References of "Cell Death and Disease"
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See detailFocal adhesion kinase plays a dual role in TRAIL resistance and metastatic outgrowth of malignant melanoma
Del Mistro, Greta; Riemann, Shamala; Schindler, Sebastian et al

in Cell Death and Disease (2022)

Despite remarkable advances in therapeutic interventions, malignant melanoma (MM) remains a life-threating disease. Following high initial response rates to targeted kinase-inhibition metastases quickly ... [more ▼]

Despite remarkable advances in therapeutic interventions, malignant melanoma (MM) remains a life-threating disease. Following high initial response rates to targeted kinase-inhibition metastases quickly acquire resistance and present with enhanced tumor progression and invasion, demanding alternative treatment options. We show 2nd generation hexameric TRAIL-receptor-agonist IZI1551 (IZI) to effectively induce apoptosis in MM cells irrespective of the intrinsic BRAF/NRAS mutation status. Conditioning to the EC50 dose of IZI converted the phenotype of IZI-sensitive parental MM cells into a fast proliferating and invasive, IZI-resistant metastasis. Mechanistically, we identified focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to play a dual role in phenotype-switching. In the cytosol, activated FAK triggers survival pathways in a PI3K- and MAPK-dependent manner. In the nucleus, the FERM domain of FAK prevents activation of wtp53, as being expressed in the majority of MM, and consequently intrinsic apoptosis. Caspase-8-mediated cleavage of FAK as well as FAK knockdown, and pharmacological inhibition, respectively, reverted the metastatic phenotype-switch and restored IZI responsiveness. FAK inhibition also re-sensitized MM cells isolated from patient metastasis that had relapsed from targeted kinase inhibition to cell death, irrespective of the intrinsic BRAF/NRAS mutation status. Hence, FAK-inhibition alone or in combination with 2nd generation TRAIL-receptor agonists may be recommended for treatment of initially resistant and relapsed MM, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailA Catalogus Immune Muris of the mouse immune responses to diverse pathogens
Del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL

in Cell Death and Disease (2021)

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See detailTetrahydrobenzimidazole TMQ0153 triggers apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis crosstalk in chronic myeloid leukemia
Song, S.; Lee, J.-Y.; Ermolenko, L. et al

in Cell Death and Disease (2020), 11(2),

By comparing imatinib-sensitive and -resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell models, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which tetrahydrobenzimidazole derivative TMQ0153 triggered caspase ... [more ▼]

By comparing imatinib-sensitive and -resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell models, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which tetrahydrobenzimidazole derivative TMQ0153 triggered caspase-dependent apoptosis at low concentrations accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increase of cytosolic free Ca2+ levels. Interestingly, at higher concentrations, TMQ0153 induced necroptotic cell death with accumulation of ROS, both preventable by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment. At necroptosis-inducing concentrations, we observed increased ROS and decreased ATP and GSH levels, concomitant with protective autophagy induction. Inhibitors such as bafilomycin A1 (baf-A1) and siRNA against beclin 1 abrogated autophagy, sensitized CML cells against TMQ0153 and enhanced necroptotic cell death. Importantly, TMQ153-induced necrosis led to cell surface exposure of calreticulin (CRT) and ERp57 as well as the release of extracellular ATP and high mobility group box (HMGB1) demonstrating the capacity of this compound to release immunogenic cell death (ICD) markers. We validated the anti-cancer potential of TMQ0153 by in vivo inhibition of K562 microtumor formation in zebrafish. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that cellular stress and redox modulation by TMQ0153 concentration-dependently leads to different cell death modalities including controlled necrosis in CML cell models. © 2020, The Author(s). [less ▲]

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See detailClinical update on head and neck cancer: molecular biology and ongoing challenges.
Alsahafi, Elham; Begg, Katheryn; Amelio, Ivano et al

in Cell Death and Disease (2019), 10(8), 540

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are an aggressive, genetically complex and difficult to treat group of cancers. In lieu of truly effective targeted therapies, surgery and radiotherapy ... [more ▼]

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are an aggressive, genetically complex and difficult to treat group of cancers. In lieu of truly effective targeted therapies, surgery and radiotherapy represent the primary treatment options for most patients. But these treatments are associated with significant morbidity and a reduction in quality of life. Resistance to both radiotherapy and the only available targeted therapy, and subsequent relapse are common. Research has therefore focussed on identifying biomarkers to stratify patients into clinically meaningful groups and to develop more effective targeted therapies. However, as we are now discovering, the poor response to therapy and aggressive nature of HNSCCs is not only affected by the complex alterations in intracellular signalling pathways but is also heavily influenced by the behaviour of the extracellular microenvironment. The HNSCC tumour landscape is an environment permissive of these tumours' aggressive nature, fostered by the actions of the immune system, the response to tumour hypoxia and the influence of the microbiome. Solving these challenges now rests on expanding our knowledge of these areas, in parallel with a greater understanding of the molecular biology of HNSCC subtypes. This update aims to build on our earlier 2014 review by bringing up to date our understanding of the molecular biology of HNSCCs and provide insights into areas of ongoing research and perspectives for the future. [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondrial proteolytic stress induced by loss of mortalin function is rescued by Parkin and PINK1.
Burbulla, L. F.; Fitzgerald, J. C.; Stegen, K. et al

in Cell Death and Disease (2014), 5

The mitochondrial chaperone mortalin was implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its reduced levels in the brains of PD patients and disease-associated rare genetic variants that failed to ... [more ▼]

The mitochondrial chaperone mortalin was implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its reduced levels in the brains of PD patients and disease-associated rare genetic variants that failed to rescue impaired mitochondrial integrity in cellular knockdown models. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying mortalin-related neurodegeneration, we dissected the cellular surveillance mechanisms related to mitochondrial quality control, defined the effects of reduced mortalin function at the molecular and cellular levels and investigated the functional interaction of mortalin with Parkin and PINK1, two PD-related proteins involved in mitochondrial homeostasis. We found that reduced mortalin function leads to: (1) activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), (2) increased susceptibility towards intramitochondrial proteolytic stress, (3) increased autophagic degradation of fragmented mitochondria and (4) reduced mitochondrial mass in human cells in vitro and ex vivo. These alterations caused increased vulnerability toward apoptotic cell death. Proteotoxic perturbations induced by either partial loss of mortalin or chemical induction were rescued by complementation with native mortalin, but not disease-associated mortalin variants, and were independent of the integrity of autophagic pathways. However, Parkin and PINK1 rescued loss of mortalin phenotypes via increased lysosomal-mediated mitochondrial clearance and required intact autophagic machinery. Our results on loss of mortalin function reveal a direct link between impaired mitochondrial proteostasis, UPR(mt) and PD and show that effective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria via either genetic (PINK1 and Parkin overexpression) or pharmacological intervention (rapamycin) may compensate mitochondrial phenotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulatory feedback loop between TP73 and TRIM32.
Gonzalez-Cano, L.; Hillje, Anna-Lena UL; Fuertes-Alvarez, S. et al

in Cell Death and Disease (2013), 4

The p73 transcription factor is one of the members of the p53 family of tumor suppressors with unique biological functions in processes like neurogenesis, embryonic development and differentiation. For ... [more ▼]

The p73 transcription factor is one of the members of the p53 family of tumor suppressors with unique biological functions in processes like neurogenesis, embryonic development and differentiation. For this reason, p73 activity is tightly regulated by multiple mechanisms, including transcription and post-translational modifications. Here, we identified a novel regulatory loop between TAp73 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32). TRIM32, a new direct p73 transcriptional target in the context of neural progenitor cells, is differentially regulated by p73. Although TAp73 binds to the TRIM32 promoter and activates its expression, TAp73-induced TRIM32 expression is efficiently repressed by DNp73. TRIM32 in turn physically interacts with TAp73 and promotes its ubiquitination and degradation, impairing p73-dependent transcriptional activity. This mutual regulation between p73 and TRIM32 constitutes a novel feedback loop, which might have important implications in central nervous system development as well as relevance in oncogenesis, and thus emerges as a possible therapeutic target. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptional and metabolic adaptation of human neurons to the mitochondrial toxicant MPP(+).
Krug, AK.; Gutbier, S.; Zhao, L. et al

in Cell Death and Disease (2013)

Assessment of the network of toxicity pathways by Omics technologies and bioinformatic data processing paves the road toward a new toxicology for the twenty-first century. Especially, the upstream network ... [more ▼]

Assessment of the network of toxicity pathways by Omics technologies and bioinformatic data processing paves the road toward a new toxicology for the twenty-first century. Especially, the upstream network of responses, taking place in toxicanttreated cells before a point of no return is reached, is still little explored. We studied the effects of the model neurotoxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPPþ) by a combined metabolomics (mass spectrometry) and transcriptomics (microarrays and deep sequencing) approach to provide unbiased data on earliest cellular adaptations to stress. Neural precursor cells (LUHMES) were differentiated to homogeneous cultures of fully postmitotic human dopaminergic neurons, and then exposed to the mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor MPPþ (5 lM). At 18–24 h after treatment, intracellular ATP and mitochondrial integrity were still close to control levels, but pronounced transcriptome and metabolome changes were seen. Data on altered glucose flux, depletion of phosphocreatine and oxidative stress (e.g., methionine sulfoxide formation) confirmed the validity of the approach. New findings were related to nuclear paraspeckle depletion, as well as an early activation of branches of the transsulfuration pathway to increase glutathione. Bioinformatic analysis of our data identified the transcription factor ATF-4 as an upstream regulator of early responses. Findings on this signaling pathway and on adaptive increases of glutathione production were confirmed biochemically. Metabolic and transcriptional profiling contributed complementary information on multiple primary and secondary changes that contribute to the cellular response to MPPþ. Thus, combined ‘Omics’ analysis is a new unbiased approach to unravel earliest metabolic changes, whose balance decides on the final cell fate. [less ▲]

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See detailTRIM32-dependent transcription in adult neural progenitor cells regulates neuronal differentiation
Hillje, Anna-Lena UL; Pavlou, Maria Angeliki UL; Beckmann, Elisabeth et al

in Cell Death and Disease (2013)

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See detailPPARγ population shift produces disease-related changes in molecular networks associated with metabolic syndrome
Jurkowski, Wiktor UL; Roomp, Kirsten UL; Crespo, Isaac UL et al

in Cell Death and Disease (2011), 2(8), 192

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and has an important role in metabolic syndrome. Phosphorylation of the receptor's ligand-binding ... [more ▼]

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and has an important role in metabolic syndrome. Phosphorylation of the receptor's ligand-binding domain at serine 273 has been shown to change the expression of a large number of genes implicated in obesity. The difference in gene expression seen when comparing wild-type phosphorylated with mutant non-phosphorylated PPARγ may have important consequences for the cellular molecular network, the state of which can be shifted from the healthy to a stable diseased state. We found that a group of differentially expressed genes are involved in bi-stable switches and form a core network, the state of which changes with disease progression. These findings support the idea that bi-stable switches may be a mechanism for locking the core gene network into a diseased state and for efficiently propagating perturbations to more distant regions of the network. A structural analysis of the PPARγ-RXRα dimer complex supports the hypothesis of a major structural change between the two states, and this may represent an important mechanism leading to the differential expression observed in the core network. [less ▲]

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