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See detailDevelopment of a Cued Pro- and Antisaccade Paradigm: An Indirect Measure to Explore Automatic Components of Sexual Interest
Oberlader, Verena A.; Ettinger, Ulrich; Banse, Rainer et al

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (in press)

We developed a cued pro- and antisaccade paradigm (CPAP) to explore automatic components of sexual interest. Heterosexual participants (n = 32 women, n = 25 men) had to perform fast eye movements towards ... [more ▼]

We developed a cued pro- and antisaccade paradigm (CPAP) to explore automatic components of sexual interest. Heterosexual participants (n = 32 women, n = 25 men) had to perform fast eye movements towards and away from sexually relevant or irrelevant stimuli across a congruent (i.e. prosaccade towards sexually relevant stimuli, antisaccade away from sexually irrelevant stimuli) and an incongruent condition (i.e. prosaccade towards sexually irrelevant stimuli, antisaccade away from sexually relevant stimuli). We hypothesized that pro- and antisaccade performance would be influenced by the sexual interest-specific relevance of the presented stimulus (i.e., nude female or male stimulus) and the instructed task (i.e., pro- or antisaccade) and, thus, differ meaningfully between conditions. Results for prosaccades towards sexually relevant stimuli in the congruent condition showed that error rates were lower and latencies were shorter compared with prosaccades towards sexually irrelevant stimuli in the incongruent condition, but only for male participants. In addition, error rates for antisaccades away from sexually irrelevant stimuli in the congruent condition were lower than for antisaccades away from sexually relevant stimuli in the incongruent condition, for both female and male participants. Latencies of antisaccades, however, did not differ between conditions. In comparison with established indirect sexual interest paradigms, the CPAP benefits from measuring highly automated processes less prone to deliberate control. To this end, the CPAP could be applied to explore the interplay of early automatic and deliberate components of sexual information processing. [less ▲]

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See detailA Meta-Analysis of Viewing Time Measures of Sexual Interest in Children
Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Babchishin, Kelly M.; Lehmann, Robert J. B.

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (in press)

Due to unobtrusiveness and ease of implementation, viewing time (VT) measures of sexual interest in children have sparked increasing research interest in forensic contexts over the last two decades. The ... [more ▼]

Due to unobtrusiveness and ease of implementation, viewing time (VT) measures of sexual interest in children have sparked increasing research interest in forensic contexts over the last two decades. The current study presents two meta-analyses of VT measures adapted to assess pedophilic interest to determine their discrimination between sexual offenders against children (SOC) and non-SOC groups as well as convergent validity (associations with other measures of sexual interest in children). On average, VT measures showed moderate discrimination between criterion groups (fixed-effect d = 0.60, 95% CI [0.51, 0.68], N = 2,705, k = 14) and significant convergent validity with self-reports, penile plethysmography, Implicit Association Tests and offence behavioral measures ranging from r =.18 to r = .38. VT measures, however, provided better discrimination for adults (fixed-effect d = 0.78, 95% CI [0.64, 0.92]) than adolescent samples (fixed-effect d = 0.50, 95% CI [0.40, 0.61]), Qbetween = 9.37, p = .002. Moreover, using pedophilic difference scores within adult samples substantially increased VT measures’ validity (fixed-effect d = 1.03, 95% CI [0.82, 1.25], N = 414, k = 7). Results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and applied implications for forensic contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk factors for sexual offending in men working with children - a community-based survey
Turner, Daniel; Hoyer, Jürgen; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL et al

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (2016), 45(7), 1851-1861

Identifying risk factors for sexual abuse in men who work with children and who have already abused a child could lead to more appropriate screening and prevention strategies and is thus of major ... [more ▼]

Identifying risk factors for sexual abuse in men who work with children and who have already abused a child could lead to more appropriate screening and prevention strategies and is thus of major scientific and societal relevance. A total of 8,649 German men from the community were assessed in an extensive anonymous and confidential online survey. Of those, 37 (0.4%) could be classified as child sexual abusers working with children, 90 (1.0%) as child sexual abusers not working with children, and 816 (9.4%) as men who work with children and who have not abused a child. We assessed the impact of working with children as an individual risk factor for self-reported child sexual abuse and compared personal factors, pedophilic sexual fantasies, deviant sexual behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and hypersexuality among the three groups. Most interestingly, working with children was significantly associated with a self-reported sexual offense against children, however, it explained only three percent of its variance. Child sexual abusers working with children admitted more antisocial and more sexually deviant behaviors than child sexual abusers not working with children and than men working with children who have not abused a child. Our findings support some of the suggestions made by other researchers concerning factors that could be considered in applicants for child- or youth-serving institutions. However, it has to be pointed out that the scientific basis still seems premature. [less ▲]

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See detailStigma-Related Stress and its Correlates among Men with Pedophilic Sexual Interests
Jahnke, Sara; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Geradt, Max et al

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (2015), 44(8), 2173-2187

Despite decades of research on the adverse consequences of stereotyping and discrimination for many stigmatized groups, little is known about how people with pedophilia perceive and react to stigma. In ... [more ▼]

Despite decades of research on the adverse consequences of stereotyping and discrimination for many stigmatized groups, little is known about how people with pedophilia perceive and react to stigma. In this article, we present a framework that outlines how stigma-related stress might negatively affect emotional and social areas of functioning, cognitive distortions, and the motivation to pursue therapy, all of which may contribute to an increased risk of sexual offending. We tested our hypotheses in an online survey among self-identified German-speaking people with pedophilia (N = 104) using a wide range of validated indicators of social and emotional functioning (Brief Symptom Inventory-53, UCLA Loneliness Scale, Emotion Subscale of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Fear of Negative Evaluation-5, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Specific risk factors such as self-efficacy, cognitive distortions and the motivation to seek treatment were also assessed. In line with our hypotheses, fear of discovery generally predicted reduced social and emotional functioning. Contrary to our predictions, perceived social distance and fear of discovery were not linked to self-efficacy, cognitive distortions, or treatment motivation. Results were controlled for the effects of confounding variables (e.g, age, educational level, social desirability, relationship status). We critically evaluate the empirical contribution of this study to research on stigma and child sex offenses, including a discussion of the results in light of the potential indirect effects that public stigma may have on the overall risk for sexual offenses. [less ▲]

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See detailIndirect Measurement of Sexual Orientation: Comparison of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure, Viewing Time, and Choice Reaction Time Tasks
Rönspies, Jelena; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Melnikova, Anna et al

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (2015), 44(5), 1483-1492

The present study was conducted to validate an adaptation of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as an indirect latency-based measure of sexual orientation. Furthermore, reliability and ... [more ▼]

The present study was conducted to validate an adaptation of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as an indirect latency-based measure of sexual orientation. Furthermore, reliability and criterion validity of the IRAP were compared to two established indirect measures of sexual orientation: a Choice Reaction Time task (CRT) and a Viewing Time (VT) task. A sample of 87 heterosexual and 35 gay men completed all three indirect measures in an online study. The IRAP and the VT predicted sexual orientation nearly perfectly. Both measures also showed a considerable amount of convergent validity. Reliabilities (internal consistencies) reached satisfactory levels. In contrast, the CRT did not tap into sexual orientation in the present study. In sum, the VT measure performed best, with the IRAP showing only slightly lower reliability and criterion validity, whereas the CRT did not yield any evidence of reliability or criterion validity in the present research. The results were discussed in the light of specific task properties of the indirect latency-based measures (task-relevance vs. task-irrelevance). [less ▲]

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See detailSexual Disinhibition under Sexual Arousal: Evidence for Domain Specificity in Men and Women
Imhoff, Roland; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (2014), 43(6), 1123-1136

Men have been shown to estimate their likelihood of engaging in sexually coercive behaviors and also uncommon and unprotected sexual behaviors as higher when they are in an acute state of sexual arousal ... [more ▼]

Men have been shown to estimate their likelihood of engaging in sexually coercive behaviors and also uncommon and unprotected sexual behaviors as higher when they are in an acute state of sexual arousal. The present research sought to test (1) whether sexual arousal effects could be replicated under more controlled laboratory settings, (2) whether women showed the same pattern of results, and (3) whether this effect was specific to sexual disinhibition or would generalize to non-sexual disinhibited behavior. In two experimental studies male and female participants (Study 1: N = 84; Study 2: N = 86) were either sexually aroused by acoustically presented erotic narratives or listened to sexually non-arousing neutral narratives. Afterwards, they self-estimated their likelihood of engaging in a variety of behaviors that could be characterized as sexual or nonsexual disinhibited behavior. Results replicated the previously established effect of sexual disinhibition under sexual arousal for men and provided the first evidence for a similar effect in women. No arousal effects were observed for non-sexual behavior, rendering alternative explanations based on mere indifferent responding unlikely. The discussion focuses on a plausible explanation for this effect. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the Automatic Undercurrents of Sexual Narcissism: Individual Differences in the Sex-Aggression Link
Imhoff, Roland; Bergmann, Xenia; Banse, Rainer et al

in ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (2013), 42(6), 1033-1041

Sexual narcissism (SN) has recently been proposed to be a specific risk factor for the perpetration of sexual coercion based on both self-reports of previous behavior and self-estimated likelihood of ... [more ▼]

Sexual narcissism (SN) has recently been proposed to be a specific risk factor for the perpetration of sexual coercion based on both self-reports of previous behavior and self-estimated likelihood of engaging in acts of sexual violence. To explore one of the potential underlying mechanisms of SN, we tested whether for highly sexually narcissistic males (measured with the German language version of the Sexual Narcissism Scale) the subtle priming of sexual concepts would evoke aggressive behavior in a standard measure of aggressive behavior, the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. Results showed that only for sexually narcissistic men did a subtle priming with mildly erotic words lead to an increase in shock volumes administered to the alleged competitor on this task. For women, it was postulated that physical force would not be represented as a functional behavioral script for sexually narcissistic females and, in line with this hypothesis, no effects were found for women. The results were discussed with regard to the underlying processes of SN and the importance of an individual difference perspective in sex-aggression links. [less ▲]

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See detailVicarious Viewing Time: Prolonged Response Latencies for Sexually Attractive Targets as a Function of Task- or Stimulus-Specific Processing
Imhoff, Roland; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Weiss, Simone et al

in ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (2012), 41(6), 1389-1401

The amount of time an individual spends gazing at images is longer if the depicted person is sexually appealing. Despite an increasing use of such response latencies as a diagnostic tool in applied ... [more ▼]

The amount of time an individual spends gazing at images is longer if the depicted person is sexually appealing. Despite an increasing use of such response latencies as a diagnostic tool in applied forensic settings, the underlying processes that drive the seemingly robust effect of longer response latencies for sexually attractive targets remain unknown. In the current study, two alternative explanations are presented and tested using an adapted viewing time paradigm that disentangled task- and stimulus-specific processes. Heterosexual and homosexual male participants were instructed to rate the sexual attractiveness of target persons differing in sex and sexual maturation from four experimentally assigned perspectives-heterosexual and homosexual perspectives for both sexes. This vicarious viewing time paradigm facilitated the estimation of the independent contributions of task (assigned perspective) and stimuli to viewing time effects. Results showed a large task-based effect as well as a relatively smaller stimulus-based effect. This pattern suggests that, when viewing time measures are used for the assessment of sexual interest, it should be taken into consideration that response latency patterns can be biased by judging images from a selected perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men
Lass-Hennemann, J.; Deuter, C. E.; Kuehl, L. K. et al

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (2011), 40(5), 1007-1014

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See detailShort- and Long-Term Relationship Orientation and 2D:4D Finger-Length Ratio
Schwarz, Sascha; Mustafic, Maida UL; Hassebrauck, Manfred et al

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (2010), 40(3), 565-574

Recent studies have shown that preferences for close relationships (Long-Term Relationship Orientation) are independent of preferences for various sexual partners (Short-Term Relationship Orientation). In ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have shown that preferences for close relationships (Long-Term Relationship Orientation) are independent of preferences for various sexual partners (Short-Term Relationship Orientation). In the current studies, we hypothesized that Short-Term Relationship Orientationwouldbe negatively related to 2D:4D finger-length ratio (i.e., the more masculine, the higher Short-Term Relationship Orientation). Study 1 found a negative relationship between Short-Term Relationship Orientation and right, but not left, hand 2D:4D among 91 male participants. Study 2 found a negative relationship between Short-Term Relationship Orientation and left,but not right,hand 2D:4Damong65male participants, even after controlling for age, relationship status, social desirability, and sex drive. Female participants (n=142) did not show this relationship in Study 2. This sex difference was discussed in terms of flexible female sexual strategies,which are supposed to be contingent on the local environment or menstrual cycle variations. [less ▲]

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See detailViewing Time Effects Revisited: Prolonged Response Latencies for Sexually Attractive Targets Under Restricted Task Conditions
Imhoff, Roland; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Nordsiek, Uta et al

in ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (2010), 39(6), 1275-1288

Sexually attractive stimuli are watched longer than unattractive stimuli. The processes underlying this robust and reliable viewing time effect are presently not well understood. In the present research ... [more ▼]

Sexually attractive stimuli are watched longer than unattractive stimuli. The processes underlying this robust and reliable viewing time effect are presently not well understood. In the present research comprising four experiments (total N = 250), four classes of potential explanations are proposed and the derived implications were experimentally tested. Contrary to explanations based on either deliberate delay or attentional adhesion to sexually attractive stimuli, prolonged response latencies were also found under restricted task conditions. Sexually preferred targets elicited longer response latencies in a self-paced evaluation task when stimulus pictures were presented for 750 ms (Experiment 1) or for 500 ms and followed by a pattern mask (Experiment 2). Prolonged latencies for sexually preferred targets were also observed when sexual attractiveness was rated in a speeded binary decision task with a response window of 1000 ms (Experiment 3). Eventually, it was shown that the response latency effect in the speeded binary choice task was still preserved when only the heads of target individuals were presented instead of the bodies (Experiment 4). Mate identification and schematic processes are discussed as the remaining plausible mechanisms for prolonged response latencies for sexually attractive targets under restricted conditions. [less ▲]

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