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See detailMultiscale Integration of High-Resolution Spaceborne and Drone-Based Imagery for a High-Accuracy Digital Elevation Model Over Tristan da Cunha
Backes, Dietmar UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL

in Frontiers in Earth Science (2020)

Very high-resolution (VHR) optical Earth observation (EO) satellites as well as low-altitude and easy-to-use unmanned aerial systems (UAS/drones) provide ever-improving data sources for the generation of ... [more ▼]

Very high-resolution (VHR) optical Earth observation (EO) satellites as well as low-altitude and easy-to-use unmanned aerial systems (UAS/drones) provide ever-improving data sources for the generation of detailed 3-dimensional (3D) data using digital photogrammetric methods with dense image matching. Today both data sources represent cost-effective alternatives to dedicated airborne sensors, especially for remote regions. The latest generation of EO satellites can collect VHR imagery up to 0.30 m ground sample distance (GSD) of even the most remote location from different viewing angles many times per year. Consequently, well-chosen scenes from growing image archives enable the generation of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). Furthermore, low-cost and easy to use drones can be quickly deployed in remote regions to capture blocks of images of local areas. Dense point clouds derived from these methods provide an invaluable data source to fill the gap between globally available low-resolution DEMs and highly accurate terrestrial surveys. Here we investigate the use of archived VHR satellite imagery with approx. 0.5 m GSD as well as low-altitude drone-based imagery with average GSD of better than 0.03 m to generate high-quality DEMs using photogrammetric tools over Tristan da Cunha, a remote island in the South Atlantic Ocean which lies beyond the reach of current commercial manned airborne mapping platforms. This study explores the potentials and limitations to combine this heterogeneous data sources to generate improved DEMs in terms of accuracy and resolution. A cross-validation between low-altitude airborne and spaceborne data sets describes the fit between both optical data sets. No co-registration error, scale difference or distortions were detected, and a quantitative cloud-to-cloud comparison showed an average distance of 0.26 m between both point clouds. Both point clouds were merged applying a conventional georeferenced approach. The merged DEM preserves the rich detail from the drone-based survey and provides an accurate 3D representation of the entire study area. It provides the most detailed model of the island to date, suitable to support practical and scientific applications. This study demonstrates that combination archived VHR satellite and low-altitude drone-based imagery provide inexpensive alternatives to generate high-quality DEMs. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal Changes of Seismic Velocity Caused by Volcanic Activity at Mt. Etna Revealed by the Autocorrelation of Ambient Seismic Noise
De Plaen, Raphael S. M.; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavo', Flavio et al

in Frontiers in Earth Science (2019), 6

On active volcanoes, ambient noise-based seismic interferometry, able to detect very slight variations in seismic velocity associated with magma transport towards the surface, can be a very useful ... [more ▼]

On active volcanoes, ambient noise-based seismic interferometry, able to detect very slight variations in seismic velocity associated with magma transport towards the surface, can be a very useful monitoring tool. In this work, we performed the autocorrelation of ambient seismic noise recorded at Mt. Etna volcano, by three stations located close to the active summit craters, during April 2013 - October 2014. Such an interval was chosen because of the number and variety of eruptions. The method implemented to perform autocorrelation was the phase cross-correlation, which does not require normalization of the signals. The detected seismic velocity variations were very consistent for all three stations throughout the study period, mainly ranging between 0.3 and -0.2%, and were time-related to both sequences of paroxysmal eruptions and more effusive activities. In particular, we observed seismic velocity decreases accompanying paroxysmal eruptions, suggesting an intense pressurization within the plumbing system, which created an area of extensional strain with crack openings. It is worth noting that classical cross-station approach failed to detect seismic velocity changes related to volcano activity. In addition, seismic velocity variations over time were integrated with ground deformation data recorded by GPS stations and volcanic tremor centroid locations. Finally, we showed that, although the investigated frequency band (1-2 Hz) contains most of the volcanic tremor energy, our results did not indicate a particular contamination of seismic velocity variation measurements by variations of tremor sources. [less ▲]

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