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See detailConcentration and temperature dependence of the refractive index of ethanol-water mixtures: Influence of intermolecular interactions.
Jiménez Riobóo, R.; Philipp, Martine UL; Ramos, M. et al

in European Physical Journal E -- Soft Matter (2009), 30(1), 19-26

The temperature and concentration dependence of the refractive index, n D(x, T) , in ethanol-water mixtures agrees with previous data in the ethanol-rich concentration range. The refractive index versus ... [more ▼]

The temperature and concentration dependence of the refractive index, n D(x, T) , in ethanol-water mixtures agrees with previous data in the ethanol-rich concentration range. The refractive index versus concentration x determined at 20 ° C shows the expected maximum at about 41 mol% water (22 mass% water). The temperature derivative of the refractive index, dn D /dT, shows anomalies at lower water concentrations at about 10 mol% water but no anomaly at 41 mol% water. Both anomalies are related to intermolecular interactions, the one in nD seems to be due to molecular segregation and cluster formation while the origin of the second one in dn D /dT is still not clear. [less ▲]

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See detailFrustration between syn- and anticlinicity in mixtures of chiral and non-chiral tilted smectic-c-type liquid crystals
Lagerwall, Jan UL; Heppke, Gerd; Giesselmann, Frank

in European Physical Journal E -- Soft Matter (2005), 18(1), 113-121

We study the effects of mixing ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid-crystal compounds (FLCs and AFLCs) when the former are strictly synclinic and the latter strictly anticlinic, i.e. one mixture ... [more ▼]

We study the effects of mixing ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid-crystal compounds (FLCs and AFLCs) when the former are strictly synclinic and the latter strictly anticlinic, i.e. one mixture component exhibits only SmC* and the other only SmCa* as tilted phase. Three different paths between syn- and anticlinicity were detected: transition directly between SmC* and SmCa*, transition via the SmCβ* and SmCγ* subphases, or by “escaping” the clinicity frustration by reducing the tilt to zero, i.e. the SmA* phase is extended downwards in temperature, separating SmC* from SmCa* in the phase diagram. The most common path is the one via the subphases, demonstrating that these phases appear as a result of frustration between syn- and anticlinic and, consequently, between syn- and antipolar order. For assessing the role of chirality, we also replaced the FLC with non-chiral synclinics. With one of the AFLCs, the route via supbhases was detected even in this case, suggesting that chirality —although necessary— does not have quite the importance that has previously been attributed to the appearance of the subphases. The path chosen in the mixture study seemed to be determined mainly by the synclinic component, the subphase induction occurring only when the SmA*-SmC* transition was second order. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of the swollen lamellar phase
Schilling, Tanja UL; Theissen, O.; Gompper, G.

in European Physical Journal E -- Soft Matter (2001), 4(1), 103-114

We investigate the dynamical behavior of lamellar phases in ternary amphiphilic systems of water, oil and amphiphile. The interaction between the amphiphilic monolayers is described by the steric ... [more ▼]

We investigate the dynamical behavior of lamellar phases in ternary amphiphilic systems of water, oil and amphiphile. The interaction between the amphiphilic monolayers is described by the steric interaction due to thermal fluctuations for uncharged, and by electrostatic interactions for charged systems. The dynamics of the system is determined by the hydrodynamics of the fluid layers. The basic parameters of our model are the viscosities of the two solvents, the average thicknesses of the oil and water layers, and the bending rigidity. The model allows to consider different monolayer interactions across the oil and water layers. Relaxation rates are calculated for arbitrary wave vectors parallel and perpendicular to the average monolayer plane. We find that there is a quite complex crossover behavior from a q2 law for small parallel wave vectors to a q3 law for large q . We discuss the relevance of our result for the interpretation of dynamic light-scattering and neutron-spin-echo experiments for these systems. [less ▲]

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