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See detailErgodic Performance Analysis of Double Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces-Aided NOMA–UAV Systems with Hardware Impairment
Nguyen, Minh-Sang Van; Do, Dinh-Thuan; Phan, Van-Duc et al

in Drones (2022)

In this work, we design an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted Internet of Things (IoT) by enabling non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) approaches. We pay ... [more ▼]

In this work, we design an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted Internet of Things (IoT) by enabling non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) approaches. We pay attention to studying the achievable rates for the ground users. A practical system model takes into account the presence of hardware impairment when Rayleigh and Rician channels are adopted for the IRS–NOMA–UAV system. Our main findings are presented to showcase the exact expressions for achievable rates, and then we derive their simple approximations for a more insightful performance evaluation. The validity of these approximations is demonstrated using extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We confirm the achievable rate improvement decided by main parameters such as the average signal to noise ratio at source, the position of IRS with respect to the source and destination and the number of IRS elements. As a suggestion for the deployment of a low-cost IoT system, the double-IRS model is a reliable approach to realizing the system as long as the hardware impairment level is controlled. The results show that the proposed scheme can greatly improve achievable rates, obtain optimal performance at one of two devices and exhibit a small performance gap compared with the other benchmark scheme. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy Efficient Transmission Design for NOMA Backscatter-Aided UAV Networks with Imperfect CSI
AlJubayrin, Saad; Al-Wesabi, Fahd N.; Alsolai, Hadeel et al

in Drones (2022)

The recent combination of ambient backscatter communication (ABC) with non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has shown great potential for connecting large-scale Internet of Things (IoT) in future ... [more ▼]

The recent combination of ambient backscatter communication (ABC) with non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has shown great potential for connecting large-scale Internet of Things (IoT) in future unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) networks. The basic idea of ABC is to provide battery-free transmission by harvesting the energy of existing RF signals of WiFi, TV towers, and cellular base stations/UAV. ABC uses smart sensor tags to modulate and reflect data among wireless devices. On the other side, NOMA makes possible the communication of more than one IoT on the same frequency. In this work, we provide an energy efficient transmission design ABC-aided UAV network using NOMA. This work aims to optimize the power consumption of a UAV system while ensuring the minimum data rate of IoT. Specifically, the transmit power of UAVs and the reflection coefficient of the ABC system are simultaneously optimized under the assumption of imperfect channel state information (CSI). Due to co-channel interference among UAVs, imperfect CSI, and NOMA interference, the joint optimization problem is formulated as non-convex, which involves high complexity and makes it hard to obtain the optimal solution. Thus, it is first transformed and then solved by a sub-gradient method with low complexity. In addition, a conventional NOMA UAV framework is also studied for comparison without involving ABC. Numerical results demonstrate the benefits of using ABC in a NOMA UAV network compared to the conventional UAV framework. [less ▲]

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See detailChannel Estimation for UAV Communication Systems Using Deep Neural Networks
Al-Gburi, Ahmed; Abdullah, Osamah; Sarhan, Akram et al

in Drones (2022)

Channel modeling of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) from wireless communications has gained great interest for rapid deployment in wireless communication. The UAV channel has its own distinctive ... [more ▼]

Channel modeling of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) from wireless communications has gained great interest for rapid deployment in wireless communication. The UAV channel has its own distinctive characteristics compared to satellite and cellular networks. Many proposed techniques consider and formulate the channel modeling of UAVs as a classification problem, where the key is to extract the discriminative features of the UAV wireless signal. For this issue, we propose a framework of multiple Gaussian–Bernoulli restricted Boltzmann machines (GBRBM) for dimension reduction and pre-training utilization incorporated with an autoencoder-based deep neural network. The developed system used UAV measurements of a town’s already existing commercial cellular network for training and validation. To evaluate the proposed approach, we run ray-tracing simulations in the program Remcom Wireless InSite at a distinct frequency of 28 GHz and used them for training and validation. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is accurate in channel acquisition for various UAV flying scenarios and outperforms the conventional DNNs. [less ▲]

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See detailSuSy-EnGaD: Surveillance System Enhanced by Games of Drones
Stolfi Rosso, Daniel UL; Brust, Mathias UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Drones (2022), 6(13),

In this article, we propose SuSy-EnGaD, a surveillance system enhanced by games of drones. We propose three different approaches to optimise a swarm of UAVs for improving intruder detection, two of them ... [more ▼]

In this article, we propose SuSy-EnGaD, a surveillance system enhanced by games of drones. We propose three different approaches to optimise a swarm of UAVs for improving intruder detection, two of them featuring a multi-objective optimisation approach, while the third approach relates to the evolutionary game theory where three different strategies based on games are proposed. We test our system on four different case studies, analyse the results presented as Pareto fronts in terms of flying time and area coverage, and compare them with the single-objective optimisation results from games. Finally, an analysis of the UAVs trajectories is performed to help understand the results achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailSORA Methodology for Multi-UAS Airframe Inspections in an Airport
Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Sanchez Cuevas, Pedro Jesus UL; Gerasimou, Simos et al

in Drones (2021), 5(4 141),

Deploying Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in safety- and business-critical operations requires demonstrating compliance with applicable regulations and a comprehensive understanding of the residual risk ... [more ▼]

Deploying Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in safety- and business-critical operations requires demonstrating compliance with applicable regulations and a comprehensive understanding of the residual risk associated with the UAS operation. To support these activities and enable the safe deployment of UAS into civil airspace, the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) has established a UAS regulatory framework that mandates the execution of safety risk assessment for UAS operations in order to gain authorization to carry out certain types of operations. Driven by this framework, the Joint Authorities for Rulemaking on Unmanned Systems (JARUS) released the Specific Operation Risk Assessment (SORA) methodology that guides the systematic risk assessment for UAS operations. However, existing work on SORA and its applications focuses mainly on single UAS operations, offering limited support for assuring operations conducted with multiple UAS and with autonomous features. Therefore, the work presented in this paper analyzes the application of SORA for a Multi-UAS airframe inspection (AFI) operation, that involves deploying multiple UAS with autonomous features inside an airport. We present the decision-making process of each SORA step and its application to a multiple UAS scenario. The results shows that the procedures and safety features included in the Multi-AFI operation such as workspace segmentation, the independent multi-UAS AFI crew proposed, and the mitigation actions provide confidence that the operation can be conducted safely and can receive a positive evaluation from the competent authorities. We also present our key findings from the application of SORA and discuss how it can be extended to better support multi-UAS operations. [less ▲]

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