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See detailComplement C1q is hydroxylated by collagen prolyl 4 hydroxylase and is sensitive to off-target inhibition by prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors that stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor.
Kiriakidis, Serafim; Hoer, Simon S.; Burrows, Natalie et al

in Kidney international (2017), 92(4), 900-908

Complement C1q is part of the C1 macromolecular complex that mediates the classical complement activation pathway: a major arm of innate immune defense. C1q is composed of A, B, and C chains that require ... [more ▼]

Complement C1q is part of the C1 macromolecular complex that mediates the classical complement activation pathway: a major arm of innate immune defense. C1q is composed of A, B, and C chains that require post-translational prolyl 4-hydroxylation of their N-terminal collagen-like domain to enable the formation of the functional triple helical multimers. The prolyl 4-hydroxylase(s) that hydroxylate C1q have not previously been identified. Recognized prolyl 4-hydroxylases include collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylases (CP4H) and the more recently described prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes that act as oxygen sensors regulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). We show that several small-molecule prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors that activate HIF also potently suppress C1q secretion by human macrophages. However, reducing oxygenation to a level that activates HIF does not compromise C1q hydroxylation. In vitro studies showed that a C1q A chain peptide is not a substrate for PHD2 but is a substrate for CP4H1. Circulating levels of C1q did not differ between wild-type mice or mice with genetic deficits in PHD enzymes, but were reduced by prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors. Thus, C1q is hydroxylated by CP4H, but not the structurally related PHD hydroxylases. Hence, reduction of C1q levels may be an important off-target side effect of small molecule PHD inhibitors developed as treatments for renal anemia. [less ▲]

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See detailBiological responses to PDGF-BB versus PDGF-DD in human mesangial cells
van Roeyen, C. R.; Ostendorf, T.; Denecke, B. et al

in Kidney International (2006), 69(8), 1393-402

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and PDGF-DD mediate mesangial cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. While PDGF-BB is a ligand for the PDGF alpha- and beta-receptor chains, PDGF-DD binds more ... [more ▼]

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and PDGF-DD mediate mesangial cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. While PDGF-BB is a ligand for the PDGF alpha- and beta-receptor chains, PDGF-DD binds more selectively to the beta-chain, suggesting potential differences in the biological activities. Signal transduction and regulation of gene expression induced by PDGF-BB and -DD were compared in primary human mesangial cells (HMCs), which expressed PDGF alpha- and beta-receptor subunits. The growth factor concentrations used were chosen based on their equipotency in inducing HMCs proliferation and binding to the betabeta-receptor. Both growth factors, albeit at different concentrations induced phosphorylation and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2. In addition, PDGFs led to the phosphorylation and activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT3. HMCs proliferation induced by either PDGF-BB or -DD could be blocked by signal transduction inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-, Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT-, or phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase pathways. Using a gene chip array and subsequent verification by real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction, we found that in HMC genes for matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) and MMP-14 and, to a low extent, cytochrome B5 and cathepsin L were exclusively regulated by PDGF-BB, whereas no exclusive gene regulation was detected by PDGF-DD. However, at the protein level, both MMP-13 and -14 were equally induced by PDGF-BB and -DD. PDGF-BB and -DD effect similar biological responses in HMCs albeit at different potencies. Rare apparently differential gene regulation did not result in different protein expression, suggesting that in HMCs both PDGFs exert their biological activity almost exclusively via the PDGF beta-receptor. [less ▲]

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