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See detailElaiophylin Is a Potent Hsp90/ Cdc37 Protein Interface Inhibitor with K-Ras Nanocluster Selectivity
Siddiqui, Farid A.; Vukic, Vladimir; Salminen, Tiina A. et al

in Biomolecules (2021)

The natural product elaiophylin is a macrodiolide with a broad range of biological activities. However, no direct target of elaiophylin in eukaryotes has been described so far, which hinders a systematic ... [more ▼]

The natural product elaiophylin is a macrodiolide with a broad range of biological activities. However, no direct target of elaiophylin in eukaryotes has been described so far, which hinders a systematic explanation of its astonishing activity range. We recently showed that the related conglobatin A, a protein–protein interface inhibitor of the interaction between the N-terminus of Hsp90 and its cochaperone Cdc37, blocks cancer stem cell properties by selectively inhibiting K-Ras4B but not H-Ras. Here, we elaborated that elaiophylin likewise disrupts the Hsp90/ Cdc37 interaction, without affecting the ATP-pocket of Hsp90. Similarly to conglobatin A, elaiophylin decreased expression levels of the Hsp90 client HIF1 , a transcription factor with various downstream targets, including galectin-3. Galectin-3 is a nanocluster scaffold of K-Ras, which explains the K-Ras selectivity of Hsp90 inhibitors. In agreement with this K-Ras targeting and the potent effect on other Hsp90 clients, we observed with elaiophylin treatment a submicromolar IC50 for MDA-MB-231 and MIAPaCa-2 3D spheroid formation. Finally, a strong inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cells grown in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) microtumor model was determined. These results suggest that several other macrodiolides may have the Hsp90/ Cdc37 interface as a target site. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and Its Relation to Cell Shape and Rigidity of Red Blood Cells from Chorea-Acanthocytosis Patients in an Off-Label Treatment with Dasatinib.
Rabe, Antonia; Kihm, Alexander; Darras, Alexis et al

in Biomolecules (2021), 11(5),

BACKGROUND: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disease with deformed red blood cells (RBCs), so-called acanthocytes, as a typical marker of the disease. Erythrocyte ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disease with deformed red blood cells (RBCs), so-called acanthocytes, as a typical marker of the disease. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was recently proposed as a diagnostic biomarker. To date, there is no treatment option for affected patients, but promising therapy candidates, such as dasatinib, a Lyn-kinase inhibitor, have been identified. METHODS: RBCs of two ChAc patients during and after dasatinib treatment were characterized by the ESR, clinical hematology parameters and the 3D shape classification in stasis based on an artificial neural network. Furthermore, mathematical modeling was performed to understand the contribution of cell morphology and cell rigidity to the ESR. Microfluidic measurements were used to compare the RBC rigidity between ChAc patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: The mechano-morphological characterization of RBCs from two ChAc patients in an off-label treatment with dasatinib revealed differences in the ESR and the acanthocyte count during and after the treatment period, which could not directly be related to each other. Clinical hematology parameters were in the normal range. Mathematical modeling indicated that RBC rigidity is more important for delayed ESR than cell shape. Microfluidic experiments confirmed a higher rigidity in the normocytes of ChAc patients compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The results increase our understanding of the role of acanthocytes and their associated properties in the ESR, but the data are too sparse to answer the question of whether the ESR is a suitable biomarker for treatment success, whereas a correlation between hematological and neuronal phenotype is still subject to verification. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of Ras Membrane Organization and Signaling: Ras Rocks Again.
Abankwa, Daniel UL; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

in Biomolecules (2020), 10(11),

Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene and recent drug development efforts have spurred significant new research interest. Here we review progress toward understanding how Ras functions in nanoscale ... [more ▼]

Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene and recent drug development efforts have spurred significant new research interest. Here we review progress toward understanding how Ras functions in nanoscale, proteo-lipid signaling complexes on the plasma membrane, called nanoclusters. We discuss how G-domain reorientation is plausibly linked to Ras-nanoclustering and -dimerization. We then look at how these mechanistic features could cooperate in the engagement and activation of RAF by Ras. Moreover, we show how this structural information can be integrated with microscopy data that provide nanoscale resolution in cell biological experiments. Synthesizing the available data, we propose to distinguish between two types of Ras nanoclusters, an active, immobile RAF-dependent type and an inactive/neutral membrane anchor-dependent. We conclude that it is possible that Ras reorientation enables dynamic Ras dimerization while the whole Ras/RAF complex transits into an active state. These transient di/oligomer interfaces of Ras may be amenable to pharmacological intervention. We close by highlighting a number of open questions including whether all effectors form active nanoclusters and whether there is an isoform specific composition of Ras nanocluster. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of Fibrinogen Macromolecules Interaction with Red Blood Cells Membrane by Means of Laser Aggregometry, Flow Cytometry, and Optical Tweezers Combined with Microfluidics
Semenov, Alexey N.; Lugovtsov, Andrei E.; Shirshin, Evgeny A. et al

in BIOMOLECULES (2020)

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