References of "Software and Systems Modeling"
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See detailModeling Data Protection and Privacy: Application and Experience with GDPR
Torre, Damiano UL; Alferez, Mauricio UL; Soltana, Ghanem UL et al

in Software and Systems Modeling (in press)

In Europe and indeed worldwide, the Gen- eral Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) provides pro- tection to individuals regarding their personal data in the face of new technological developments. GDPR is ... [more ▼]

In Europe and indeed worldwide, the Gen- eral Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) provides pro- tection to individuals regarding their personal data in the face of new technological developments. GDPR is widely viewed as the benchmark for data protection and privacy regulations that harmonizes data privacy laws across Europe. Although the GDPR is highly ben- e cial to individuals, it presents signi cant challenges for organizations monitoring or storing personal infor- mation. Since there is currently no automated solution with broad industrial applicability, organizations have no choice but to carry out expensive manual audits to ensure GDPR compliance. In this paper, we present a complete GDPR UML model as a rst step towards de- signing automated methods for checking GDPR compli- ance. Given that the practical application of the GDPR is infuenced by national laws of the EU Member States,we suggest a two-tiered description of the GDPR, generic and specialized. In this paper, we provide (1) the GDPR conceptual model we developed with complete trace- ability from its classes to the GDPR, (2) a glossary to help understand the model, (3) the plain-English de- scription of 35 compliance rules derived from GDPR along with their encoding in OCL, and (4) the set of 20 variations points derived from GDPR to specialize the generic model. We further present the challenges we faced in our modeling endeavor, the lessons we learned from it, and future directions for research. [less ▲]

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See detailCalcGraph: taming the high costs of deep learning using models
Lorentz, Joe UL; Hartmann, Thomas UL; Moawad, Assaad UL et al

in Software and Systems Modeling (2022)

Models based on differential programming, like deep neural networks, are well established in research and able to outperform manually coded counterparts in many applications. Today, there is a rising ... [more ▼]

Models based on differential programming, like deep neural networks, are well established in research and able to outperform manually coded counterparts in many applications. Today, there is a rising interest to introduce this flexible modeling to solve real-world problems. A major challenge when moving from research to application is the strict constraints on computational resources (memory and time). It is difficult to determine and contain the resource requirements of differential models, especially during the early training and hyperparameter exploration stages. In this article, we address this challenge by introducing CalcGraph, a model abstraction of differentiable programming layers. CalcGraph allows to model the computational resources that should be used and then CalcGraph’s model interpreter can automatically schedule the execution respecting the specifications made. We propose a novel way to efficiently switch models from storage to preallocated memory zones and vice versa to maximize the number of model executions given the available resources. We demonstrate the efficiency of our approach by showing that it consumes less resources than state-of-the-art frameworks like TensorFlow and PyTorch for single-model and multi-model execution. [less ▲]

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See detailF-Alloy: a relational model transformation language based on Alloy
Gammaitoni, Loïc UL; Kelsen, Pierre UL

in Software and Systems Modeling (2019), 18(1), 213-247

Model transformations are one of the core artifacts of a model-driven engineering approach. The relational logic language Alloy has been used in the past to verify properties of model transformations. In ... [more ▼]

Model transformations are one of the core artifacts of a model-driven engineering approach. The relational logic language Alloy has been used in the past to verify properties of model transformations. In this paper we introduce the concept of functional Alloy modules. In essence a functional Alloy module can be viewed as an Alloy module representing a model transformation. We describe a sublanguage of Alloy called F-Alloy specifically designed to concisely specify functional Alloy modules. The restrictions on F-Alloy’s syntax are meant to allow efficient execution of the specified transformation, without the use of backtracking, by an adapted interpretation algorithm. F-Alloy’s semantics is given in this paper as a direct translation to Alloy; hence, F-Alloy specifications are also analyzable using the powerful automatic analysis features of Alloy. [less ▲]

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See detailConfiguring use case models in product families
Hajri, Ines UL; Göknil, Arda UL; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in Software and Systems Modeling (2018), 17(3), 939-971

In many domains such as automotive and avionics, the size and complexity of software systems is quickly increasing. At the same time, many stakeholders tend to be involved in the development of such ... [more ▼]

In many domains such as automotive and avionics, the size and complexity of software systems is quickly increasing. At the same time, many stakeholders tend to be involved in the development of such systems, which typically must also be configured for multiple customers with varying needs. Product Line Engineering (PLE) is therefore an inevitable practice for such systems. Furthermore, because in many areas requirements must be explicit and traceability to them is required by standards, use cases and domain models are common practice for requirements elicitation and analysis. In this paper, based on the above observations, we aim at supporting PLE in the context of use case-centric development. Therefore, we propose, apply, and assess a use case-driven configuration approach which interactively receives configuration decisions from the analysts to generate Product Specific (PS) use case and domain models. Our approach provides the following: (1) a use case-centric product line modeling method (PUM), (2) automated, interactive configuration support based on PUM, and (3) an automatic generation of PS use case and domain models from Product Line (PL) models and configuration decisions. The approach is supported by a tool relying on Natural Language Processing (NLP), and integrated with an industrial requirements management tool, i.e., IBM Doors. We successfully applied and evaluated our approach to an industrial case study in the automotive domain, thus showing evidence that the approach is practical and beneficial to capture variability at the appropriate level of granularity and to configure PS use case and domain models in industrial settings. [less ▲]

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See detailModel-Based Simulation of Legal Policies: Framework, Tool Support, and Validation
Soltana, Ghanem UL; Sannier, Nicolas UL; Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad UL et al

in Software and Systems Modeling (2018), 17(3), 851-883

Simulation of legal policies is an important decision-support tool in domains such as taxation. The primary goal of legal policy simulation is predicting how changes in the law affect measures of interest ... [more ▼]

Simulation of legal policies is an important decision-support tool in domains such as taxation. The primary goal of legal policy simulation is predicting how changes in the law affect measures of interest, e.g., revenue. Legal policy simulation is currently implemented using a combination of spreadsheets and software code. Such a direct implementation poses a validation challenge. In particular, legal experts often lack the necessary software background to review complex spreadsheets and code. Consequently, these experts currently have no reliable means to check the correctness of simulations against the requirements envisaged by the law. A further challenge is that representative data for simulation may be unavailable, thus necessitating a data generator. A hard-coded generator is difficult to build and validate. We develop a framework for legal policy simulation that is aimed at addressing the challenges above. The framework uses models for specifying both legal policies and the probabilistic characteristics of the underlying population. We devise an automated algorithm for simulation data generation. We evaluate our framework through a case study on Luxembourg’s Tax Law. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Next Evolution of MDE: A Seamless Integration of Machine Learning into Domain Modeling
Hartmann, Thomas UL; Moawad, Assaad; Fouquet, François UL et al

in Software and Systems Modeling (2017)

Machine learning algorithms are designed to resolve unknown behaviors by extracting commonalities over massive datasets. Unfortunately, learning such global behaviors can be inaccurate and slow for ... [more ▼]

Machine learning algorithms are designed to resolve unknown behaviors by extracting commonalities over massive datasets. Unfortunately, learning such global behaviors can be inaccurate and slow for systems composed of heterogeneous elements, which behave very differently, for instance as it is the case for cyber-physical systems andInternet of Things applications. Instead, to make smart deci-sions, such systems have to continuously refine the behavior on a per-element basis and compose these small learning units together. However, combining and composing learned behaviors from different elements is challenging and requires domain knowledge. Therefore, there is a need to structure and combine the learned behaviors and domain knowledge together in a flexible way. In this paper we propose to weave machine learning into domain modeling. More specifically, we suggest to decompose machine learning into reusable, chainable, and independently computable small learning units, which we refer to as microlearning units.These micro learning units are modeled together with and at the same level as the domain data. We show, based on asmart grid case study, that our approach can be significantly more accurate than learning a global behavior, while the performance is fast enough to be used for live learning. [less ▲]

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See detailA generic model decomposition technique and its application to the Eclipse modeling framework
Ma, Qin UL; Kelsen, Pierre UL; Glodt, Christian UL

in Software and Systems Modeling (2015), 14(2), 921-952

Model-driven software development aims at easing the process of software development by using models as primary artifacts. Although less complex than the real systems they are based on, models tend to be ... [more ▼]

Model-driven software development aims at easing the process of software development by using models as primary artifacts. Although less complex than the real systems they are based on, models tend to be complex nevertheless, thus making the task of handling them non-trivial in many cases. In this paper we propose a generic model decomposition technique to facilitate model management by decomposing complex models into smaller sub-models that conform to the same metamodel as the original model. The technique is based upon a formal foundation that consists of a formal capturing of the concepts of models, metamodels, and model conformance; a formal constraint language based on EssentialOCL; and a set of formally proved properties of the technique. We organize the decomposed sub-models in a mathematical structure as a lattice, and design a linear-time algorithm for constructing this decomposition. The generic model decomposition technique is applied to the Eclipse Modeling Framework (EMF) and the result is used to build a solution to a specific model comprehension problem of Ecore models based upon model pruning. We report two case studies of the model comprehension method: one in BPMN and the other in fUML. [less ▲]

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See detailModel Transformation Intents and Their Properties
Lúcio, Lévi; Amrani, Moussa UL; Dingel, Jürgen et al

in Software and Systems Modeling (2014)

The notion of model transformation intent is proposed to capture the purpose of a transformation. In this paper, a framework for the description of model transformation intents is defined which includes ... [more ▼]

The notion of model transformation intent is proposed to capture the purpose of a transformation. In this paper, a framework for the description of model transformation intents is defined which includes, for instance, a description of properties a model transformation has to satisfy to qualify as a suitable realization of an intent. Several common model transformation intents are identified and the framework is used to describe five of them in detail. A case study from the automotive industry is used to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed framework for identifying crucial properties of model transformations with different intents and to illustrate the wide variety of model transformation intents that an industrial model-driven software development process typically encompasses. [less ▲]

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See detailApplying UML/MARTE on industrial projects: challenges, experiences, and guidelines
Iqbal, Zohaib; Ali, Shaukat; Yue, Tao et al

in Software and Systems Modeling (2014)

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See detailEnvironment Modeling and Simulation for Automated Testing of Soft Real-Time Embedded Software
Iqbal, Muhammad Zohaib; Arcuri, Andrea UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in Software and Systems Modeling (2013)

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See detailVPML: an approach to detect design patterns of MOF-based modeling languages
Elaasar, Maged; Briand, Lionel UL; Labiche, Yvan

in Software and Systems Modeling (2013)

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See detailModel synchronization based on triple graph grammars: correctness, completeness and invertibility
Hermann, Frank UL; Ehrig, Hartmut; Orejas, Fernando et al

in Software and Systems Modeling (2013)

Triple graph grammars (TGGs) have been used successfully to analyze correctness and completeness of bidirectional model transformations, but a corresponding formal approach to model synchronization has ... [more ▼]

Triple graph grammars (TGGs) have been used successfully to analyze correctness and completeness of bidirectional model transformations, but a corresponding formal approach to model synchronization has been missing. This paper closes this gap by providing a formal synchronization framework with bidirectional update propagation operations. They are generated from a given TGG, which specifies the language of all consistently integrated source and target models. As our main result, we show that the generated synchronization framework is correct and complete, provided that forward and backward propagation operations are deterministic. Correctness essentially means that the propagation operations preserve and establish consistency while completeness ensures that the operations are defined for all possible inputs. Moreover, we analyze the conditions under which the operations are inverse to each other. All constructions and results are motivated and explained by a running example, which leads to a case study, using concrete visual syntax and abstract syntax notation based on typed attributed graphs. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes aspect-oriented modeling help improve the readability of UML state machines?
Ali, Shaukat; Yue, Tao; Briand, Lionel UL

in Software and Systems Modeling (2012)

Aspect-oriented modeling (AOM) is a relatively recent and very active field of research, whose application has, however, been limited in practice. AOM is assumed to yield several potential benefits such ... [more ▼]

Aspect-oriented modeling (AOM) is a relatively recent and very active field of research, whose application has, however, been limited in practice. AOM is assumed to yield several potential benefits such as enhanced modularization, easier evolution, increased reusability, and improved readability of models, as well as reduced modeling effort. However, credible, solid empirical evidence of such benefits is lacking. We evaluate the “readability” of state machines when modeling crosscutting behavior using AOM and more specifically AspectSM, a recently published UML profile. This profile extends the UML state machine notation with mechanisms to define aspects using state machines. Readability is indirectly measured through defect identification and fixing rates in state machines, and the scores obtained when answering a comprehension questionnaire about the system behavior. With AspectSM, crosscutting behavior is modeled using so-called “aspect state machines”. Their readability is compared with that of system state machines directly modeling crosscutting and standard behavior together. An initial controlled experiment and a much larger replication were conducted with trained graduate students, in two different institutions and countries, to achieve the above objective. We use two baselines of comparisons—standard UML state machines without hierarchical features (flat state machines) and standard state machines with hierarchical/concurrent features (hierarchical state machines). The results showed that defect identification and fixing rates are significantly better with AspectSM than with both flat and hierarchical state machines. However, in terms of comprehension scores and inspection effort, no significant difference was observed between any of the approaches. Results of the experiments suggest that one should use, when possible, aspect state machines along with hierarchical and/or concurrent features of UML state machines to model crosscutting behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantics of trace relations in requirements models for consistency checking and inferencing
Göknil, Arda UL; Kurtev, I.; van den Berg, K. et al

in Software and Systems Modeling (2011), 10(1), 31--54

Detailed reference viewed: 104 (2 UL)