References of "Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development"
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See detailMonolingual cringe and ideologies of English: Anglophone migrants to Luxembourg draw their experiences in a multilingual society
de Bres, Julia; Lovrits, Veronika UL

in Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2021)

This article uses reflective drawing to explore representations of multilingualism by Anglophone migrants in Luxembourg. Analysing twelve interviews in which participants drew and described their language ... [more ▼]

This article uses reflective drawing to explore representations of multilingualism by Anglophone migrants in Luxembourg. Analysing twelve interviews in which participants drew and described their language experiences, we examine the language ideologies Anglophone migrants adopt in response to the ideologies of English they encounter. Participants adopt various ideologies, sometimes aligning with the ideology of global English, sometimes with counter-ideologies of resistance to it, and sometimes a mix of the two. Visual features indexing affective states include colour, gesture, facial expression, and composition. Monolingual cringe – expressed as shame, embarrassment and being ‘bad at languages’ – performs several functions for the participants. Sometimes it serves as an affective disclaimer, allowing them to lean on their privilege in a more socially acceptable way. Sometimes it appears to express genuine distress, in the form of searing linguistic insecurity. Sometimes it performs a distancing function, enabling them to oppose themselves to the stereotype of the monolingual English speaker. The affective intensity of the drawings suggests the ideology of global English does have costs for Anglophone migrants. Fundamentally, though, monolingual cringe reinforces privilege, allowing participants to apologise for their monolingualism even as they continue to benefit from it. [less ▲]

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See detailThe hierarchy of minority languages in New Zealand
De Bres, Julia UL

in Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2015)

This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with ... [more ▼]

This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of minority languages in New Zealand, as well as the reactions of representatives of other minority language communities to these arguments. The research suggests that the arguments in favour of minority language promotion are most widely accepted for the Māori language, followed by New Zealand Sign Language, then Pacific languages, and finally community languages. While representatives of groups at the lower levels of the hierarchy often accept arguments advanced in relation to languages nearer the top, this is not the case in the other direction. Recognition of connections between the language communities is scarce, with the group representatives tending to present themselves as operating in isolation from one another, rather than working towards common interests. [less ▲]

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See detailEthnolinguistic Vitality, Language Use and Social Integration Amongst Albanian Migrants in Greece
Gogonas, Nikolaos UL; Michail, Domna

in Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2014)

The focus of this paper is on the relationship between Albanian speakers’ ethnolinguistic vitality (EV) perceptions and their language maintenance, language use and choice patterns. A subjective EV ... [more ▼]

The focus of this paper is on the relationship between Albanian speakers’ ethnolinguistic vitality (EV) perceptions and their language maintenance, language use and choice patterns. A subjective EV questionnaire, and a language usage questionnaire capturing domain-specific language use was completed by 200 Albanian immigrants of first and second (one and a half) generation residing in various areas all over Greece. In addition, interviews were conducted with 180 informants from the sample to generate useful information for the qualitative analysis. The findings of this study chime with recent findings on Albanian immigrants’ social integration strategies. Data analysis uncovers three themes: first, language use is domain-specific, with preferences for the L1 in the home/family domain only, L2 being the language of choice elsewhere especially for the 1.5 generation; second, there are low perceptions of EV of the L1 group across the sample; and third, there is evidence for a shift in language use and competence as a result of an integrative attitude to migration by the respondents, governed mostly by practical reasons. [less ▲]

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See detailPromoting a minority language to majority language speakers: television advertising about the Maori language targeting non-Maori New Zealanders
De Bres, Julia UL

in Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2010), 31(6), 515-529

It has been claimed that the success of minority language policy initiatives may only be achievable if at least some degree of ‘tolerability’ of these initiatives is secured among majority language ... [more ▼]

It has been claimed that the success of minority language policy initiatives may only be achievable if at least some degree of ‘tolerability’ of these initiatives is secured among majority language speakers (May 2000). There has, however, been little consideration in the language planning literature of what practical approaches might be used to influence the attitudes of majority language speakers towards minority languages, that is to ‘plan for tolerability’. This article considers the approach taken in two recent television advertisements that address the attitudes and behaviours of non-Māori New Zealanders towards the Māori language. It begins by examining the discursive approach taken in these advertisements, the attitudinal messages they convey about the Māori language, and the behaviours they propose for non-Māori New Zealanders. The article then discusses the responses of eighty non-Māori viewers of the advertisements, considering the extent to which they perceived the intended messages of the advertisements, and how their responses were influenced by their existing attitudes towards the Māori language. On this basis, the article assesses the potential effectiveness of using language promotion materials as a means of planning for the tolerability of the Māori language among non-Māori New Zealanders. [less ▲]

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See detailLanguage Shift in Second Generation Albanian Immigrants in Greece
Gogonas, Nikolaos UL

in Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2009)

Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating ... [more ▼]

Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating language maintenance/shift among second generation Albanian immigrants in Athens using as main informants adolescents of Albanian origin. Quantitative and qualitative data on children’s language competence and on patterns of language use within Albanian households indicate that the Albanian ethnolinguistic group is undergoing rapid language shift. For the social psychological dimension of the study, data were gathered by utilising the concept of ethnolinguistic vitality and some items of the subjective vitality questionnaire (SVQ). The SVQ data indicate low vitality perceptions among second generation Albanian immigrants. Finally, while Albanian parents express positive attitudes to language maintenance, in practice many do not take the necessary measures for intergenerational language transmission. [less ▲]

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