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See detailMolecular interface of S100A8 with cytochrome b558 and NADPH oxidase activation
Berthier, Sylvie; Nguyen, Minh Vu Chong UL; Baillet, Athan et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(7),

S100A8 and S100A9 are two calcium binding Myeloid Related Proteins, and important mediators of inflammatory diseases. They were recently introduced as partners for phagocyte NADPH oxidase regulation ... [more ▼]

S100A8 and S100A9 are two calcium binding Myeloid Related Proteins, and important mediators of inflammatory diseases. They were recently introduced as partners for phagocyte NADPH oxidase regulation. However, the precise mechanism of their interaction remains elusive. We had for aim (i) to evaluate the impact of S100 proteins on NADPH oxidase activity; (ii) to characterize molecular interaction of either S100A8, S100A9, or S100A8/S100A9 heterocomplex with cytochrome b558; and (iii) to determine the S100A8 consensus site involved in cytochrome b558/S100 interface. Recombinant full length or S100A9-A8 truncated chimera proteins and ExoS-S100 fusion proteins were expressed in E. coli and in P. aeruginosa respectively. Our results showed that S100A8 is the functional partner for NADPH oxidase activation contrary to S100A9, however, the loading with calcium and a combination with phosphorylated S100A9 are essential in vivo. Endogenous S100A9 and S100A8 colocalize in differentiated and PMA stimulated PLB985 cells, with Nox2/gp91phox and p22phox. Recombinant S100A8, loaded with calcium and fused with the first 129 or 54 N-terminal amino acid residues of the P. aeruginosa ExoS toxin, induced a similar oxidase activation in vitro, to the one observed with S100A8 in the presence of S100A9 in vivo. This suggests that S100A8 is the essential component of the S100A9/S100A8 heterocomplex for oxidase activation. In this context, recombinant full-length rS100A9-A8 and rS100A9-A8 truncated 90 chimera proteins as opposed to rS100A9-A8 truncated 86 and rS100A9-A8 truncated 57 chimeras, activate the NADPH oxidase function of purified cytochrome b558 suggesting that the C-terminal region of S100A8 is directly involved in the molecular interface with the hemoprotein. The data point to four strategic 87HEES90 amino acid residues of the S100A8 C-terminal sequence that are involved directly in the molecular interaction with cytochrome b558 and then in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase activation. © 2012 Berthier et al. [less ▲]

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See detailAutophagy Mediates the Delivery of Thrombogenic Tissue Factor to Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Human Sepsis
Kambas, Konstantinos; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Apostolidou, Eirini et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(9),

Background: Sepsis is associated with systemic inflammatory responses and induction of coagulation system. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) constitute an antimicrobial mechanism, recently implicated ... [more ▼]

Background: Sepsis is associated with systemic inflammatory responses and induction of coagulation system. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) constitute an antimicrobial mechanism, recently implicated in thrombosis via platelet entrapment and aggregation. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we demonstrate for the first time the localization of thrombogenic tissue factor (TF) in NETs released by neutrophils derived from patients with gram-negative sepsis and normal neutrophils treated with either serum from septic patients or inflammatory mediators involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Localization of TF in acidified autophagosomes was observed during this process, as indicated by positive LC3B and LysoTracker staining. Moreover, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibition with 3-MA or inhibition of endosomal acidification with bafilomycin A1 hindered the release of TF-bearing NETs. TF present in NETs induced thrombin generation in culture supernatants, which further resulted in protease activated receptor-1 signaling. Conclusions/Significance: This study demonstrates the involvement of autophagic machinery in the extracellular delivery of TF in NETs and the subsequent activation of coagulation cascade, providing evidence for the implication of this process in coagulopathy and inflammatory response in sepsis. © 2012 Kambas et al. [less ▲]

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See detailMurine gut microbiota is defined by host genetics and modulates variation of metabolic traits.
McKnite, Autumn M.; Perez-Munoz, Maria Elisa; Lu, Lu et al

in PloS one (2012), 7(6), 39191

The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that has an important role in host metabolism. Microbial diversity is influenced by a combination of environmental and host genetic ... [more ▼]

The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that has an important role in host metabolism. Microbial diversity is influenced by a combination of environmental and host genetic factors and is associated with several polygenic diseases. In this study we combined next-generation sequencing, genetic mapping, and a set of physiological traits of the BXD mouse population to explore genetic factors that explain differences in gut microbiota and its impact on metabolic traits. Molecular profiling of the gut microbiota revealed important quantitative differences in microbial composition among BXD strains. These differences in gut microbial composition are influenced by host-genetics, which is complex and involves many loci. Linkage analysis defined Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) restricted to a particular taxon, branch or that influenced the variation of taxa across phyla. Gene expression within the gastrointestinal tract and sequence analysis of the parental genomes in the QTL regions uncovered candidate genes with potential to alter gut immunological profiles and impact the balance between gut microbial communities. A QTL region on Chr 4 that overlaps several interferon genes modulates the population of Bacteroides, and potentially Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes-the predominant BXD gut phyla. Irak4, a signaling molecule in the Toll-like receptor pathways is a candidate for the QTL on Chr15 that modulates Rikenellaceae, whereas Tgfb3, a cytokine modulating the barrier function of the intestine and tolerance to commensal bacteria, overlaps a QTL on Chr 12 that influence Prevotellaceae. Relationships between gut microflora, morphological and metabolic traits were uncovered, some potentially a result of common genetic sources of variation. [less ▲]

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See detailA Novel Network Integrating a miRNA-203/SNAI1 Feedback Loop which Regulates Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition.
Moes, Michèle UL; Le Béchec, Antony UL; Crespo, Isaac UL et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(4), 35440

Background: The majority of human cancer deaths are caused by metastasis. The metastatic dissemination is initiated by the breakdown of epithelial cell homeostasis. During this phenomenon, referred to as ... [more ▼]

Background: The majority of human cancer deaths are caused by metastasis. The metastatic dissemination is initiated by the breakdown of epithelial cell homeostasis. During this phenomenon, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), cells change their genetic and trancriptomic program leading to phenotypic and functional alterations. The challenge of understanding this dynamic process resides in unraveling regulatory networks involving master transcription factors (e.g. SNAI1/2, ZEB1/2 and TWIST1) and microRNAs. Here we investigated microRNAs regulated by SNAI1 and their potential role in the regulatory networks underlying epithelial plasticity. Results: By a large-scale analysis on epithelial plasticity, we highlighted miR-203 and its molecular link with SNAI1 and the miR-200 family, key regulators of epithelial homeostasis. During SNAI1-induced EMT in MCF7 breast cancer cells, miR-203 and miR-200 family members were repressed in a timely correlated manner. Importantly, miR-203 repressed endogenous SNAI1, forming a double negative miR203/SNAI1 feedback loop. We integrated this novel miR203/SNAI1 with the known miR200/ZEB feedback loops to construct an a priori EMT core network. Dynamic simulations revealed stable epithelial and mesenchymal states, and underscored the crucial role of the miR203/SNAI1 feedback loop in state transitions underlying epithelial plasticity. Conclusion: By combining computational biology and experimental approaches, we propose a novel EMT core network integrating two fundamental negative feedback loops, miR203/SNAI1 and miR200/ZEB. Altogether our analysis implies that this novel EMT core network could function as a switch controlling epithelial cell plasticity during differentiation and cancer progression. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysing the role of UVB-induced translational inhibition and PP2Ac deactivation in NF-kappaB signalling using a minimal mathematical model.
Witt, Johannes; Konrath, Fabian; Sawodny, Oliver et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(7), 40274

Activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) by interleukin-1beta (IL-1) usually results in an anti-apoptotic activity that is rapidly terminated by a negative feedback loop involving NF-kappaB ... [more ▼]

Activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) by interleukin-1beta (IL-1) usually results in an anti-apoptotic activity that is rapidly terminated by a negative feedback loop involving NF-kappaB dependent resynthesis of its own inhibitor IkappaBalpha. However, apoptosis induced by ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) is not attenuated, but significantly enhanced by co-stimulation with IL-1 in human epithelial cells. Under these conditions NF-kappaB remains constitutively active and turns into a pro-apoptotic factor by selectively repressing anti-apoptotic genes. Two different mechanisms have been separately proposed to explain UV-induced lack of IkappaBalpha recurrence: global translational inhibition as well as deactivation of the Ser/Thr phosphatase PP2Ac. Using mathematical modelling, we show that the systems behaviour requires a combination of both mechanisms, and we quantify their contribution in different settings. A mathematical model including both mechanisms is developed and fitted to various experimental data sets. A comparison of the model results and predictions with model variants lacking one of the mechanisms shows that both mechanisms are present in our experimental setting. The model is successfully validated by the prediction of independent data. Weak constitutive IKKbeta phosphorylation is shown to be a decisive process in IkappaBalpha degradation induced by UVB stimulation alone, but irrelevant for (co-)stimulations with IL-1. In silico knockout experiments show that translational inhibition is predominantly responsible for lack of IkappaBalpha recurrence following IL-1+UVB stimulation. In case of UVB stimulation alone, cooperation of both processes causes the observed decrease of IkappaBalpha. This shows that the processes leading to activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB upon stimulation with ultraviolet B radiation with and without interleukin-1 costimulation are more complex than previously thought, involving both a cross talk of UVB induced translational inhibition and PP2Ac deactivation. The importance of each of the mechanisms depends on the specific cellular setting. [less ▲]

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See detailContextualization procedure and modeling of monocyte specific TLR signaling.
Aurich, Maike Kathrin UL; Thiele, Ines UL

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(12), 49978

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invasion of pathogens. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is involved in a variety of human diseases extending far beyond immune system-related ... [more ▼]

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invasion of pathogens. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is involved in a variety of human diseases extending far beyond immune system-related diseases, affecting a number of different tissues and cell-types. Computational models often do not account for cell-type specific differences in signaling networks. Investigation of these differences and its phenotypic implications could increase understanding of cell signaling and processes such as inflammation. The wealth of knowledge for TLR signaling has been recently summarized in a stoichiometric signaling network applicable for constraint-based modeling and analysis (COBRA). COBRA methods have been applied to investigate tissue-specific metabolism using omics data integration. Comparable approaches have not been conducted using signaling networks. In this study, we present ihsTLRv2, an updated TLR signaling network accounting for the association of 314 genes with 558 network reactions. We present a mapping procedure for transcriptomic data onto signaling networks and demonstrate the generation of a monocyte-specific TLR network. The generated monocyte network is characterized through expression of a specific set of isozymes rather than reduction of pathway contents. While further tailoring the network to a specific stimulation condition, we observed that the quantitative changes in gene expression due to LPS stimulation affected the tightly connected set of genes. Differential expression influenced about one third of the entire TLR signaling network, in particular, NF-kappaB activation. Thus, a cell-type and condition-specific signaling network can provide functional insight into signaling cascades. Furthermore, we demonstrate the energy dependence of TLR signaling pathways in monocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing rule-based machine learning for candidate disease gene prioritization and sample classification of cancer gene expression data
Glaab, Enrico UL; Bacardit, Jaume; Garibaldi, Jonathan M. et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(7), 39932-39932

Microarray data analysis has been shown to provide an effective tool for studying cancer and genetic diseases. Although classical machine learning techniques have successfully been applied to find ... [more ▼]

Microarray data analysis has been shown to provide an effective tool for studying cancer and genetic diseases. Although classical machine learning techniques have successfully been applied to find informative genes and to predict class labels for new samples, common restrictions of microarray analysis such as small sample sizes, a large attribute space and high noise levels still limit its scientific and clinical applications. Increasing the interpretability of prediction models while retaining a high accuracy would help to exploit the information content in microarray data more effectively. For this purpose, we evaluate our rule-based evolutionary machine learning systems, BioHEL and GAssist, on three public microarray cancer datasets, obtaining simple rule-based models for sample classification. A comparison with other benchmark microarray sample classifiers based on three diverse feature selection algorithms suggests that these evolutionary learning techniques can compete with state-of-the-art methods like support vector machines. The obtained models reach accuracies above 90% in two-level external cross-validation, with the added value of facilitating interpretation by using only combinations of simple if-then-else rules. As a further benefit, a literature mining analysis reveals that prioritizations of informative genes extracted from BioHEL’s classification rule sets can outperform gene rankings obtained from a conventional ensemble feature selection in terms of the pointwise mutual information between relevant disease terms and the standardized names of top-ranked genes. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of cold pressor stress on the human startle response
Deuter, C. E.; Kuehl, L. K.; Blumenthal, T. D. et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(11), 49866-49866

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See detailRegrowing the adult brain: NF-kappaB controls functional circuit formation and tissue homeostasis in the dentate gyrus.
Imielski, Yvonne; Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Luningschror, Patrick et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(2), 30838

Cognitive decline during aging is correlated with a continuous loss of cells within the brain and especially within the hippocampus, which could be regenerated by adult neurogenesis. Here we show that ... [more ▼]

Cognitive decline during aging is correlated with a continuous loss of cells within the brain and especially within the hippocampus, which could be regenerated by adult neurogenesis. Here we show that genetic ablation of NF-kappaB resulted in severe defects in the neurogenic region (dentate gyrus) of the hippocampus. Despite increased stem cell proliferation, axogenesis, synaptogenesis and neuroprotection were hampered, leading to disruption of the mossy fiber pathway and to atrophy of the dentate gyrus during aging. Here, NF-kappaB controls the transcription of FOXO1 and PKA, regulating axogenesis. Structural defects culminated in behavioral impairments in pattern separation. Re-activation of NF-kappaB resulted in integration of newborn neurons, finally to regeneration of the dentate gyrus, accompanied by a complete recovery of structural and behavioral defects. These data identify NF-kappaB as a crucial regulator of dentate gyrus tissue homeostasis suggesting NF-kappaB to be a therapeutic target for treating cognitive and mood disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailTRIM32 regulates skeletal muscle stem cell differentiation and is necessary for normal adult muscle regeneration.
Nicklas, Sarah; Otto, Anthony; Wu, Xiaoli et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(1), 30445

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) is an inherited autosomal recessive disease of skeletal muscle caused by a mutation in the TRIM32 gene. Currently its pathogenesis is entirely unclear ... [more ▼]

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) is an inherited autosomal recessive disease of skeletal muscle caused by a mutation in the TRIM32 gene. Currently its pathogenesis is entirely unclear. Typically the regeneration process of adult skeletal muscle during growth or following injury is controlled by a tissue specific stem cell population termed satellite cells. Given that TRIM32 regulates the fate of mammalian neural progenitor cells through controlling their differentiation, we asked whether TRIM32 could also be essential for the regulation of myogenic stem cells. Here we demonstrate for the first time that TRIM32 is expressed in the skeletal muscle stem cell lineage of adult mice, and that in the absence of TRIM32, myogenic differentiation is disrupted. Moreover, we show that the ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 controls this process through the regulation of c-Myc, a similar mechanism to that previously observed in neural progenitors. Importantly we show that loss of TRIM32 function induces a LGMD2H-like phenotype and strongly affects muscle regeneration in vivo. Our studies implicate that the loss of TRIM32 results in dysfunctional muscle stem cells which could contribute to the development of LGMD2H. [less ▲]

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See detailA systems biology approach to drug targets in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.
Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Fleming, Ronan MT UL; Heinken, Almut Katrin UL et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(4), 34337

Antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem in the health care system and we are in a constant race with evolving bacteria. Biofilm-associated growth is thought to play a key role in bacterial ... [more ▼]

Antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem in the health care system and we are in a constant race with evolving bacteria. Biofilm-associated growth is thought to play a key role in bacterial adaptability and antibiotic resistance. We employed a systems biology approach to identify candidate drug targets for biofilm-associated bacteria by imitating specific microenvironments found in microbial communities associated with biofilm formation. A previously reconstructed metabolic model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) was used to study the effect of gene deletion on bacterial growth in planktonic and biofilm-like environmental conditions. A set of 26 genes essential in both conditions was identified. Moreover, these genes have no homology with any human gene. While none of these genes were essential in only one of the conditions, we found condition-dependent genes, which could be used to slow growth specifically in biofilm-associated PA. Furthermore, we performed a double gene deletion study and obtained 17 combinations consisting of 21 different genes, which were conditionally essential. While most of the difference in double essential gene sets could be explained by different medium composition found in biofilm-like and planktonic conditions, we observed a clear effect of changes in oxygen availability on the growth performance. Eight gene pairs were found to be synthetic lethal in oxygen-limited conditions. These gene sets may serve as novel metabolic drug targets to combat particularly biofilm-associated PA. Taken together, this study demonstrates that metabolic modeling of human pathogens can be used to identify oxygen-sensitive drug targets and thus, that this systems biology approach represents a powerful tool to identify novel candidate antibiotic targets. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the topology and delayed interactions in neuronal networks synchronization.
Perez, Toni; Garcia, Guadalupe Clara UL; Eguiluz, Victor M. et al

in PloS one (2011), 6(5), 19900

As important as the intrinsic properties of an individual nervous cell stands the network of neurons in which it is embedded and by virtue of which it acquires great part of its responsiveness and ... [more ▼]

As important as the intrinsic properties of an individual nervous cell stands the network of neurons in which it is embedded and by virtue of which it acquires great part of its responsiveness and functionality. In this study we have explored how the topological properties and conduction delays of several classes of neural networks affect the capacity of their constituent cells to establish well-defined temporal relations among firing of their action potentials. This ability of a population of neurons to produce and maintain a millisecond-precise coordinated firing (either evoked by external stimuli or internally generated) is central to neural codes exploiting precise spike timing for the representation and communication of information. Our results, based on extensive simulations of conductance-based type of neurons in an oscillatory regime, indicate that only certain topologies of networks allow for a coordinated firing at a local and long-range scale simultaneously. Besides network architecture, axonal conduction delays are also observed to be another important factor in the generation of coherent spiking. We report that such communication latencies not only set the phase difference between the oscillatory activity of remote neural populations but determine whether the interconnected cells can set in any coherent firing at all. In this context, we have also investigated how the balance between the network synchronizing effects and the dispersive drift caused by inhomogeneities in natural firing frequencies across neurons is resolved. Finally, we show that the observed roles of conduction delays and frequency dispersion are not particular to canonical networks but experimentally measured anatomical networks such as the macaque cortical network can display the same type of behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation on emotional prosody comprehension in Parkinson's disease.
Bruck, Carolin; Wildgruber, Dirk; Kreifelts, Benjamin et al

in PloS one (2011), 6(4), 19140

BACKGROUND: Although impaired decoding of emotional prosody has frequently been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), to date only few reports have sought to explore the effect of Parkinson's ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Although impaired decoding of emotional prosody has frequently been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), to date only few reports have sought to explore the effect of Parkinson's treatment on disturbances of prosody decoding. In particular, little is known about how surgical treatment approaches such as high frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) affect emotional speech perception in patients with PD. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation on prosody processing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To this end the performance of 13 PD patients on three tasks requiring the decoding of emotional speech was assessed and subsequently compared to the performance of healthy control individuals. To delineate the effect of STN-DBS, all patients were tested with stimulators turned on as well as with stimulators turned off. Results revealed that irrespective of whether assessments were made "on" or "off" stimulation, patients' performance was less accurate as compared to healthy control participants on all tasks employed in this study. However, while accuracy appeared to be unaffected by stimulator status, a facilitation of reactions specific to highly conflicting emotional stimulus material (i.e. stimulus material presenting contradicting emotional messages on a verbal and non-verbal prosodic level) was observed during "on" stimulation assessments. CONCLUSION: In sum, presented results suggest that the processing of emotional speech is indeed modulated by STN-DBS. Observed alterations might, on the one hand, reflect a more efficient processing of highly conflicting stimulus material following DBS. However, on the other hand, given the lack of an improvement in accuracy, increased impulsivity associated with STN stimulation needs to be taken into consideration. [less ▲]

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See detailBioenergetic consequences of PINK1 mutations in Parkinson disease.
Abramov, Andrey Yurevich; Gegg, Matthew; Grünewald, Anne UL et al

in PloS one (2011), 6(10), 25622

BACKGROUND: Mutations of the gene for PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) are a cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 protein has been localised to mitochondria and PINK1 gene knockout models ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Mutations of the gene for PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) are a cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 protein has been localised to mitochondria and PINK1 gene knockout models exhibit abnormal mitochondrial function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cells derived from PD patients with a range of PINK1 mutations demonstrate similar defects of mitochondrial function, whether the nature and severity of the abnormalities vary between mutations and correlate with clinical features. METHODOLOGY: We investigated mitochondrial bioenergetics in live fibroblasts from PINK1 mutation patients using single cell techniques. We found that fibroblasts from PINK1 mutation patients had significant defects of bioenergetics including reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, altered redox state, a respiratory deficiency that was determined by substrate availability, and enhanced sensitivity to calcium stimulation and associated mitochondrial permeability pore opening. There was an increase in the basal rate of free radical production in the mutant cells. The pattern and severity of abnormality varied between different mutations, and the less severe defects in these cells were associated with later age of onset of PD. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide insight into the molecular pathology of PINK1 mutations in PD and also confirm the critical role of substrate availability in determining the biochemical phenotype--thereby offering the potential for novel therapeutic strategies to circumvent these abnormalities. [less ▲]

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See detailStress strengthens memory of first impressions of others' positive personality traits
Lass-Hennemann, J.; Kuehl, L. K.; Schulz, André UL et al

in PLoS ONE (2011), 6(1), 16389-16389

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See detailMutations in PINK1 and Parkin impair ubiquitination of Mitofusins in human fibroblasts.
Rakovic, Aleksandar; Grünewald, Anne UL; Kottwitz, Jan et al

in PloS one (2011), 6(3), 16746

PINK1 and Parkin mutations cause recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). In Drosophila and SH-SY5Y cells, Parkin is recruited by PINK1 to damaged mitochondria, where it ubiquitinates Mitofusins and ... [more ▼]

PINK1 and Parkin mutations cause recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). In Drosophila and SH-SY5Y cells, Parkin is recruited by PINK1 to damaged mitochondria, where it ubiquitinates Mitofusins and consequently promotes mitochondrial fission and mitophagy.Here, we investigated the impact of mutations in endogenous PINK1 and Parkin on the ubiquitination of mitochondrial fusion and fission factors and the mitochondrial network structure. Treating control fibroblasts with mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi) inhibitors or H(2)O(2) resulted in ubiquitination of Mfn1/2 but not of OPA1 or Fis1. Ubiquitination of Mitofusins through the PINK1/Parkin pathway was observed within 1 h of treatment. Upon combined inhibition of Deltapsi and the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), no ubiquitination of Mitofusins was detected. Regarding morphological changes, we observed a trend towards increased mitochondrial branching in PD patient cells upon mitochondrial stress.For the first time in PD patient-derived cells, we demonstrate that mutations in PINK1 and Parkin impair ubiquitination of Mitofusins. In the presence of UPS inhibitors, ubiquitinated Mitofusin is deubiquitinated by the UPS but not degraded, suggesting that the UPS is involved in Mitofusin degradation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe interplay between protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase activity and insulin-like signaling to extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans
Khare, Shilpi; Linster, Carole UL; Clarke, Steven G.

in PLoS ONE (2011), 6(6), 20850

The protein L-isoaspartyl-O-methyltransferase functions to initiate the repair of isomerized aspartyl and asparaginyl residues that spontaneously accumulate with age in a variety of organisms ... [more ▼]

The protein L-isoaspartyl-O-methyltransferase functions to initiate the repair of isomerized aspartyl and asparaginyl residues that spontaneously accumulate with age in a variety of organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes lacking the pcm-1 gene encoding this enzyme display a normal lifespan and phenotype under standard laboratory growth conditions. However, significant defects in development, egg laying, dauer survival, and autophagy have been observed in pcm-1 mutant nematodes when deprived of food and when exposed to oxidative stress. Interestingly, overexpression of this repair enzyme in both Drosophila and C. elegans extends adult lifespan under thermal stress. In this work, we show the involvement of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling (IIS) pathway in PCM-1-dependent lifespan extension in C. elegans. We demonstrate that reducing the levels of the DAF-16 downstream transcriptional effector of the IIS pathway by RNA interference reduces the lifespan extension resulting from PCM-1 overexpression. Using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, we show the up-regulation of DAF-16-dependent stress response genes in the PCM-1 overexpressor animals compared to wild-type and pcm-1 mutant nematodes under mild thermal stress conditions. Additionally, similar to other long-lived C. elegans mutants in the IIS pathway, including daf-2 and age-1 mutants, PCM-1 overexpressor adult animals display increased resistance to severe thermal stress, whereas pcm-1 mutant animals survive less long under these conditions. Although we observe a higher accumulation of damaged proteins in pcm-1 mutant nematodes, the basal level of isoaspartyl residues detected in wild-type animals was not reduced by PCM-1 overexpression. Our results support a signaling role for the protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase in lifespan extension that involves the IIS pathway, but that may be independent of its function in overall protein repair. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-Resolved Expression Profiling of the Nuclear Receptor Superfamily in Human Adipogenesis
Lahnalampi, Mari; Heinäniemi, Merja UL; Sinkkonen, Lasse UL et al

in PLoS ONE (2010), 5(9),

Background: The differentiation of fibroblast-like pre-adipocytes to lipid-loaded adipocytes is regulated by a network of transcription factors, the most prominent one being the nuclear receptor ... [more ▼]

Background: The differentiation of fibroblast-like pre-adipocytes to lipid-loaded adipocytes is regulated by a network of transcription factors, the most prominent one being the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma. However, many of the other 47 members of the nuclear receptor superfamily have an impact on adipogenesis, which in human cells has not been investigated in detail. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed by quantitative PCR all human nuclear receptors at multiple time points during differentiation of SGBS pre-adipocytes. The earliest effect was the down-regulation of the genes RARG, PPARD, REVERBA, REV-ERBB, VDR and GR followed by the up-regulation of PPARG, LXRA and AR. These observations are supported with data from 3T3-L1 mouse pre-adipocytes and primary human adipocytes. Investigation of the effects of the individual differentiation mix components in short-term treatments and of their omission from the full mix showed that the expression levels of the early-regulated nuclear receptor genes were most affected by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ligand cortisol and the phosophodiesterase inhibitor IBMX. Interestingly, the effects of both compounds converged to repress the genes PPARD, REV-ERBA, REV-ERBB, VDR and GR, whereas cortisol and IBMX showed antagonistic interaction for PPARG, LXRA and AR causing a time lag in their up-regulation. We hypothesize that the well-known auto-repression of GR fine-tunes the detected early responses. Consistently, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that GR association increased on the transcription start sites of the genes RARG, REV-ERBB, VDR and GR. Conclusions/Significance: Adipocyte differentiation is a process, in which many members of the nuclear receptor superfamily change their mRNA expression. The actions of cortisol and IBMX converged to repress several nuclear receptors early in differentiation, while up-regulation of other nuclear receptor genes showed a time lag due to antagonisms of the signals. Our results place GR and its ligand cortisol as central regulatory factors controlling early regulatory events in human adipogenesis that precedes the regulation of the later events by PPARG. [less ▲]

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See detailDicer is associated with ribosomal DNA chromatin in mammalian cells
Sinkkonen, Lasse UL; Hugenschmidt, Tabea; Filipowicz, Witold et al

in PLoS ONE (2010), 5(8), 1-2

BACKGROUND: RNA silencing is a common term for pathways utilizing small RNAs as sequence-specific guides to repress gene expression. Components of the RNA silencing machinery are involved in different ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: RNA silencing is a common term for pathways utilizing small RNAs as sequence-specific guides to repress gene expression. Components of the RNA silencing machinery are involved in different aspects of chromatin function in numerous organisms. However, association of RNA silencing with chromatin in mammalian cells remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunostaining of mitotic chromosomes with antibodies visualizing either endogenous or ectopically expressed Dicer in mammalian cells revealed association of the protein with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats. Chromatin immunoprecipitations and bisulfite sequencing experiments indicated that Dicer is associated with transcribed regions of both active and silenced genes in rDNA arrays of interphase chromosomes. Metabolic labeling of the mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells lacking Dicer did not reveal apparent defect in rRNA biogenesis though pre-rRNA synthesis in these cells was decreased, likely as a consequence of their slower growth caused by the loss of miRNAs. We analyzed in detail chromatin structure of rDNA but did not find any epigenetic changes at rDNA loci in Dicer(-/-) ES cells. Instead, we found that rDNA methylation is rather low in primary tissues, contrasting with rDNA methylation patterns in transformed cell lines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that Dicer, a key component of RNA silencing pathways, can be detected in association with rDNA chromatin in mammalian cells. The role of this particular localization of Dicer is not readily apparent since the enzyme is associated with rDNA genes regardless of their transcriptional activity. However, localization of Dicer to the transcribed region suggests that transcription may contribute to the Dicer deposition at rDNA chromatin. We hypothesize that Dicer functions in maintaining integrity of rDNA arrays. [less ▲]

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