References of "Artificial Intelligence and Law"
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See detailOn Rational Entailment for Propositional Typicality Logic
Booth, Richard; Casini, Giovanni UL; Meyer, Thomas et al

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (in press)

Propositional Typicality Logic (PTL) is a recently proposed logic, ob- tained by enriching classical propositional logic with a typicality opera- tor capturing the most typical (alias normal or ... [more ▼]

Propositional Typicality Logic (PTL) is a recently proposed logic, ob- tained by enriching classical propositional logic with a typicality opera- tor capturing the most typical (alias normal or conventional) situations in which a given sentence holds. The semantics of PTL is in terms of ranked models as studied in the well-known KLM approach to preferen- tial reasoning and therefore KLM-style rational consequence relations can be embedded in PTL. In spite of the non-monotonic features introduced by the semantics adopted for the typicality operator, the obvious Tarskian definition of entailment for PTL remains monotonic and is therefore not appropriate in many contexts. Our first important result is an impossibil- ity theorem showing that a set of proposed postulates that at first all seem appropriate for a notion of entailment with regard to typicality cannot be satisfied simultaneously. Closer inspection reveals that this result is best interpreted as an argument for advocating the development of more than one type of PTL entailment. In the spirit of this interpretation, we in- vestigate three different (semantic) versions of entailment for PTL, each one based on the definition of rational closure as introduced by Lehmann and Magidor for KLM-style conditionals, and constructed using different notions of minimality. [less ▲]

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See detailPopulating legal ontologies using semantic role labeling
Humphreys, Llio; Boella, Guido; van der Torre, Leon UL et al

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2020)

This paper is concerned with the goal of maintaining legal information and compliance systems: the ‘resource consumption bottleneck’ of creating semantic technologies manually. The use of automated ... [more ▼]

This paper is concerned with the goal of maintaining legal information and compliance systems: the ‘resource consumption bottleneck’ of creating semantic technologies manually. The use of automated information extraction techniques could significantly reduce this bottleneck. The research question of this paper is: How to address the resource bottleneck problem of creating specialist knowledge management systems? In particular, how to semi-automate the extraction of norms and their elements to populate legal ontologies? This paper shows that the acquisition paradox can be addressed by combining state-of-the-art general-purpose NLP modules with pre- and post-processing using rules based on domain knowledge. It describes a Semantic Role Labeling based information extraction system to extract norms from legislation and represent them as structured norms in legal ontologies. The output is intended to help make laws more accessible, understandable, and searchable in legal document management systems such as Eunomos (Boella et al., 2016). [less ▲]

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See detailIntention as commitment toward time
van Zee, Marc; Doder, Dragan; van der Torre, Leon UL et al

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2020), 283

In this paper we address the interplay among intention, time, and belief in dynamic environments. The first contribution is a logic for reasoning about intention, time and belief, in which assumptions of ... [more ▼]

In this paper we address the interplay among intention, time, and belief in dynamic environments. The first contribution is a logic for reasoning about intention, time and belief, in which assumptions of intentions are represented by preconditions of intended actions. Intentions and beliefs are coherent as long as these assumptions are not violated, i.e. as long as intended actions can be performed such that their preconditions hold as well. The second contribution is the formalization of what-if scenarios: what happens with intentions and beliefs if a new (possibly conflicting) intention is adopted, or a new fact is learned? An agent is committed to its intended actions as long as its belief-intention database is coherent. We conceptualize intention as commitment toward time and we develop AGM-based postulates for the iterated revision of belief-intention databases, and we prove a Katsuno-Mendelzon-style representation theorem. [less ▲]

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See detailDesigning normative theories for ethical and legal reasoning: LogiKEy framework, methodology, and tool support
Benzmüller, Christoph; Parent, Xavier; van der Torre, Leon UL

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2020), 287

A framework and methodology|termed LogiKEy|for the design and engineering of ethical reasoners, normative theories and deontic logics is presented. The overall motivation is the development of suitable ... [more ▼]

A framework and methodology|termed LogiKEy|for the design and engineering of ethical reasoners, normative theories and deontic logics is presented. The overall motivation is the development of suitable means for the control and governance of intelligent autonomous systems. LogiKEy's unifying formal framework is based on semantical embeddings of deontic logics, logic combinations and ethico-legal domain theories in expressive classic higher-order logic (HOL). This meta-logical approach enables the provision of powerful tool support in LogiKEy: off-the-shelf theorem provers and model finders for HOL are assisting the LogiKEy designer of ethical intelligent agents to flexibly experiment with underlying logics and their combinations, with ethico-legal domain theories, and with concrete examples|all at the same time. Continuous improvements of these off-the-shelf provers, without further ado, leverage the reasoning performance in LogiKEy. Case studies, in which the LogiKEy framework and methodology has been applied and tested, give evidence that HOL's undecidability often does not hinder e fficient experimentation. [less ▲]

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See detailNatural Strategic Ability
Jamroga, Wojciech UL; Malvone, Vadim; Murano, Aniello

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2019), 277

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See detailApproximate Verification of Strategic Abilities under Imperfect Information
Jamroga, Wojciech UL; Knapik, Micha L; Kurpiewski, Damian et al

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2019), 277

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See detailEunomos, a legal document and knowledge management system for the Web to provide relevant, reliable and up-to-date information on the Law
Boella, Guido; Di Caro, Luigi; Humphreys, Llio UL et al

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2016)

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See detailOn the Input/Output behavior of argumentation frameworks
Baroni, Pietro; Boella, Guido; Cerutti, Federico et al

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2014)

This paper tackles the fundamental questions arising when looking at argumentation frameworks as interacting components, characterized by an Input/Output behavior, rather than as isolated monolithical ... [more ▼]

This paper tackles the fundamental questions arising when looking at argumentation frameworks as interacting components, characterized by an Input/Output behavior, rather than as isolated monolithical entities. This modeling stance arises naturally in some application contexts, like multi-agent systems, but, more importantly, has a crucial impact on several general application-independent issues, like argumentation dynamics, argument summarization and explanation, incremental computation, and inter-formalism translation. Pursuing this research direction, the paper introduces a general modeling approach and provides a comprehensive set of theoretical results putting the intuitive notion of Input/Output behavior of argumentation frameworks on a solid formal ground. This is achieved by combining three main ingredients. First, several novel notions are introduced at the representation level, notably those of argumentation framework with input, of argumentation multipole, and of replacement of multipoles within a traditional argumentation framework. Second, several relevant features of argumentation semantics are identified and formally characterized. In particular, the canonical local function provides an input-aware semantics characterization and a suite of decomposability properties are introduced, concerning the correspondences between semantics outcomes at global and local level. The third ingredient glues the former ones, as it consists of the investigation of some semantics-dependent properties of the newly introduced entities, namely S-equivalence of multipoles, S-legitimacy and S-safeness of replacements, and transparency of a semantics with respect to replacements. Altogether they provide the basis and draw the limits of sound interchangeability of multipoles within traditional frameworks. The paper develops an extensive analysis of all the concepts listed above, covering seven well-known literature semantics and taking into account various, more or less constrained, ways of partitioning an argumentation framework. Diverse examples, taken from the literature, are used to illustrate the application of the results obtained and, finally, an extensive discussion of the related literature is provided. [less ▲]

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See detailContrary to time conditionals in Talmudic logic
Abraham, Michael; Gabbay, Dov M. UL; Schild, Uri J.

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2012), 20(2), 145--179

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See detailObligations and prohibitions in Talmudic deontic logic
Abraham, Michael; Gabbay, Dov M. UL; Schild, Uri J.

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2011), 19(2-3), 117148

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See detailA dynamic logic for privacy compliance
Aucher, Guillaume UL; Boella, Guido; van der Torre, Leon UL

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2011)

Knowledge based privacy policies are more declarative than traditional action based ones, because they specify only what is permitted or forbidden to know, and leave the derivation of the permitted ... [more ▼]

Knowledge based privacy policies are more declarative than traditional action based ones, because they specify only what is permitted or forbidden to know, and leave the derivation of the permitted actions to a security monitor. This inference problem is already non trivial with a static privacy policy, and becomes challenging when privacy policies can change over time. We therefore introduce a dynamic modal logic that permits not only to reason about permitted and forbidden knowledge to derive the permitted actions, but also to represent explicitly the declarative privacy policies together with their dynamics. The logic can be used to check both regulatory and behavioral compliance, respectively by checking that the permissions and obligations set up by the security monitor of an organization are not in conflict with the privacy policies, and by checking that these obligations are indeed enforced. [less ▲]

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See detailMoral particularism in the light of deontic logic
Parent, Xavier UL

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2011), 19(2-3), 75-98

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See detailInstitutions with a hierarchy of authorities in distributed dynamic environments
Boella, Guido; van der Torre, Leon UL

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2008), 16(1), 5371

A single global authority is not sufficient to regulate heterogenous agents in multiagent systems based on distributed architectures, due to idiosyncratic local situations and to the need to regulate new ... [more ▼]

A single global authority is not sufficient to regulate heterogenous agents in multiagent systems based on distributed architectures, due to idiosyncratic local situations and to the need to regulate new issues as soon as they arise. On the one hand institutions should be structured as normative systems with a hierarchy of authorities able to cope with the dynamics of local situations, but on the other hand higher authorities should be able to delimit the autonomy of lower authorities to issue valid norms. In this paper, we study the interplay of obligations and strong permissions in the context of hierarchies of authorities using input/output logic, because its explicit norm base facilitates reasoning about norm base maintenance, and it covers a variety of conditional obligations and permissions. We combine the logic with constraints, priorities and hierarchies of authorities. In this setting, we observe that Makinson and van der Torre’s notion of prohibition immunity for permissions is no longer sufficient, and we introduce a new notion of permission as exception and a new distinction between static and dynamic norms. We show how strong permissions can dynamically change an institution by adding exceptions to obligations, provide an explicit representation of what is permitted to the subjects of the normative system and allow higher level authorities to limit the power of lower level authorities to change the normative system [less ▲]

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See detailThe ontological properties of social roles in multi-agent systems: Definitional dependence, powers and roles playing roles
van der Torre, Leon UL; Boella, Guido

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2007), 15(3), 201221

In this paper we address the problem of defining social roles in multi-agent systems. Social roles provide the basic structure of social institutions and organizations. We start from the properties ... [more ▼]

In this paper we address the problem of defining social roles in multi-agent systems. Social roles provide the basic structure of social institutions and organizations. We start from the properties attributed to roles both in the multi-agent systems and the Object Oriented community, and we use them in an ontological analysis of the notion of social role. We identify three main properties of social roles. First, they are definitionally dependent on the institution they belong to, i.e. the definition of a role is given inside the definition of the institution. Second, they attribute powers to the agents playing them, like creating commitments for the institutions and the other roles. Third, they allow roles to play roles, in the same way as agents do. Using Input/Output logics, we propose a formalization of roles in multi-agent systems satisfying the three properties we identified. [less ▲]

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