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See detailThe gambling craving experience questionnaire: Psychometric properties of a new scale based on the elaborated intrusion theory of desire
Cornil, Aurélien; Long, Jiang; Rothen, Stéphane et al

in Addictive Behaviors (2019), 95

Both research and clinical practice acknowledge the importance of craving as a maintenance and relapse factor in gambling disorder. The elaborated intrusion theory (EIT; Kavanagh et al., 2005) of desire ... [more ▼]

Both research and clinical practice acknowledge the importance of craving as a maintenance and relapse factor in gambling disorder. The elaborated intrusion theory (EIT; Kavanagh et al., 2005) of desire has been extensively investigated in relation to psychoactive substance or food cravings but, to date, has scarcely been studied in relation to gambling. In such a context, developing an assessment tool of gambling craving based on the EIT is warranted. To fill this gap in the literature, we aimed to develop and test the psychometric properties of a gambling-adapted version of the Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ; May et al., 2014), which is the best established measure of craving theoretically anchored in the EIT. An online survey that included the gambling CEQ (g-CEQ) and a craving induction procedure was administered to 274 community participants involved in gambling at least a few times a year. Concurrent and convergent validity were explored through correlations with a scale that measured gambling urge and with a series of questionnaires that measured disordered gambling symptoms, gambling cognitions, and gambling motives. The confirmatory factor analyses supported the validity of the expected three-factor model of the “strength” and “frequency” forms of the g-CEQ and showed better model fit than a one-factor solution, corroborating the initial structure of the CEQ. Furthermore, the scale has good internal consistency and its validity is supported by correlations with gambling-related constructs. The g-CEQ is thus a theoretically and psychometrically sound instrument to measure gambling craving based on the EIT. [less ▲]

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See detailPassion or addiction ? Correlates of healthy versus problematic use of videogames in a sample of French-speaking regular gamers
Deleuze, Jory; Long, Jiang; Liu, Tie-Qiao et al

in Addictive Behaviors (2018), 82

A criticism of current diagnostic approaches to gaming disorder is that they fail to take into account that high and repeated engagement is not problematic per se, nor is it necessarily associated with ... [more ▼]

A criticism of current diagnostic approaches to gaming disorder is that they fail to take into account that high and repeated engagement is not problematic per se, nor is it necessarily associated with adverse consequences. To tackle this controversy, we used confirmatory factor analysis to test, in regular gamers (N = 268), whether high (but healthy) engagement can be distinguished from problematic engagement by using the Addiction-Engagement Questionnaire (Charlton & Danforth, 2007). We then tested whether differential relationships exist between the engagement and addiction constructs, DSM-5 criteria for Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and psychological factors linked to gaming use and misuse (self-reported impulsivity, motives to play, and depression). Results indicated that a model holding engagement and addiction as two distinct, but related, constructs fits the data well. Second, we showed that although both constructs are linked to the number of IGD criteria endorsed, the relationship is more pronounced for the addiction construct. Third, a differential pattern of correlations was observed with the other study variables, further supporting the need to distinguish the two constructs. Our study emphasizes that research is needed to refine the diagnostic approach to gaming disorder to avoid conflating healthy passion with pathological behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic cybersex: Conceptualization, assessment, and treatment.
Wery, A.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Addictive Behaviors (2017), 64

Problematic involvement in cybersex is generally considered to be an excessive and uncontrolled use of online sexual activities associated with tangible negative outcomes and functional impairment. To ... [more ▼]

Problematic involvement in cybersex is generally considered to be an excessive and uncontrolled use of online sexual activities associated with tangible negative outcomes and functional impairment. To date, there is no consensus in the literature regarding the conceptualization and labeling of this disorder, or of its diagnosis and assessment (e.g., screening questionnaires and diagnostic criteria). Through a systematic examination of the literature, we emphasize that problematic cybersex is an umbrella construct that regroups various types of distinct dysfunctional online behaviors. Despite a considerable increase in studies on problematic cybersex, no clear diagnostic guidelines exist for clinicians and researchers. Moreover, the factors involved in the development and maintenance of the disorder remain poorly examined, and the evidence regarding valid assessment and treatment are lacking. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnological addictions: Conceptualisation, measurement, etiology and treatment.
Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Addictive behaviors (2017), 64

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See detailTraumatic experiences, alexithymia, and Internet addiction symptoms among late adolescents: A moderated mediation analysis.
Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Caretti, Vincenzo et al

in Addictive behaviors (2017), 64

The association between traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and substance abuse is well established. Less is known about the role of traumatic experiences and alexithymia in the onset and maintenance of ... [more ▼]

The association between traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and substance abuse is well established. Less is known about the role of traumatic experiences and alexithymia in the onset and maintenance of Internet-related disorders. In the present study, self-report measures on traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and problematic Internet use were administered to 358 high school students (57% females) aged 18-19years old, to test whether alexithymic traits mediated the relationship between traumatic experiences and Internet addiction symptoms, and whether gender moderated the proposed mediation in the sample. While partial mediation occurred in the entire sample, gender directly affected the relationship between the investigated constructs: Internet addiction symptoms were independently related to traumatic experiences among males, and to alexithymic traits among females. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that trauma memories among males, and problems with affect regulation among females, may increase the risk of problematic Internet use during late adolescence. Such findings might have relevant implications to inform any treatment plan for late adolescent students who are overinvolved with online activities, pointing out that tailored approaches to their problems and difficulties are particularly needed in clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evolution of Internet addiction: A global perspective.
Griffiths, Mark D.; Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Addictive behaviors (2016), 53

Kimberly Young's initial work on Internet addiction (IA) was pioneering and her early writings on the topic inspired many others to carry out research in the area. Young's (2015) recent paper on the ... [more ▼]

Kimberly Young's initial work on Internet addiction (IA) was pioneering and her early writings on the topic inspired many others to carry out research in the area. Young's (2015) recent paper on the 'evolution of Internet addiction' featured very little European research, and did not consider the main international evidence that has contributed to our current knowledge about the conceptualization, epidemiology, etiology, and course of Internet-related disorders. This short commentary paper elaborates on important literature omitted by Young that the present authors believe may be of use to researchers. We also address statements made in Young's (2015) commentary that are incorrect (and therefore misleading) and not systematically substantiated by empirical evidence. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond fear appeals: Contradicting positive smoking outcome expectancies to influence smokers' implicit attitudes, perception, and behavior.
Glock, Sabine UL; Unz, Dagmar; Kovacs, Carrie UL

in Addictive Behaviors (2012), 37

Smokers often have (implicit or explicit) positive smoking outcome expectancies that motivate them to smoke. For instance, they may feel that smoking is relaxing, that it improves concentration, or that ... [more ▼]

Smokers often have (implicit or explicit) positive smoking outcome expectancies that motivate them to smoke. For instance, they may feel that smoking is relaxing, that it improves concentration, or that it is seen as cool and attractive by peers. These expectations are, for the most part, illusory. In order to counteract these expectations, we designed cigarette package warning labels that contradicted common positive outcome expectancies. We investigated the effectiveness of our new warning labels in two experiments. We first measured smokers' implicit attitudes toward smoking using an affective priming method and found that our new warning labels changed positive attitudes into ambivalent attitudes. We then tested whether our warning labels changed smokers' self-reported positive outcome expectancies and smoking behavior. Smokers presented with the new warning labels immediately associated positive outcome expectancies less strongly with smoking and reported smoking fewer cigarettes in the 24 hours following the experiment. Explicitly taking the reasons for unhealthy behavior into account when trying to change people's habits could offer a valuable contribution to effective health campaigns. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich dimensions of impulsivity are related to cigarette craving?
Billieux, Joël UL; Van der Linden, Martial; Ceschi, Grazia

in Addictive behaviors (2007), 32(6), 1189-99

Cigarette smoking is a very important health problem and represents the largest preventable risk factor for premature death in developed countries. A considerable body of research indicates that ... [more ▼]

Cigarette smoking is a very important health problem and represents the largest preventable risk factor for premature death in developed countries. A considerable body of research indicates that impulsivity is a central etiological concept in many theoretical models of tobacco addiction. The aim of this study is to analyse which dimensions of impulsivity are related to cigarette craving. To this end, 40 undergraduate psychology students were screened using the revised Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU-12) and the French adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS). This scale identifies four distinct components associated with impulsive behaviour: urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. The results showed that urgency is a significant predictor of tobacco cravings, while depression and anxiety are not. [less ▲]

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