References of "Attention, perception & psychophysics"
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See detailTechnology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking.
Cardoso-Leite, Pedro UL; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca et al

in Attention, perception & psychophysics (2016), 78(1), 218-41

Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such ... [more ▼]

Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control. [less ▲]

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See detailSummation versus suppression in metacontrast masking: On the potential pitfalls of using metacontrast masking to assess perceptual-motor dissociation.
Cardoso-Leite, Pedro UL; Waszak, Florian

in Attention, perception & psychophysics (2014), 76(5), 1403-13

A briefly flashed target stimulus can become "invisible" when immediately followed by a mask-a phenomenon known as backward masking, which constitutes a major tool in the cognitive sciences. One form of ... [more ▼]

A briefly flashed target stimulus can become "invisible" when immediately followed by a mask-a phenomenon known as backward masking, which constitutes a major tool in the cognitive sciences. One form of backward masking is termed metacontrast masking. It is generally assumed that in metacontrast masking, the mask suppresses activity on which the conscious perception of the target relies. This assumption biases conclusions when masking is used as a tool-for example, to study the independence between perceptual detection and motor reaction. This is because other models can account for reduced perceptual performance without requiring suppression mechanisms. In this study, we used signal detection theory to test the suppression model against an alternative view of metacontrast masking, referred to as the summation model. This model claims that target- and mask-related activations fuse and that the difficulty in detecting the target results from the difficulty to discriminate this fused response from the response produced by the mask alone. Our data support this alternative view. This study is not a thorough investigation of metacontrast masking. Instead, we wanted to point out that when a different model is used to account for the reduced perceptual performance in metacontrast masking, there is no need to postulate a dissociation between perceptual and motor responses to account for the data. Metacontrast masking, as implemented in the Fehrer-Raab situation, therefore is not a valid method to assess perceptual-motor dissociations. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of perceptual and motor latencies via anticipatory and reactive response times.
Cardoso-Leite, Pedro UL; Mamassian, Pascal; Gorea, Andrei

in Attention, perception & psychophysics (2009), 71(1), 82-94

To compare the timing of perceptual and motor decisions, distinct tasks have been designed, all of which have yielded systematic differences between these two moments. These observations have been taken ... [more ▼]

To compare the timing of perceptual and motor decisions, distinct tasks have been designed, all of which have yielded systematic differences between these two moments. These observations have been taken as evidence of a sensorimotor dissociation. Inasmuch as the distinction between perceptual and motor decision moments is conceptually warranted, this conclusion remains debatable, since the observed differences may reflect the dissimilarity between the stimulations/tasks used to assess them. Here, we minimize such dissimilarities by comparing response time (RT) and anticipatory RT (ART), an alternative technique with which to infer the relative perceptual decision moments. Observers pressed a key either in synchrony with the third of a sequence of three stimuli appearing at a constant pace (ART) or in response to the onset of this third stimulus presented at a random interval after the second (RT). Hence, the two stimulation sequences were virtually identical. Both the mean and the variance of RT were affected by stimulus intensity about 1.5 times more than were the mean and the variance of ART. Within the framework of two simple integration-to-bound models, these findings are compatible with the hypothesis that perceptual and motor decisions operate on the same internal signal but are based on distinct criteria, with the perceptual criterion lower than the motor one. [less ▲]

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