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See detailAnalysis of residual stress relaxation of aluminum alloys EN AW 6061/-82 T6 under cyclic loading
Repplinger, Christian UL; Sellen, Stephan UL; Kedziora, Slawomir UL et al

in Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures (2021)

Stress relaxation describes the reduction of stress under static or cyclic loading at a constant strain level. Several processes induce intentionally residual stresses, for example, autofrettage of thick ... [more ▼]

Stress relaxation describes the reduction of stress under static or cyclic loading at a constant strain level. Several processes induce intentionally residual stresses, for example, autofrettage of thick-walled pressurized tubes to improve their fatigue life. This well-known process induces residual compressive stresses at the critical inner surface by using a single static but controlled over- loading internal pressure. Relaxation of residual stresses due to cyclic loading in service would endanger the effectiveness of autofrettage and could finally lead to unexpected fatigue failure. In this study, strain-controlled experiments up to 500,000 load cycles and amending nonlinear finite element simulations were done for the aluminum alloys EN AW 6061 T6 and EN AW 6082 T6 to study potential cyclic stress relaxation in four-point bending tests after con- trolled single static plasticization for residual stress generation. This analysis identifies almost stable residual stresses for both materials under different cyclic strain-controlled load levels. [less ▲]

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See detailDo We Really Need TSN in Next-Generation Helicopters? Insights From a Case-Study
Mauclair, Cédric; Gutiérrez, Marina; Migge, Jörn et al

in 2021 AIAA/IEEE 40th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC) (2021, October)

As Ethernet rapidly replaces legacy networks as the core high-speed network in helicopter’s avionics and mission systems, we ask in this paper the question of the technical benefits of migrating to ... [more ▼]

As Ethernet rapidly replaces legacy networks as the core high-speed network in helicopter’s avionics and mission systems, we ask in this paper the question of the technical benefits of migrating to Ethernet Time-Sensitive-Networking (TSN). Indeed, TSN has become a rich toolbox of mechanisms and protocols to address Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements pertaining to timing and reliability. TSN is quickly becoming the prominent technology for wired high-speed communications in a variety of application domains like automotive, industry 4.0 and telecom. In this context, this work explores the use of TSN timing QoS mechanisms for helicopter’s avionics and mission systems on a case-study representative of the communication requirements of next-generation systems. This study aims to provide quantified insights into what can be expected from TSN in terms of timing, memory usage and extensibility. [less ▲]

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See detailUncovering Digital History’s forgotten roots: the work of the Association for History and Computing
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Presentation (2021, October)

This talk has two parts. It will first attempt to frame what a history of digital history might look like, by focusing on hybridity as a key characteristic of historical research, seen as some form of ... [more ▼]

This talk has two parts. It will first attempt to frame what a history of digital history might look like, by focusing on hybridity as a key characteristic of historical research, seen as some form of integrating newly emerging tools, technologies, materials, and/or practices in historical research, and mapped and qualified according to the main phases of historical research. My main argument here is that, in order to ground our current ‘digital’ practices and learn from past experiences and expertise, we need an answer to the question: what were, and are, the continuities and ruptures in the use and uptake of new technologies in historical research, and in the debates that accompanied them? The paper will then proceed to outline what groundwork is necessary to explore digital history’s forgotten roots: a basic overview of the field’s different spatio-temporal trajectories and the networks of computing historians in the pre-PC and early PC period. A key focal point for such a reconstruction are the DH conferences that took place in the 1960s and 1970s, either as singular events or strands of bigger conferences such as the International Congress of Historical Sciences in Moscow in 1970, and later those that were organised under the aegis of the Association for History and Computing (AHC, 1987-2001) and its national member organisations. By studying which scholars attended and where they came from, and by linking that to the topics and methods that were discussed, it will be possible to chart, over time, shifting geographical, topical and methodological developments. In the second part of my paper, I will provide the first results of a concrete case study which is part of this broader endeavour, namely a web archaeology of the old AHC website and H-NET Discussion List for History and Computing (now: H-Digital History). [less ▲]

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See detailDichtungsanalyse von Elastomer-O-Ringen unter Hochdruck bei Raum- und Tieftemperatur
Repplinger, Christian UL; Sellen, Stephan UL; Maas, Stefan UL

in Repplinger, Christian (Ed.) 47. VDI-Jahrestagung: Schadensanalyse 2021 - Wasserstoff in metallischen Bauteilen und Mediale und klimatische Beanspruchung von polymeren Produkten (2021, October)

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See detailDeep Learning to Predict the Feasibility of Priority-Based Ethernet Network Configurations
Mai, Tieu Long UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

in ACM Transactions on Cyber-Physical Systems (2021), 5(4), 126

Machine learning has been recently applied in real-time systems to predict whether Ethernet network configurations are feasible in terms of meeting deadline constraints without executing conventional ... [more ▼]

Machine learning has been recently applied in real-time systems to predict whether Ethernet network configurations are feasible in terms of meeting deadline constraints without executing conventional schedulability analysis. However, the existing prediction techniques require domain expertise to choose the relevant input features and do not perform consistently when topologies or traffic patterns differ significantly from the ones in the training data. To overcome these problems, we propose a Graph Neural Network (GNN) prediction model that synthesizes relevant features directly from the raw data. This deep learning model possesses the ability to exploit relations among flows, links, and queues in switched Ethernet networks, and generalizes to unseen topologies and traffic patterns. We also explore the use of ensembles of GNNs and show that it enhances the robustness of the predictions. An evaluation on heterogeneous testing sets comprising realistic automotive networks, shows that ensembles of 32 GNN models features a prediction accuracy ranging from 79.3% to 90% for Ethernet networks using priorities as the Quality-of-Service mechanism. The use of ensemble models provides a speedup factor ranging from 77 to 1715 compared to schedulability analysis, which allows a far more extensive design space exploration. [less ▲]

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See detailProvably Improving Election Verifiability in Belenios
Baloglu, Sevdenur UL; Bursuc, Sergiu UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL et al

in Electronic Voting 6th International Joint Conference, E-Vote-ID 2021 Virtual Event, October 5–8, 2021, Proceedings (2021, October)

Belenios is an online voting system that provides a strong notion of election verifiability, where no single party has to be trusted, and security holds as soon as either the voting registrar or the ... [more ▼]

Belenios is an online voting system that provides a strong notion of election verifiability, where no single party has to be trusted, and security holds as soon as either the voting registrar or the voting server is honest. It was formally proved to be secure, making the assump- tion that no further ballots are cast on the bulletin board after voters verified their ballots. In practice, however, revoting is allowed and voters can verify their ballots anytime. This gap between formal proofs and use in practice leaves open space for attacks, as has been shown recently. In this paper we make two simple additions to Belenios and we formally prove that the new version satisfies the expected verifiability properties. Our proofs are automatically performed with the Tamarin prover, under the assumption that voters are allowed to vote at most four times. [less ▲]

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See detailProvably Improving Election Verifiability in Belenios
Baloglu, Sevdenur UL; Bursuc, Sergiu UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL et al

in Electronic Voting 6th International Joint Conference, E-Vote-ID 2021 Virtual Event, October 5–8, 2021, Proceedings (2021, October)

Belenios is an online voting system that provides a strong notion of election verifiability, where no single party has to be trusted, and security holds as soon as either the voting registrar or the ... [more ▼]

Belenios is an online voting system that provides a strong notion of election verifiability, where no single party has to be trusted, and security holds as soon as either the voting registrar or the voting server is honest. It was formally proved to be secure, making the assump- tion that no further ballots are cast on the bulletin board after voters verified their ballots. In practice, however, revoting is allowed and voters can verify their ballots anytime. This gap between formal proofs and use in practice leaves open space for attacks, as has been shown recently. In this paper we make two simple additions to Belenios and we formally prove that the new version satisfies the expected verifiability properties. Our proofs are automatically performed with the Tamarin prover, under the assumption that voters are allowed to vote at most four times. [less ▲]

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See detail"Just for the sake of transparency": Exploring Voter Mental Models Of Verifiability
Zollinger, Marie-Laure UL; Estaji, Ehsan UL; Ryan, Peter Y A UL et al

in Electronic Voting, Sixth International Joint Conference, E-Vote-ID 2021, Bregenz, Austria, October 5-8 (2021, October)

Verifiable voting schemes allow voters to verify their individual votes and the election outcome. The voting protocol Selene offers verification of plaintext votes while preserving privacy. Misconceptions ... [more ▼]

Verifiable voting schemes allow voters to verify their individual votes and the election outcome. The voting protocol Selene offers verification of plaintext votes while preserving privacy. Misconceptions of verification mechanisms might result in voters mistrust of the system or abstaining from using it. In this paper, we interviewed 24 participants and invited them to illustrate their mental models of Selene. The drawings demonstrated different levels of sophistication and four mental models: 1) technology understanding, 2) meaning of the verification phase, 3) security concerns, and 4) unnecessary steps. We highlight the misconceptions expressed regarding Internet voting technologies and the system design. Based on our findings, we conclude with recommendations for future implementations of Selene as well as for the design of Internet voting systems in general. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of economic complexity on the formation of gender roles
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailErnährungssouveränität: Katzentisch statt Mitbestimmung
Adami, Joël; Reckinger, Rachel UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailGetting Creative - AI and Arts
Schommer, Christoph UL

in Keynote Talk; AIFA - Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Arts (2021)

Keynote Talk "Getting Creative - AI and Arts"; AIFA - Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Arts

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See detailEssays on Human Capital, Inequality, and Income
Menta, Giorgia UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

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See detailL’épreuve de la démocratie ou la démocratie à l’épreuve ?
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2021)

Considérée parmi les valeurs et principes universels et indivisibles, la démocratie fournit le cadre juste pour l’exercice et la protection des droits humain. C’est ainsi que les Nations Unies adoptent le ... [more ▼]

Considérée parmi les valeurs et principes universels et indivisibles, la démocratie fournit le cadre juste pour l’exercice et la protection des droits humain. C’est ainsi que les Nations Unies adoptent le 15 septembre 1997 la Déclaration universelle sur la démocratie, dont le 10e anniversaire donne lieu la Journée internationale de la démocratie, marquée chaque année depuis 2007, pour sensibiliser à ce sujet les gouvernements et citoyens du monde entier. Depuis 2020, la crise du Covid-19 avec ses défis sociaux, politiques et juridiques majeurs à l'échelle mondiale, ne cesse de mettre la démocratie à l’épreuve en attaquant certains de ses principes constitutifs, notamment la liberté, l’équité, la justice, l’état de droit. Une prise de conscience s’impose. [less ▲]

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See detailHousing Exclusion and Social Work Strategies in Luxembourg
Dujardin, Céline UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 24)

In the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, the demand for affordable housing is significantly higher than the existing offer (Reuter, 2017). For financially disadvantaged households, the housing costs around 40 ... [more ▼]

In the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, the demand for affordable housing is significantly higher than the existing offer (Reuter, 2017). For financially disadvantaged households, the housing costs around 40% of the available budget represent a very high expenditure. Ametepe (2019) observed an exacerbation of the risk of poverty in relation to housing costs. The SOHOME (SOcial housing and HOMElessness) project pursues research questions related to individuals who are experiencing housing difficulties in Luxembourg, thereby drawing the current state-of-affairs as well as exploring potential solutions. Main questions are: (1) “What characterizes the concerned population in Luxembourg?”, (2) “How do social policies and social work respond to the identified issues?” and (3) “What are the main challenges of the social work in the field of homelessness and housing exclusion?” Through the qualitative design, several focus groups and interviews with social workers provide important insights to answer the research questions. Probably the largest proportion of homelessness services across Europe consists of low-threshold services that provide basic support outside of the housing sector or emergency/temporary accommodation. In contrast, services that immediately provide homeless people with a permanent home are only present to a certain extent in most countries (Pleace, Baptista, Benjaminsen & Busch-Geertsema, 2018). The SOHOME project targets various social services, from the emergency accommodation to the municipal social welfare office. The results from the discussions with social workers acting in the municipal social welfare offices show how great the demand for social and affordable living room is and how present forms of housing exclusion as well as solution-focused strategies are. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a Decision Support System for Incorporating Risk Assessments during the System Design of Microsatellites
Pandi Perumal, Raja UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

The primary purpose of this research is to develop a decision support system for the early design of an optimal and reliable satellite while making the overall conceptual design process more efficient ... [more ▼]

The primary purpose of this research is to develop a decision support system for the early design of an optimal and reliable satellite while making the overall conceptual design process more efficient. Generally, a satellite design process begins with a mission definition followed by the functional design of the satellite system. Beyond this, the design goes through several iterations and eventually results in a detailed satellite system design. Only then does it make sense to feed in the piece-part information to estimate the reliability of the entire satellite system. Predicted reliability from this bottom-up method may sometimes be markedly lower than the requirements. In such case, the maturity of the design is brought down, and mitigation strategies need to be implemented to meet the reliability requirements. Consequently, introducing new or redundant parts as a mitigation approach can violate the previously satisfied requirements such as mass, power and cost. Furthermore, additional design iterations are needed until all the requirements are met. Therefore, this design approach is expensive, inefficient, and can be avoided if reliability is considered from the early design phase. However, the challenge is to simultaneously perform reliability analysis and system design as they are entirely different engineering disciplines. In this research, a decision support system: DESIRA is developed to bridge the gap between these two engineering disciplines and incorporate reliability assessments during the early design phase, thus resulting in a truly optimal satellite design. With its unique features such as Reliability Allocation, Reliability Growth, Multidisciplinary Design Optimization and Reliability-Based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization, DESIRA effectively aids the system design at each maturity level. [less ▲]

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See detailMetascience: Disrupting the status quo or perpetuating inequities
Kozlowski, Diego UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 23)

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See detailDyPS: Dynamic, Private and Secure GWAS (Summary) - GenoPri'21 Talk
Pascoal, Túlio UL; Decouchant, Jérémie; Boutet, Antoine et al

Presentation (2021, September 22)

Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) identify the genomic variations that are statistically associated with a particular phenotype (e.g., a disease). GWAS results, i.e., statistics, benefit research and ... [more ▼]

Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) identify the genomic variations that are statistically associated with a particular phenotype (e.g., a disease). GWAS results, i.e., statistics, benefit research and personalized medicine. The confidence in GWAS increases with the number of genomesanalyzed, which encourages federated computations where biocenters periodically include newly sequenced genomes. However, for legal and economical reasons, this collaboration can only happen if a release of GWAS results never jeopardizes the genomic privacy of data donors, if biocenters retain ownership and cannot learn each others’ data. Furthermore, given the reduced cost of sequencing DNA nowadays, there is now a need to update GWAS results in a dynamic manner, while enabling donors to withdraw consent at any time. Therefore, two challenges need to be simultaneously addressed to enable federated and dynamic GWAS: (i) the computation of GWAS statistics must rely on secure and privacy-preserving methods; and (ii) GWAS results that are publicly released should not allow any form of privacy attack. In this talk, we will introduce the problem we consider in more detail and present DyPS, the framework we have designed and recently presented at the Privacy Enhancing Technologies Symposium (PETS). We refer the reader to the full paper1 for the details we cannot cover in this short version. [less ▲]

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See detailGene-by-environment modulation of lifespan and weight gain in the murine BXD family
Roy, Suheeta; Bou Sleiman, Maroun; Jha, Pooja et al

in Nature Metabolism (2021)

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See detailQuantum transport in topological condensed matter systems
Ekström, Carl Johan Ingvar UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Topology in condensed matter physics is a field that has exploded in the last two decades. With the realization of its importance, some previously unexplained observations can now be explained. With the ... [more ▼]

Topology in condensed matter physics is a field that has exploded in the last two decades. With the realization of its importance, some previously unexplained observations can now be explained. With the progress of time, many new topological phases of matter have been discovered, and topological materials have been shown to be fairly common in nature. Topological materials have further been shown to have properties that may be extremely useful for new technologies, such as spintronics and fault-tolerant quantum computation. The field is however, still evolving, and many properties of these materials are still unknown. In this thesis, we investigate how some of these types of materials react to applied external fields and the theories that can explain these observations. First, we investigate systems of coupled Majorana bound states. More specifically, we focus on the transport properties of the Majorana box and the T-junction in the presence of charging effects, overlap between the Majorana bound states, and multiple terminals connected to the system. To obtain the transport properties, we apply a master equation and calculate the current through the systems as biases are applied to the different terminals. By tuning the gate voltage, the transport is investigated in both the regime where sequential tunneling is dominating as well as the Coulomb blockaded regime, where cotunneling is the leading transport process. When sequential tunneling is dominating, the transport is mediated by both single electrons tunneling as well as processes that involve the creation and annihilation of Cooper pairs. In the Coulomb blockaded regime, transport is driven by cotunneling processes by transitions via virtual states. The results here show that four-terminal measurements can be a useful tool to characterize the properties of Majorana bound states with finite overlap and charging energy. Secondly, we study the optical activity of tilted nodal loop semimetals. The inherent Hall conductivity of topological materials makes the Kerr effect an excellent tool for investigating their properties. Here we first calculate the full conductivity tensor for a tilted nodal loop semimetal, where the tilt is in the $ k_{x} - k_{y} $ plane. The conductivity tensor allows us to calculate the Kerr effect. We study this both for a thin film and a bulk material and we fin, in general, that the Kerr effect is large, similar to other topological materials. Finally, we investigate electronic hydrodynamics in anomalous Hall insulators. First we derive the Navier-Stokes equations for topological materials and show that they are modified due to the Berry curvature. Secondly, we consider the flow in a narrow channel and the application of a small electric field. In this case, the Hall current can be neglected since it is much smaller than the longitudinal current. Flow in narrow channels conventionally leads to Poiseuille flow. However, as shown, the Berry curvature modifies the flow profile and shifts the maximum of the current profile towards one of the edges. Thirdly, we study the flow in an infinite geometry. In this case, it is shown that the Berry curvature induces whirlpools as well as causing an asymmetry in the profile of the electrical potential. Experimentally this can be observed by measuring the non-local resistance. [less ▲]

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