References of "Addiction"
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See detailA transdiagnostic dimensional approach towards a neuropsychological assessment for addiction: an international Delphi consensus study.
Yucel, Murat; Oldenhof, Erin; Ahmed, Serge et al

in Addiction (2019), 114(6), 1095-1109

BACKGROUND: The U.S. National Institutes of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) seek to stimulate research into biologically validated neuropsychological dimensions across mental illness ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The U.S. National Institutes of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) seek to stimulate research into biologically validated neuropsychological dimensions across mental illness symptoms and diagnoses. The RDoC framework comprises 39 functional constructs designed to be revised and refined, with the overall goal to improve diagnostic validity and treatments. This study aimed to reach a consensus among experts in the addiction field on the 'primary' RDoC constructs most relevant to substance and behavioural addictions. METHODS: Forty-four addiction experts were recruited from Australia, Asia, Europe and the Americas. The Delphi technique was used to determine a consensus as to the degree of importance of each construct in understanding the essential dimensions underpinning addictive behaviours. Expert opinions were canvassed online over three rounds (97% completion rate), with each consecutive round offering feedback for experts to review their opinions. RESULTS: Seven constructs were endorsed by >/=80% of experts as 'primary' to the understanding of addictive behaviour: five from the Positive Valence System (Reward Valuation, Expectancy, Action Selection, Reward Learning, Habit); one from the Cognitive Control System (Response Selection/Inhibition); and one expert-initiated construct (Compulsivity). These constructs were rated to be differentially related to stages of the addiction cycle, with some more closely linked to addiction onset, and others more to chronicity. Experts agreed that these neuropsychological dimensions apply across a range of addictions. CONCLUSIONS: The study offers a novel and neuropsychologically informed theoretical framework, as well as a cogent step forward to test transdiagnostic concepts in addiction research, with direct implications for assessment, diagnosis, staging of disorder, and treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe benefits of using the UPPS model of impulsivity rather than the Big Five when assessing the relationship between personality and problem gambling.
Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta et al

in Addiction (2017), 112(2), 372-373

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See detailBehavioural Addiction Open Definition 2.0 – Using the open science framework for collaborative and transparent theoretical development
Billieux, Joël UL; Van Rooij, Antonius J; Heeren, Alexandre et al

in Addiction (2017), 112(10), 1723-1724

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See detailHow can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?
Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel; Heeren, Alexandre; Schimmenti, Adriano et al

in Addiction (2017), 112(10), 1709-1715

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and ... [more ▼]

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework. [less ▲]

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See detailGambling and problem gambling in Switzerland.
Billieux, Joël UL; Achab, Sophia; Savary, Jean-Felix et al

in Addiction (2016), 111(9), 1677-83

AIMS: To provide an overview of gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland, including historical aspects, past and current legislation and policies, treatment options and the research base. METHODS: A ... [more ▼]

AIMS: To provide an overview of gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland, including historical aspects, past and current legislation and policies, treatment options and the research base. METHODS: A literature search was conducted on two databases (PubMed and PsycINFO), and official government and statistical reports selected from the official websites of four sources (Federal Office of Justice; Federal Gambling Board; Federal Office of Statistics; Swiss Lottery and Betting Board). RESULTS: After a history of banning or partial banning, Swiss gambling became regulated at the beginning of the 20th century through successive laws. The current system is characterized by important differences in the law and policies for casinos and lotteries, and contradictions in the regulation of these two areas are still under debate in order to develop new legislation. Gambling is widespread in Switzerland, and the prevalence of problem gambling in this country was comparable to that in other European countries in 2014. Most gambling treatment facilities are integrated into mental health treatment services that have out-patient programmes, and treatment for problem gambling is covered by a universal compulsory Swiss health insurance system. The availability of public funding for gambling research is still limited. CONCLUSIONS: Switzerland needs to develop a more coherent regulatory and prevention policy approach to gambling, overcoming conflicts in the current dual system of federal and cantonal regulation. Recent efforts to enhance funding for gambling research are promising, and could lead to a more systematic analysis of the efficacy of prevention and treatment programmes. [less ▲]

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