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See detailHIV-1 Vpu's lipid raft association is dispensable for counteraction of the particle release restriction imposed by CD317/Tetherin.
Fritz, Joëlle UL; Tibroni, Nadine; Keppler, Oliver T. et al

in Virology (2012), 424(1), 33-44

HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the block to particle release mediated by CD317 (BST-2/HM1.24/Tetherin) via incompletely understood mechanisms. Vpu and CD317 partially reside in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts where ... [more ▼]

HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the block to particle release mediated by CD317 (BST-2/HM1.24/Tetherin) via incompletely understood mechanisms. Vpu and CD317 partially reside in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts where HIV-1 budding preferentially occurs. Here we find that lipid raft association of ectopically expressed or endogenous CD317 was unaltered upon co-expression with Vpu or following HIV-1 infection. Similarly, Vpu's lipid raft association remained unchanged upon expression of CD317. We identify amino acids V25 and Y29 of Vpu as crucial for microdomain partitioning and single substitution of these amino acids resulted in Vpu variants with markedly reduced or undetectable lipid raft association. These mutations did not affect Vpu's subcellular distribution and binding capacity to CD317, nor its ability to downmodulate cell surface CD317 and promote HIV-1 release from CD317-positive cells. We conclude that (i) lipid raft incorporation is dispensable for Vpu-mediated CD317 antagonism and (ii) Vpu does not antagonize CD317 by extraction from lipid rafts. [less ▲]

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See detailThe E6 protein from vaccinia virus is required for the formation of immature virions.
Boyd, Olga UL; Turner, Peter C.; Moyer, Richard W. et al

in Virology (2010), 399(2), 201-11

An IPTG-inducible mutant in the E6R gene of vaccinia virus was used to study the role of the E6 virion core protein in viral replication. In the absence of the inducer, the mutant exhibited a normal ... [more ▼]

An IPTG-inducible mutant in the E6R gene of vaccinia virus was used to study the role of the E6 virion core protein in viral replication. In the absence of the inducer, the mutant exhibited a normal pattern DNA replication, concatemer resolution and late gene expression, but it showed an inhibition of virion structural protein processing it failed to produce infectious particles. Electron microscopic analysis showed that in the absence of IPTG viral morphogenesis was arrested before IV formation: crescents, aberrant or empty IV-like structures, and large aggregated virosomes were observed throughout the cytoplasm. The addition of IPTG to release a 12-h block showed that virus infectious particles could be formed in the absence of de novo DNA synthesis. Our observations show that in the absence of E6 the association of viroplasm with viral membrane crescents is impaired. [less ▲]

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See detailTemperature-sensitive mutant in the vaccinia virus E6 protein produce virions that are transcriptionally inactive.
Boyd, Olga UL; Strahl, Audra L.; Rodeffer, Carson et al

in Virology (2010), 399(2), 221-30

The vaccinia virus E6R gene encodes a late protein that is packaged into virion cores. A temperature-sensitive mutant was used to study the role of this protein in viral replicative cycle. Cts52 has a ... [more ▼]

The vaccinia virus E6R gene encodes a late protein that is packaged into virion cores. A temperature-sensitive mutant was used to study the role of this protein in viral replicative cycle. Cts52 has a P226L missense mutation in the E6R gene, shows a two-log reduction in plaque formation, but displays normal patterns of gene expression, late protein processing and DNA replication during infection. Mutant virions produced at 40 degrees C were similar in their morphology to wt virions grown at 40 degrees C. The particle to infectivity ratio was 50 times higher in purified Cts52 grown at 40 degrees C when compared to the mutant grown at permissive temperature. In vitro characterization of Cts-52 particles grown at 40 degrees C revealed no differences in protein composition or in DNA content and the mutant virions could bind and enter cells. However, core particles prepared from Cts52 grown at 40 degrees C failed to transcribe in vitro. Our results show that E6 in the virion has either a direct or an indirect role in viral transcription. [less ▲]

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