References of "Diabetes"
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See detailEvidence for a direct effect of the NAD+ precursor acipimox on muscle mitochondrial function in humans.
van de Weijer, Tineke; Phielix, Esther; Bilet, Lena et al

in Diabetes (2015), 64(4), 1193-201

Recent preclinical studies showed the potential of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) precursors to increase oxidative phosphorylation and improve metabolic health, but human data are lacking. We ... [more ▼]

Recent preclinical studies showed the potential of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) precursors to increase oxidative phosphorylation and improve metabolic health, but human data are lacking. We hypothesize that the nicotinic acid derivative acipimox, an NAD(+) precursor, would directly affect mitochondrial function independent of reductions in nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. In a multicenter randomized crossover trial, 21 patients with type 2 diabetes (age 57.7 +/- 1.1 years, BMI 33.4 +/- 0.8 kg/m(2)) received either placebo or acipimox 250 mg three times daily dosage for 2 weeks. Acipimox treatment increased plasma NEFA levels (759 +/- 44 vs. 1,135 +/- 97 mumol/L for placebo vs. acipimox, P < 0.01) owing to a previously described rebound effect. As a result, skeletal muscle lipid content increased and insulin sensitivity decreased. Despite the elevated plasma NEFA levels, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle increased. Subsequently, we showed that acipimox treatment resulted in a robust elevation in expression of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene sets and a mitonuclear protein imbalance, which may indicate activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. Further studies in C2C12 myotubes confirmed a direct effect of acipimox on NAD(+) levels, mitonuclear protein imbalance, and mitochondrial oxidative capacity. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that NAD(+) boosters can also directly affect skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in humans. [less ▲]

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See detailInterbirth Interval Is Associated With Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Risk
Cardwell, C.R.; Svensson, J.; Waldhoer, T. et al

in Diabetes (2012), 61(3), 702-707

Short interbirth interval has been associated with maternal complications and childhood autism and leukemia, possibly due to deficiencies in maternal micronutrients at conception or increased exposure to ... [more ▼]

Short interbirth interval has been associated with maternal complications and childhood autism and leukemia, possibly due to deficiencies in maternal micronutrients at conception or increased exposure to sibling infections. A possible association between interbirth interval and subsequent risk of childhood type 1 diabetes has not been investigated. A secondary analysis of 14 published observational studies of perinatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes was conducted. Risk estimates of diabetes by category of interbirth interval were calculated for each study. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. Overall, 2,787 children with type 1 diabetes were included. There was a reduction in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals andlt;3 years compared with longer interbirth intervals (OR 0.82 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). Adjustments for various potential confounders little altered this estimate. In conclusion, there was evidence of a 20% reduction in the risk of childhood diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals andlt;3 years. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of IL-1ra and adiponectin with C-peptide and remission in patients with type 1 diabetes
Pfleger, C.; Mortensen, H.B.; Hansen, L. et al

in Diabetes (2008), 57(4), 929-937

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), adiponectin, proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6, and CCL2, and tumor ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), adiponectin, proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6, and CCL2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with beta-cell function, metabolic status, and clinical remission in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum was obtained from 256 newly diagnosed patients (122 males and 134 females, median age 9.6 years). Stimulated C-peptide, blood glucose, and A1C were determined in addition to circulating concentration of cytokines at 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, and BMI percentile. RESULTS: Anti-inflammatory IL-1ra was positively associated with C-peptide after 6 (P = 0.0009) and 12 (P = 0.009) months. The beneficial association of IL-1ra on beta-cell function was complemented by the negative association of IL-1 beta with C-peptide after 1 month (P = 0.009). In contrast, anti-inflammatory adiponectin was elevated in patients with poor metabolic control after 6 and 12 months (P < 0.05) and positively correlated with A1C after 1 month (P = 0.0004). Proinflammatory IL-6 was elevated in patients with good metabolic control after 1 month (P = 0.009) and showed a positive association with blood glucose disposal after 12 months (P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: IL-1ra is associated with preserved beta-cell capacity in type 1 diabetes. This novel finding indicates that administration of IL-1ra, successfully improving beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes, may also be a new therapeutic approach in type 1 diabetes. The relation of adiponectin and IL-6 with remission and metabolic status transfers observations from in vitro and animal models into the human situation in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom clinicogenetic studies of maturity-onset diabetes of the young to unraveling complex mechanisms of glucokinase regulation.
Sagen, Jorn V.; Odili, Stella; Bjorkhaug, Lise et al

in Diabetes (2006), 55(6), 1713-22

Glucokinase functions as a glucose sensor in pancreatic beta-cells and regulates hepatic glucose metabolism. A total of 83 probands were referred for a diagnostic screening of mutations in the glucokinase ... [more ▼]

Glucokinase functions as a glucose sensor in pancreatic beta-cells and regulates hepatic glucose metabolism. A total of 83 probands were referred for a diagnostic screening of mutations in the glucokinase (GCK) gene. We found 11 different mutations (V62A, G72R, L146R, A208T, M210K, Y215X, S263P, E339G, R377C, S453L, and IVS5 + 1G>C) in 14 probands. Functional characterization of recombinant glutathionyl S-transferase-G72R glucokinase showed slightly increased activity, whereas S263P and G264S had near-normal activity. The other point mutations were inactivating. S263P showed marked thermal instability, whereas the stability of G72R and G264S differed only slightly from that of wild type. G72R and M210K did not respond to an allosteric glucokinase activator (GKA) or the hepatic glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). Mutation analysis of the role of glycine at position 72 by substituting E, F, K, M, S, or Q showed that G is unique since all these mutants had very low or no activity and were refractory to GKRP and GKA. Structural analysis provided plausible explanations for the drug resistance of G72R and M210K. Our study provides further evidence that protein instability in combination with loss of control by a putative endogenous activator and GKRP could be involved in the development of hyperglycemia in maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2. Furthermore, based on data obtained on G264S, we propose that other and still unknown mechanisms participate in the regulation of glucokinase. [less ▲]

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