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See detailLa cybersecurity come bene pubblico: alcune riflessioni normative a partire dai recenti sviluppi nel diritto UE
Brighi, Raffaella; Chiara, Pier Giorgio UL

in Federalismi.it (2021), 21

The article casts the light on how and to what extent the recent EU legislative developments can uphold the thesis that would identify cybersecurity as a public good, in particular, taking into account ... [more ▼]

The article casts the light on how and to what extent the recent EU legislative developments can uphold the thesis that would identify cybersecurity as a public good, in particular, taking into account systems’ robustness. The doctrine of the public good, which is typically an economic concept, in its normative dimension reveals a framework of shared responsibilities, in view of the common interest in having a satisfactory level of security of the information systems at the basis of our societies. Improving cybersecurity is essential, on the one hand, to trust and benefit from innovation, connectivity and automation; on the other hand, for safeguarding fundamental rights and freedoms, including the rights to privacy and to the protection of personal data, and the freedom of expression and information. Against this background, the new strategy of the European Commission on cybersecurity, the proposal for an NIS 2.0 Directive and, at a lower level of abstraction, the inclusion of minimum cybersecurity requirements for connected devices in the Directives and Regulations of the “New Legislative Framework” (NLF), testify the firm will of the Commission to outline a clear, coherent and inclusive regulatory framework, in order to increase the global level of security within the Union. [less ▲]

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See detailNational Justice vs. Occupiers’ Justice? A conflict of competence in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg during World War I
Wingerter, Elisabeth UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 08)

From the standpoint of international law, the entry of German troops on the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in August 1914 violated the small state’s neutrality. While the occupying German ... [more ▼]

From the standpoint of international law, the entry of German troops on the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in August 1914 violated the small state’s neutrality. While the occupying German authorities saw this act as an occupatio pacifica and the violation of its neutrality as a necessity in order to respond to a state of emergency, the Luxembourgish government and its justice administration had to cope with a new set of problems. The government, led by state minister Paul Eyschen, and the country’s monarchical leader Marie-Adélaïde pursued a strategy of appeasement towards the occupier, but also attempted to guard the sovereignty of their state as well as of their justice system. With the establishment of German military justice and a central police office in Luxembourg, the sovereignty of Luxembourg’s French-inspired justice was curtailed. However, German authorities made clear that they do not intend to challenge the spheres of local justice, unless cases of military relevance would arise. After all, Luxembourg was a country with close links to the Kaiserreich and an important industrial partner and therefore had to receive a privileged treatment compared to other occupied territories. However, with Luxembourgers being arrested by the German military and German soldiers committing crimes on Luxembourgish ground, the two justice systems, military and local, clashed. Since the status of the “friendly occupation” created legal misunderstandings, local judges, magistrates of the high court (cour supérieure) and German authorities stood in constant correspondence regarding a large amount of court cases and competence disputes. Consequently, in 1915, members of the high magistrate made their way to Frankfurt and Berlin to discuss the status of Luxembourgish justice. These discussions would eventually lead back to the question whether the country was truly to be considered a theater of war (Kriegsschauplatz). Overall, the discussion about the spheres of national and occupier justice became part of a much larger question: What is the legal nature of German occupation in Luxemburg? This paper explores how the two justice systems interacted and highlights court cases where their competences intertwined. These observations show how the local administration had to apply a mix of compromise and pertinacity in order to avoid open conflict but at the same time tried to keep Luxembourgish civilians out of the reach of German military justice. In doing so, several interesting observations can be made regarding the legal discussions between lawyers and prosecutors of both sides. Additionally, the paper offers an insight into a variety of local cases ranging from German soldiers marauding drunkenly on Luxemburgish streets to the arrest of a Luxembourgish judge and amateur historian. Overall, the presented paper attempts to show that while the local justice system was not altered by the occupier, it suffered a cut in its competence in certain spheres of civil justice. However, in comparison to the later Nazi occupation of Luxembourg, local justice administration and its personnel were kept in their place, but had to constantly negotiate certain aspects of civil and international law with the German authorities – often to their own disadvantage. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid Active-and-Passive Relaying Model for 6G-IoT Greencom Networks with SWIPT
Gautam, Sumit UL; Solanki, Sourabh UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL et al

in Sensors (2021), 21

In order to support a massive number of resource-constrained Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices and machine-type devices, it is crucial to design a future beyond 5G/6G wireless networks in an energy ... [more ▼]

In order to support a massive number of resource-constrained Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices and machine-type devices, it is crucial to design a future beyond 5G/6G wireless networks in an energy-efficient manner while incorporating suitable network coverage expansion methodologies. To this end, this paper proposes a novel two-hop hybrid active-and-passive relaying scheme to facilitate simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) considering both time-switching (TS) and power-splitting (PS) receiver architectures, while dynamically modelling the involved dual-hop time-period (TP) metric. An optimization problem is formulated to jointly optimize the throughput, harvested energy, and transmit power of a SWIPT-enabled system with the proposed hybrid scheme. In this regard, we provide two distinct ways to obtain suitable solutions based on the Lagrange dual technique and Dinkelbach method assisted convex programming, respectively, where both the approaches yield an appreciable solution within polynomial computational time. The experimental results are obtained by directly solving the primal problem using a non-linear optimizer. Our numerical results in terms of weighted utility function show the superior performance of the proposed hybrid scheme over passive repeater-only and active relay-only schemes, while also depicting their individual performance benefits over the corresponding benchmark SWIPT systems with the fixed-TP. [less ▲]

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See detailRussian Migration in Luxemburg. A Virtual Museum
Ganschow, Inna UL

Learning material (2021)

This virtual museum is dedicated to Russian migration in Luxembourg since the late 19th century. The basis for the early 20th century is the exhibition on the first Russian migrants in Luxembourg, created ... [more ▼]

This virtual museum is dedicated to Russian migration in Luxembourg since the late 19th century. The basis for the early 20th century is the exhibition on the first Russian migrants in Luxembourg, created by the Center for Documentation of Humane Migration in Dudelange, Luxembourg (CDMH) and the Luxembourg Center for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH, University of Luxembourg), which took place in Gare-Usine in Dudelange from March 2020 until August 2021. The online collection of the photographs, objects and texts from the exhibition are presented here on Hypotheses.org. The initiative to create a virtual museum belongs to the Russian Center for Science and Culture (Russkiy Dom) in Luxemburg. This collection will be replenished with additional items and documents, since the history of Forced Labor of Soviet Citizens in Luxembourg during the WII is a research topic of C2DH in 2021-2024. This website is addressed to academic readers (students, researchers, teachers), as well as readers interested in the history of Russia, Luxembourg and the history of migration. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Pricing Strategies in the Carsharing Business, Profit Maximization and Equity Considerations
Giorgione, Giulio UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

In the last two decades the development of mobile technology and the ease of access to an internet connection helped the consolidation of the sharing economy paradigm. This new way of purchasing goods and ... [more ▼]

In the last two decades the development of mobile technology and the ease of access to an internet connection helped the consolidation of the sharing economy paradigm. This new way of purchasing goods and services differs from old traditional business models since it enables a shared use of resources in order to save money and generate profit. As an important player in the sharing economy, sharing mobility continues, nowadays, to shape urban mobility with the introduction of different modes of shared transport such as carsharing, bike sharing, ride sourcing, and other collective mobility services. Different stakeholders participate in the creation and exploitation of these new mobility services: governmental agencies, customers, and private companies. Each of them has a specific purpose that can affect and stir the benefit of sharing platforms. Focusing on the carsharing service, on the business side and on the user side, profit and customer satisfaction are usually the main goals even if, at times, both difficult to pursue together. Competition on today's landscape leaves little room for both established and less established businesses. Opportunities to increase corporate profit become scarcer and more refined systems to better manage carsharing operations are needed to guarantee commercial viability. Evaluating business models for carsharing is no trivial task. Several methods are used for assessing the quality of changes in some operations or to evaluate possible approaches. Combinatorial and stochastic optimization are used to answer decision-making problems in the case of deterministic or uncertain problems. The shortcoming of these approaches is that they are limited at solving problems related to fleet management or service planning as it is more difficult to have an overview in which multiple properties (e.g., demography, territorial distribution, specificity of the fleet, ...) of both supply and demand are considered. This happens because car sharing is a highly complex service that has many interdependent factors. Given this complexity, a more favorable approach to estimate the demand for the service - together with all its peculiarities - and to help operators in the decision-making process, is the simulation one. This criterion allows the interaction of multiple factors which, through functional relationships between the decision-making parameters of the supplier, can introduce indicators to evaluate the quality of the solutions that cannot be easily derived analytically. This dissertation focuses on a simulation-based approach that aims to create a decision support system for carsharing business. This decision support system aims to use demographic and land use data as input, once the provider's needs are known, and to return solutions regarding the optimization of the carsharing service. The development of this thesis is conceived from the point of view of the service provider, even if considerations regarding the equity of the various strategies proposed therein for the service customers constitute an integral and fundamental part of the construction of this system of support for decisions. In this manuscript, we discuss the introduction of different dynamic pricing strategies that aim to increase the profit of the carsharing service, along with other indicators such as the number of bookings and utilization time of vehicles. By developing different price models, the introduction of dynamic prices based on the quantity of vehicles present in the station at the time of booking is evaluated and the output of the implementation of a dynamic price based on the time of the day is examined. In the first part of this thesis, we discuss how it is possible to evaluate the quality of a carsharing service from the point of view of its members, focusing on how different strategies generate or can reduce inequalities due to different wages or purchasing powers. Furthermore, using data collected by a car-sharing company operating in Germany and the United Kingdom, Oply, we implement these same strategies in a scenario calibrated with real data. Finally, we propose a methodology for calibrating carsharing scenarios in an agent-based environment.Moreover, we use these scenarios to demonstrate how it is possible, once there is complete knowledge of the demand and the status of the offer, to attribute a certain price to a single booking that maximizes the profit of the service. The overall results show that the introduction of dynamic pricing strategies does not always benefit all segments of the population and that the goals of a carsharing company are not always compatible with those of its members. Furthermore, they show how it is possible to increase the profit of a carsharing company accordingly to its position on the market, whether it has a total knowledge of the territory or not, whether it is an established company or not yet fully established. As we will also see in the final chapter of this thesis, the product of this work does not consist only in a practical contribution aimed mostly at carsharing companies, but also in a scientific counterpart that outlines new research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailKeynote: Transnational Families and Childhood throughout the 20th Century
Venken, Machteld UL

Presentation (2021, September 03)

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See detailLuxembourg Perspectives on Pre-Service Teacher Motivation: What Factors Influence the Choice of Becoming a Teacher, Perseverance and Success?
Rivas, Salvador UL; Poncelet, Débora UL; Reeff, Alain et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September 02)

In 2016, UNESCO estimated that 24.4 million primary school teachers and another 44.4 million secondary school teachers were needed to provide every child in the world access to education. Widespread ... [more ▼]

In 2016, UNESCO estimated that 24.4 million primary school teachers and another 44.4 million secondary school teachers were needed to provide every child in the world access to education. Widespread teacher shortages have led researchers to investigate what motivates candidates to become teachers and to remain in the profession (see for example Watt et al., 2012). Luxembourg is no exception, in 2019 for example, the government wanted to hire 320 new teachers at the fundamental school level; however, only 63 graduates from the country’s main teacher training programme at the University of Luxembourg took the required state exam to join the teaching ranks. The country needs 300 to 400 new fundamental schoolteachers per year to keep up with population growth. To help address this need, we draw on 10 years of admissions data (exam performance and noncognitive indicators) collected from candidates seeking entry to the University of Luxembourg’s teacher training programme. Our study investigates the major correlates, similarities and differences, between candidates that never-registered, i.e., candidates that after being admitted never start the programme; drop-outs, i.e., students that start but never finish; and of course, those that persist until completion. While circumstances may differ between these types of candidates, the first two nevertheless took-up the place that someone else who could have finished and possibly become a teacher. In light of the pressing need for more teachers, this study identifies important factors associated with showing up and staying in the programme until the end. Policy implications are described and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTest Case Selection and Prioritization Using Machine Learning: A Systematic Literature Review
Pan, Rongqi; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Ghaleb, Taher et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2021)

Regression testing is an essential activity to assure that software code changes do not adversely a ect existing functionalities. With the wide adoption of Continuous Integration (CI) in software projects ... [more ▼]

Regression testing is an essential activity to assure that software code changes do not adversely a ect existing functionalities. With the wide adoption of Continuous Integration (CI) in software projects, which increases the frequency of running software builds, running all tests can be time-consuming and resource-intensive. To alleviate that problem, Test case Selection and Prioritiza- tion (TSP) techniques have been proposed to improve regression testing by selecting and prioritizing test cases in order to provide early feedback to developers. In recent years, researchers have relied on Machine Learning (ML) techniques to achieve e ective TSP (ML-based TSP). Such techniques help combine information about test cases, from partial and imperfect sources, into accurate prediction models. This work conducts a systematic literature review focused on ML-based TSP techniques, aiming to perform an in-depth analysis of the state of the art, thus gaining insights regarding fu- ture avenues of research. To that end, we analyze 29 primary studies published from 2006 to 2020, which have been identi ed through a systematic and documented process. This paper addresses ve research questions addressing variations in ML-based TSP techniques and feature sets for training and testing ML models, alternative metrics used for evaluating the techniques, the performance of techniques, and the reproducibility of the published studies. We summarize the results related to our research questions in a high-level summary that can be used as a taxonomy for classifying future TSP studies. [less ▲]

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See detailTo Buffer or Not To Buffer: IEEE 802.11p/bd Performance Under Different Buffering Strategies
Baiocchi, Andrea; Turcanu, Ion UL; Vinel, Alexey

in 33 Edition of International Teletraffic Congress (ITC), Avignon, France, August 31st - September 3rd 2021 (2021, September)

A fundamental paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT) consists of agents that communicate updates to each other to perform joint actions, e.g., cooperative awareness in transportation systems, swarms of ... [more ▼]

A fundamental paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT) consists of agents that communicate updates to each other to perform joint actions, e.g., cooperative awareness in transportation systems, swarms of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), fleet of robots, automated assembly lines and logistics. A common feature of update messaging is emphasis on reliable throughput and freshness of collected data. We develop an analytical model that yields accurate predictions of all relevant metrics, both in terms of moments and probability distributions, for the case of one-hop broadcast update messages exchanged by using a CSMA-based wireless network. The model is validated against simulations and then applied to compare two update message scheduling approaches: providing a minimal buffer resource or providing no buffer. Surprisingly, we prove that having no buffer improves Age of Information (AoI) performance as well as message delivery rate, in spite of dropped packets. This is essentially due to much smaller congestion and hence collision probability in the wireless channel. From a system point of view this suggests a simple design of message handling, with no need of buffering and overwriting older messages. From a modeling point of view, the result supports the definition of simpler models that need not keep into account buffer state. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit à la sauce piquante n°24 - Septembre 2021
Hiez, David UL; Laurent, Rémi

in Le droit à la sauce piquante (2021), 24

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See detailAdaptive Practice Quizzing in a University Lecture: A Pre-Registered Field Experiment
Heitmann, Svenja; Obergassel, Niklas; Fries, Stefan et al

in Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition (2021)

Providing quiz questions has emerged as a powerful means to support learning. However, it is still unclear whether adaptive practice quizzing will enhance beneficial effects in authentic contexts. To ... [more ▼]

Providing quiz questions has emerged as a powerful means to support learning. However, it is still unclear whether adaptive practice quizzing will enhance beneficial effects in authentic contexts. To address this question, university students (N = 188; n = 155 female) were randomly assigned to employ either adaptive practice quizzing, nonadaptive practice quizzing, or note-taking following three consecutive sessions of a standard psychology university lecture for undergraduate pre-service teachers. In the adaptive practice quizzing condition, quiz questions were adapted to learners’ expertise via cognitive demand ratings, whereas in the non-adaptive condition quiz questions followed a fixed sequence. Students in the adaptive practice quizzing condition outperformed those in the nonadaptive condition after a two-week delay, but not after a one-week delay. Exploratory mediation analyses show that performance on the quiz questions during the learning phase seems to be partly responsible for this effect. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal Governance. A Short History of Debates Born with the Telegraph and Popularized by the Internet
Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie UL

in Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie (Eds.) Global Governance. A Short History of Debates Born with the Telegraph and Popularized by the Internet (2021, September)

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also ... [more ▼]

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also studied particular issues that are relevant to Internet governance, e.g. openness and net neutrality. History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the past 30 years, with key turning points such as the creation of ICANN and WSIS) and to flesh out continuities through time with other “global media” or “global issues,” such as international standardization, multi-stakeholderism, and communication rights. This chapter addresses these issues at three levels: periodization of the key concept of “global governance” since the 90s; evolution of the state of the art/research on global (Internet) governance; analysis of global governance in the broader field of media and communication. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional inequalities on path space of sub-Riemannian manifolds and applications
Cheng, Li Juan UL; Grong, Erlend; Thalmaier, Anton UL

in Nonlinear Analysis (2021), 210(112387), 1-30

We consider the path space of a manifold with a measure induced by a stochastic flow with an infinitesimal generator that is hypoelliptic, but not elliptic. These generators can be seen as sub-Laplacians ... [more ▼]

We consider the path space of a manifold with a measure induced by a stochastic flow with an infinitesimal generator that is hypoelliptic, but not elliptic. These generators can be seen as sub-Laplacians of a sub-Riemannian structure with a chosen complement. We introduce a concept of gradient for cylindrical functionals on path space in such a way that the gradient operators are closable in L^2. With this structure in place, we show that a bound on horizontal Ricci curvature is equivalent to several inequalities for functions on path space, such as a gradient inequality, log-Sobolev inequality and Poincaré inequality. As a consequence, we also obtain a bound for the spectral gap of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck operator. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterizing the Impact of Network Delay on Bitcoin Mining
Cao, Tong UL; Decouchant, Jérémie UL; Yu, Jiangshan et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

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See detailIngeborg Bachmanns Simultan und die Frage der Rechtsbindung in Zeiten von Multilingualität und Transkulturalität
Becker, Katrin UL

in Walter, Tonio; Schramm, Edward (Eds.) Dichtung und Wahrheit - und Recht (2021)

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See detailAvant-propos
Scuto, Denis UL

in Frisoni, Claude; Reuter, Raymond (Eds.) Les rouges et le noir (2021)

Denis Scuto has written a foreword for the catalogue of the exhibition realised by writer Claude Frisoni and photographer Raymond Reuter on the history of the antifascist Italian mining workers in the ... [more ▼]

Denis Scuto has written a foreword for the catalogue of the exhibition realised by writer Claude Frisoni and photographer Raymond Reuter on the history of the antifascist Italian mining workers in the ARBED mine Montrouge overlapping the French-Luxembourgish frontier and their persecution during Nazi occupation, also presenting the testimonies of some of their children and grand-children: Norbert and Roland Rutili, sons of Vittorio Rutili, arrested by Gestapo on February 3 1944, killed in concentration camp of Schorzinger (Struthof), Raymond Peruzzi, son of Luigi Peruzzi, arrested by Gestapo on September 9 1942, deported to SS-camp Hinzert (near Trier) and forced labourer for Siemens in Berlin, Aurélie Filippetti, grand-daughter of Tommaso Filippetti, arrested by Gestapo on February 3 1944 and who died in concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen on April 12 1945, Jean-Pierre Barboni, grand-son of Domenico Bordicchia, arrested on October 23 1942 and deported to Hinzert and Ventotene. [less ▲]

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See detailProfessionsorientiertes Lehren und Lernen in der Lehrkräftebildung. Erfahrungen mit hochschuldidaktischen Settings in der Fremdsprachendidaktik
Morys, Nancy UL

in Grünewald, Andreas; Noack-Ziegler, Sabrina; Tassinari, Maria Giovanna (Eds.) et al Fremdsprachendidaktik als Wissenschaft und Ausbildungsdisziplin (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 UL)