabolites. Of the measured proteins, 204 currently do not have EST sequence support; thus a significant portion of the proteomics-detected proteins provide evidence for the validity of in silico gene models. Furthermore, the generated peptide data lend support to the validity of a number of proteins currently in the proposed model stage. By integrating genomic annotation information with experimentally identified metabolites and proteins, we constructed a draft metabolic network for Chlamydomonas. Computational metabolic modeling allowed an identification of missing enzymatic links. Some experimentally detected metabolites are not producible by the currently known and annotated enzyme set, thus suggesting entry points for further targeted gene discovery or biochemical pathway research. All data sets are made available as supplementary material as well as web-accessible databases and within the functional context via the Chlamydomonas-adapted MapMan annotation platform. Information of identified peptides is also available directly via the JGI-Chlamydomonas genomic resource database (http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Chlre3/Chlre3.home.html). [less ▲]

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See detailEthylnitrosourea-induced mutation in mice leads to the expression of a novel protein in the eye and to dominant cataracts.
Graw, J.; Klopp, N.; Loster, J. et al

in Genetics (2001), 157(3), 1313-20

A novel ENU-induced mutation in the mouse leading to a nuclear and zonular opacity of the eye lens (Aey1) was mapped to chromosome 1 between the markers D1Mit303 and D1Mit332. On the basis of the ... [more ▼]

A novel ENU-induced mutation in the mouse leading to a nuclear and zonular opacity of the eye lens (Aey1) was mapped to chromosome 1 between the markers D1Mit303 and D1Mit332. On the basis of the chromosomal position, the gamma-crystallin encoding gene cluster (Cryg) and the betaA2-crystallin encoding gene Cryba2 were tested as candidate genes. An A --> T mutation destroys the start codon of the Cryge gene in the mutants; this mutation was confirmed by the absence of a restriction site for NcoI in the corresponding genomic fragment of homozygous mutants. The next in-frame start codon is 129 bp downstream; this predicted truncated gammaE-crystallin consists of 131 amino acids, resulting in a molecular mass of 14 kD. However, another open reading frame was observed just 19 bp downstream of the regular Cryge start codon, resulting in a protein of 119 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight of 13 kD. Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies against gamma-crystallins or the novel Aey1-specific protein demonstrated the specific expression of the Aey1 protein in the cataractous lenses only; the truncated form of the gammaE-crystallin could not be detected. Therefore, it is concluded that the novel protein destroys the sensitive cellular structure of the eye lens. [less ▲]

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