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See detailAn Innovative Strategy Allowing a Holisitic System Change towards Circular Economy within Supply-Chains
Mangers, Jeff UL; Minoufekr, Meysam UL; Plapper, Peter UL et al

in Energies (2021), 14(14),

: The concept of the circular economy (CE) is receiving encouraging attention among scholars and practitioners, as a convenient solution to move away from the linear economy concept without neglecting the ... [more ▼]

: The concept of the circular economy (CE) is receiving encouraging attention among scholars and practitioners, as a convenient solution to move away from the linear economy concept without neglecting the goals of sustainable development. The main goals of the CE are the closing of resource loops and the keeping of resources in the system for as long as possible at the highest utility level. However, as a result of the lack of internationally accepted definitions of the CE and several unsolved barriers, an excessive and inconsistent number of different CE applications exist. Most fields are mainly focusing on making a linear system circular instead of applying the CE principles in a holistic way. This paper presents a strategy to close the mentioned inconsistency gap, by contrasting currently discussed CE barriers and goals and thereof deriving two areas with a need for action (1. identifying the needed collection, sorting, and recovery infrastructure, and 2. developing circular product design guidelines). The strategy itself consists of connecting these two areas through an improved information exchange between the end-of-life (EOL) and beginning-of-life (BOL) of products. The result is CE design guidelines which are in accordance with the available or needed collection, sorting, and recovery infrastructure. The proposed strategy presents an innovative solution to apply CE principles in a holistic manner, based on EOL-driven product design. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Scalability and Replicability Analysis for Smart Grid Functions: The InteGrid Project Approach
Potenciano Menci, Sergio UL; Bessa, Ricardo J.; Herndler, Barbara et al

in Energies (2021), 14(18 5685),

The evolution of the electrical power sector due to the advances in digitalization, decarbonization and decentralization has led to the increase in challenges within the current distribution network ... [more ▼]

The evolution of the electrical power sector due to the advances in digitalization, decarbonization and decentralization has led to the increase in challenges within the current distribution network. Therefore, there is an increased need to analyze the impact of the smart grid and its implemented solutions in order to address these challenges at the earliest stage, i.e., during the pilot phase and before large-scale deployment and mass adoption. Therefore, this paper presents the scalability and replicability analysis conducted within the European project InteGrid. Within the project, innovative solutions are proposed and tested in real demonstration sites (Portugal, Slovenia, and Sweden) to enable the DSO as a market facilitator and to assess the impact of the scalability and replicability of these solutions when integrated into the network. The analysis presents a total of three clusters where the impact of several integrated smart tools is analyzed alongside future large scale scenarios. These large scale scenarios envision significant penetration of distributed energy resources, increased network dimensions, large pools of flexibility, and prosumers. The replicability is analyzed through different types of networks, locations (country-wise), or time (daily). In addition, a simple replication path based on a step by step approach is proposed as a guideline to replicate the smart functions associated with each of the clusters. [less ▲]

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See detailA Novel Methodology for the Scalability Analysis of ICT Systems for Smart Grids Based on SGAM: The InteGrid Project Approach
Potenciano Menci, Sergio UL; Le Baut, Julien; Matanza Domingo, Javier et al

in Energies (2020), 13(15 3818),

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructures are at the heart of emerging Smart Grid scenarios with high penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The scalability of such ICT ... [more ▼]

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructures are at the heart of emerging Smart Grid scenarios with high penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The scalability of such ICT infrastructures is a key factor for the large scale deployment of the aforementioned Smart Grid solutions, which could not be ensured by small-scale pilot demonstrations. This paper presents a novel methodology that has been developed in the scope of the H2020 project InteGrid, which enables the scalability analysis of ICT infrastructures for Smart Grids. It is based on the Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM) framework, which enables a standardized and replicable approach. This approach consists of two consecutive steps: a qualitative analysis that aims at identifying potential bottlenecks in an ICT infrastructure; and a quantitative analysis of the identified critical links under stress conditions by means of simulations with the aim of evaluating their operational limits. In this work the proposed methodology is applied to a cluster of solutions demonstrated in the InteGrid Slovenian pilot. This pilot consists of a Large Customer Commercial Virtual Power Plant (VPP) that provides flexibility in medium voltage for tertiary reserve and a Traffic Light System (TLS) to validate such flexibility offers. This approach creates an indirect Transmission System Operator (TSO)—Distribution System Operator (DSO) coordination scheme. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of Passive Heat Removal Systems: A Review with Reference to the Framatome BWR Reactor KERENA: Part II
Manthey, René; Viereckl, Frances; Moonesi Shabestary, Amirhosein et al

in Energies (2019)

Passive safety systems are an important feature of currently designed and constructed nuclear power plants. They operate independent of external power supply and manual interventions and are solely driven ... [more ▼]

Passive safety systems are an important feature of currently designed and constructed nuclear power plants. They operate independent of external power supply and manual interventions and are solely driven by thermal gradients and gravitational force. This brings up new needs for performance and reliably assessment. This paper provides a review on fundamental approaches to model and analyze the performance of passive heat removal systems exemplified for the passive heat removal chain of the KERENA boiling water reactor concept developed by Framatome. We discuss modeling concepts for one-dimensional system codes such as ATHLET, RELAP and TRACE and furthermore for computational fluid dynamics codes. Part I dealt with numerical and experimental methods for modeling of condensation inside the emergency condenser and on the containment cooling condenser. This second part deals with boiling and two-phase flow instabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of Passive Heat Removal Systems: A Review with Reference to the Framatome KERENA BWR Reactor: Part I
Moonesi Shabestary, Amirhossein; Viereckl, Frances; Zhang, Yu et al

in Energies (2019)

Passive safety systems are an important feature of currently designed and constructed nuclear power plants. They operate independent of external power supply and manual interventionsand are solely driven ... [more ▼]

Passive safety systems are an important feature of currently designed and constructed nuclear power plants. They operate independent of external power supply and manual interventionsand are solely driven by thermal gradients and gravitational force. This brings up new needs forperformance and reliably assessment. This paper provides a review on fundamental approaches to model and analyze the performance of passive heat removal systems exemplified for the passive heat removal chain of the KERENA boiling water reactor concept developed by Framatome. We discuss modelling concepts for one-dimensional system codes such as ATHLET, RELAP and TRACE and furthermore for computational fluid dynamics codes. Part I deals with numerical and experimental methods for modelling of condensation inside the emergency condensers and on the containment cooling condenser while part II deals with boiling and two-phase flow instabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailA Generic Data Model for Describing Flexibility in Power Markets
Schott, Paul; Sedlmeir, Johannes; Strobel, Nina et al

in Energies (2019), 12(10),

In this article, we present a new descriptive model for industrial flexibility with respect to power consumption. The advancing digitization in the energy sector opens up new possibilities for utilizing ... [more ▼]

In this article, we present a new descriptive model for industrial flexibility with respect to power consumption. The advancing digitization in the energy sector opens up new possibilities for utilizing and automatizing the marketing of flexibility potentials and therefore facilitates a more advanced energy management. This requires a standardized description and modeling of power-related flexibility. The data model in this work has been developed in close collaboration with several partners from different industries in the context of a major German research project. A suitable set of key figures allows for also describing complex production processes that exhibit interdependencies and storage-like properties. The data model can be applied to other areas as well, e.g., power plants, plug-in electric vehicles, or power-related flexibility of households. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of Power Quality Signals Using An Adaptive Time-Frequency Distribution
Khan, Nabeel A.; Baig, F.; Nawaz, S.J. et al

in Energies (2016)

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See detailDesign of an Extractive Distillation Column for the Environmentally Benign Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium Tetrachloride for Nuclear Power Reactor Applications
Duong, Pham UL

in Energies (2015), 8(9),

Nuclear power with strengthened safety regulations continues to be used as an important resource in the world for managing atmospheric greenhouse gases and associated climate change. This study examined ... [more ▼]

Nuclear power with strengthened safety regulations continues to be used as an important resource in the world for managing atmospheric greenhouse gases and associated climate change. This study examined the environmentally benign separation of zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4) and hafnium tetrachloride (HfCl4) for nuclear power reactor applications through extractive distillation using a NaCl-KCl molten salt mixture. The vapor–liquid equilibrium behavior of ZrCl4 and HfCl4 over the molten salt system was correlated with Raoult’s law. The molten salt-based extractive distillation column was designed optimally using a rigorous commercial simulator for the feasible separation of ZrCl4 and HfCl4. The molten salt-based extractive distillation approach has many potential advantages for the commercial separation of ZrCl4 and HfCl4 compared to the conventional distillation because of its milder temperatures and pressure conditions, smaller number of required separation trays in the column, and lower energy requirement for separation, while still taking the advantage of environmentally benign feature by distillation. A heat-pump-assisted configuration was also explored to improve the energy efficiency of the extractive distillation process. The proposed enhanced configuration reduced the energy requirement drastically. Extractive distillation can be a promising option competing with the existing extraction-based separation process for zirconium purification for nuclear power reactor applications [less ▲]

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