References of "Diabetes Care"
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See detailJoining forces: a call for greater collaboration to study new medicines in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes.
Karres, Janina; Pratt, Valerie; Guettier, Jean-Marc et al

in Diabetes Care (2014), 37(10), 2665-2667

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See detailBreast-feeding and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a pooled analysis of individual participant data from 43 observational studies
Cardwell, C.R.; Stene, L.C.; Ludvigsson, J. et al

in Diabetes Care (2012), 35(11), 2215-2225

OBJECTIVE To investigate if there is a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in children breastfed or exclusively breastfed by performing a pooled analysis with adjustment for recognized confounders. RESEARCH ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE To investigate if there is a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in children breastfed or exclusively breastfed by performing a pooled analysis with adjustment for recognized confounders. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Relevant studies were identified from literature searches using MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Authors of relevant studies were asked to provide individual participant data or conduct prespecified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to combine odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS Data were available from 43 studies including 9,874 patients with type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was a reduction in the risk of diabetes after exclusive breast-feeding for >2 weeks (20 studies; OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.88), the association after exclusive breast-feeding for >3 months was weaker (30 studies; OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.75–1.00), and no association was observed after (nonexclusive) breast-feeding for >2 weeks (28 studies; OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.81–1.07) or >3 months (29 studies; OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78–1.00). These associations were all subject to marked heterogeneity (I2 = 58, 76, 54, and 68%, respectively). In studies with lower risk of bias, the reduced risk after exclusive breast-feeding for >2 weeks remained (12 studies; OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.75–0.99), and heterogeneity was reduced (I2 = 0%). Adjustments for potential confounders altered these estimates very little. CONCLUSIONS The pooled analysis suggests weak protective associations between exclusive breast-feeding and type 1 diabetes risk. However, these findings are difficult to interpret because of the marked variation in effect and possible biases (particularly recall bias) inherent in the included studies. [less ▲]

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See detailNew definition for the partial remission period in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes
Mortensen, H. B.; Hougaard, P.; Swift, P. et al

in Diabetes Care (2009), 32(8), 1384-1390

OBJECTIVE - To find a simple definition of partial remission in type 1 diabetes that reflects both residual β-cell function and efficacy of insulin treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 275 ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE - To find a simple definition of partial remission in type 1 diabetes that reflects both residual β-cell function and efficacy of insulin treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 275 patients aged <16 years were followed from onset of type 1 diabetes. After 1, 6, and 12 months, stimulated C-peptide during a challenge was used as a measure of residual β-cell function. RESULTS - By multiple regression analysis, a negative association between stimulated C-peptide and A1C (regression coefficient -0.21, P < 0.001) and insulin dose (-0.94, P < 0.001) was shown. These results suggested the definition of an insulin dose-adjusted A1C (IDAA1C) as A1C (percent) + [4 × insulin dose (units per kilogram per 24 h)]. A calculated IDAA1C ≤9 corresponding to a predicted stimulated C-peptide >300 pmol/l was used to define partial remission. The IDAA1C ≤9 had a significantly higher agreement (P < 0.001) with residual β-cell function than use of a definition of A1C ≤7.5%. Between 6 and 12 months after diagnosis, for IDAA1C ≤9 only 1 patient entered partial remission and 61 patients ended partial remission, for A1C ≤7.5% 15 patients entered partial remission and 53 ended, for a definition of insulin dose ≤0.5 units · kg-1 · 24 h-1 5 patients entered partial remission and 66 ended, and for stimulated C-peptide (>300 pmol/l) 9 patients entered partial remission and 49 ended. IDAA1C at 6 months has good predictive power for stimulated C-peptide concentrations after both 6 and 12 months. CONCLUSIONS - A new definition of partial remission is proposed, including both glycemic control and insulin dose. It reflects residual β-cell function and has better stability compared with the conventional definitions. © 2009 by the American Diabetes Association. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuing stability of center differences in pediatric diabetes care: do advances in diabetes treatment improve outcome? The Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes
De Beaufort, Carine UL; Swift, Peter G. F.; Skinner, Chas T. et al

in Diabetes Care (2007), 30(9), 2245-50

OBJECTIVE: To reevaluate the persistence and stability of previously observed differences between pediatric diabetes centers and to investigate the influence of demography, language communication problems ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To reevaluate the persistence and stability of previously observed differences between pediatric diabetes centers and to investigate the influence of demography, language communication problems, and changes in insulin regimens on metabolic outcome, hypoglycemia, and ketoacidosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional international study in 21 centers, with clinical data obtained from all participants and A1C levels assayed in one central laboratory. All individuals with diabetes aged 11-18 years (49.4% female), with duration of diabetes of at least 1 year, were invited to participate. Fourteen of the centers participated in previous Hvidoere Studies, allowing direct comparison of glycemic control across centers between 1998 and 2005. RESULTS: Mean A1C was 8.2 +/- 1.4%, with substantial variation between centers (mean A1C range 7.4-9.2%; P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between centers in rates of severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis. Language difficulties had a significant negative impact on metabolic outcome (A1C 8.5 +/- 2.0% vs. 8.2 +/- 1.4% for those with language difficulties vs. those without, respectively; P < 0.05). After adjustement for significant confounders of age, sex, duration of diabetes, insulin regimen, insulin dose, BMI, and language difficulties, the center differences persisted, and the effect size for center was not reduced. Relative center ranking since 1998 has remained stable, with no significant change in A1C. CONCLUSIONS: Despite many changes in diabetes management, major differences in metabolic outcome between 21 international pediatric diabetes centers persist. Different application between centers in the implementation of insulin treatment appears to be of more importance and needs further exploration. [less ▲]

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See detailPerinatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes in Europe. The EURODIAB Substudy 2 Study Group.
Dahlquist, G.G.; Patterson, C.; Soltesz, G. et al

in Diabetes Care (1999), 22(10), 1698-1702

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether perinatal factors are associated with the development of childhood type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied hospital records from 892 cases of childhood type ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether perinatal factors are associated with the development of childhood type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied hospital records from 892 cases of childhood type 1 diabetes compared with 2,291 population-based control subjects in seven study centers in Europe. RESULTS: In a pooled analysis incorporating stratification by center, we confirmed the previous findings that older maternal age, maternal preeclampsia, neonatal respiratory disease, and jaundice caused by blood group incompatibility are significant risk factors for type 1 diabetes, whereas being a firstborn child, having a low birth weight, or having a short birth length were protective. Cesarean section delivery and neonatal infectious diseases were not significantly associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes in this study. The strongest association was found for blood group incompatibility (AB0 and Rh factor) with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.96 (95% CI 1.88-4.65). AB0 incompatibility (OR = 3.92) was a more common and also a stronger risk factor than Rh incompatibility (OR = 1.62). The effect of AB0 blood group incompatibility was independent of treatment effects in logistical regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Different perinatal events are associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes. The effect of maternal-child blood group incompatibility is strong and indicates a true effect that must be further explored. [less ▲]

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See detailFluctuations in GAD65 antibodies after clinical diagnosis of IDDM in young children
Batstra, M. R.; Pina, M.; Quan, J. et al

in Diabetes Care (1997), 20(4), 642-644

OBJECTIVE - To investigate whether the presence of GAD antibodies at onset of IDDM correlates to a more aggressive rate of β-cell destruction after clinical onset. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We studied ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE - To investigate whether the presence of GAD antibodies at onset of IDDM correlates to a more aggressive rate of β-cell destruction after clinical onset. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We studied GAD antibodies at onset of disease, after 1 year, and after 6 years in 33 consecutively referred children (mean age 8.08, range 1.7-16.3). In a subset of 11 patients, GAD antibodies were studied very frequently. The correlation between GAD antibodies and clinical parameters, including glycosylated hemoglobin, residual insulin secretion, and insulin dosage, was evaluated. RESULTS - GAD antibody titers were highly variable. Four patients became GAD antibody positive weeks to years after clinical onset. Other patients switched between testing positive and negative for GAD antibodies shortly after clinical onset. No correlation was found between the presence of GAD antibodies and the rate of β-cell destruction, but patients with high GAD antibody indexes at onset had significantly higher glycosylated hemoglobin levels. CONCLUSIONS - GAD antibodies at clinical onset do not predict the rate of β-cell destruction in young children with newly diagnosed IDDM. The highly variable GAD antibody levels suggest variation of the autoimmune process. [less ▲]

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