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See detailTHz-Empowered UAVs in 6G: Opportunities, Challenges, and Trade-Offs
Azari, Mohammad Mahdi UL; Solanki, Sourabh UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Communications Magazine (in press)

Envisioned use cases of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) impose new service requirements in terms of data rate, latency, and sensing accuracy, to name a few. If such requirements are satisfactorily met, it ... [more ▼]

Envisioned use cases of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) impose new service requirements in terms of data rate, latency, and sensing accuracy, to name a few. If such requirements are satisfactorily met, it can create novel applications and enable highly reliable and harmonized integration of UAVs in the 6G network ecosystem. Towards this, terahertz (THz) bands are perceived as a prospective technological enabler for various improved functionalities such as ultra-high throughput and enhanced sensing capabilities. This paper focuses on THz-empowered UAVs with the following capabilities: communication, sensing, localization, imaging, and control. We review the potential opportunities and use cases of THz-empowered UAVs, corresponding novel design challenges, and resulting trade-offs. Furthermore, we overview recent advances in UAV deployments regulations, THz standardization, and health aspects related to THz bands. Finally, we take UAV to UAV (U2U) communication as a case-study to provide numerical insights into the impact of various system design parameters and environment factors. [less ▲]

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See detailLEO Satellite Constellations for 5G and Beyond: How Will They Reshape Vertical Domains?
Liu, Shicong; Gao, Zhen; Wu, Yongpeng et al

in IEEE Communications Magazine (2021), 59(7), 30-36

The rapid development of communication technologies in the past decades has provided immense vertical opportunities for individuals and enterprises. However, conventional terrestrial cellular networks ... [more ▼]

The rapid development of communication technologies in the past decades has provided immense vertical opportunities for individuals and enterprises. However, conventional terrestrial cellular networks have unfortunately neglected the huge geographical digital divide, s ince high-bandwidth wireless coverage is concentrated in urban areas. To meet the goal of “connecting the unconnected,” integrating low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites with the terrestrial cellular networks has been widely considered as a promising solution. In this article, we first introduce the development roadmap of LEO sa tellite constellations (SatCons), including early attempts in LEO satellites with the emerging LEO constellations. Further, we discuss the unique opportunities of employing LEO SatCons for the delivery of integrating 5G networks. Specifically, we present their key performance indicators, which offer important guidelines for the design of associated enabling techniques, and then discuss the potential impact of integrating LEO SatCons with typical 5G use cases, where we engrave our vision of various vertical domains reshaped by LEO SatCons. Technical challenges are finally provided to specify future research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailFederated Learning for Physical Layer Design
Elbir, Ahmet M.; Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL

in IEEE Communications Magazine (2021)

Model-free techniques, such as machine learning (ML), have recently attracted much interest towards the physical layer design, e.g., symbol detection, channel estimation, and beamforming. Most of these ML ... [more ▼]

Model-free techniques, such as machine learning (ML), have recently attracted much interest towards the physical layer design, e.g., symbol detection, channel estimation, and beamforming. Most of these ML techniques employ centralized learning (CL) schemes and assume the availability of datasets at a parameter server (PS), demanding the transmission of data from edge devices, such as mobile phones, to the PS. Exploiting the data generated at the edge, federated learning (FL) has been proposed recently as a distributed learning scheme, in which each device computes the model parameters and sends them to the PS for model aggregation while the datasets are kept intact at the edge. Thus, FL is more communication-efficient and privacy-preserving than CL and applicable to the wireless communication scenarios, wherein the data are generated at the edge devices. This article presents the recent advances in FL-based training for physical layer design problems. Compared to CL, the effectiveness of FL is presented in terms of communication overhead with a slight performance loss in the learning accuracy. The design challenges, such as model, data, and hardware complexity, are also discussed in detail along with possible solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy- and Cost-Efficient Physical Layer Security in the Era of IoT: The Role of Interference
Wei, Z.; Masouros, C.; Liu, F. et al

in IEEE Communications Magazine (2020), 58(4), 81-87

IoT is emerging as the future evolution of the Internet, aiming to provide connectivity for everyone and everything. Since IoT is expected to carry important and private information, a high level of PHY ... [more ▼]

IoT is emerging as the future evolution of the Internet, aiming to provide connectivity for everyone and everything. Since IoT is expected to carry important and private information, a high level of PHY security is critical for wireless communications in IoT, as a complement for traditional security techniques that are employed at high layers. In this overview, we examine the recent interest in energy-efficient and cost-efficient PHY solutions for securing downlink IoT transmission through interference exploitation. This exciting line of research departs from conventional interference cancellation, and judiciously employs the inherent interference as a useful element for LUs while obstructing the eavesdropping of information. We first discuss the concept of CI, and then elaborate the fundamental CI signal design that employs the traditionally undesired interference as a constructive element to LUs while ensuring they are destructive to potential Eves. Subsequently, we illustrate several low-hardware-cost techniques to inherit the advantage of CI in an energy- and cost-efficient manner, from the perspective of HBF and DM. This family of techniques brings a disruptive vision of interference management for securing wireless communications with an eye on low-cost and hardware-constrained devices tailored for IoT systems. [less ▲]

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See detailSecuring Edge Devices in the Post-Quantum Internet of Things Using Lattice-Based Cryptography
Liu, Zhe UL; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Groszschädl, Johann UL

in IEEE Communications Magazine (2018), 56(2), 158-162

In order to increase the security of edge computing, all data transmitted to and from edge devices, as well as all data stored on edge devices, must be encrypted. Especially when the transmitted or stored ... [more ▼]

In order to increase the security of edge computing, all data transmitted to and from edge devices, as well as all data stored on edge devices, must be encrypted. Especially when the transmitted or stored data contains sensitive personal information, long-term protection over periods of ten or more years may be required, which can only be achieved with post-quantum cryptography. This paper first gives a brief overview of post-quantum public-key cryptosystems based on hard mathematical problems related to hash functions, error-correcting codes, multivariate quadratic systems, and lattices. Then, the suitability of lattice-based cryptosystems for resource-constrained devices is discussed and efficient implementations for 8 and 32-bit microcontrollers are outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive Spectrum Utilization in Ka Band Multibeam Satellite Communications
Maleki, Sina UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Evans, Barry et al

in IEEE Communications Magazine (2015), 53(3), 24-29

Multibeam satellite networks in Ka band have been designed to accommodate the increasing traffic demands of the coming years. However, these systems are spectrum limited due to the current spectrum ... [more ▼]

Multibeam satellite networks in Ka band have been designed to accommodate the increasing traffic demands of the coming years. However, these systems are spectrum limited due to the current spectrum allocation policies. This paper investigates the potentials of applying cognitive radio techniques in satellite communications in order to increase the spectrum opportunities for future generation of satellite networks without interfering operation of incumbent services. These extra spectrum opportunities can potentially amount to 2.4 GHz of bandwidth in downlink, and to 2 GHz of bandwidth in uplink for high density fixed satellite services (HDFSS). [less ▲]

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See detailWorld Wide Web caching: the application-level view of the Internet
Baentsch, Michael; Baum, Lothar; Molter, Georg et al

in IEEE Communications Magazine (1997), 35(6), 170-178

Detailed reference viewed: 113 (4 UL)