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See detailWhich demographic and socio-economic factors are associated with vaccination willingness and beliefs towards vaccination? Rapid report with first results
Leist, Anja UL; Klee, Matthias UL; Paccoud, Ivana UL et al

Report (2021)

In the framework of the CoVaLux project on vaccination and long COVID in Luxembourg, the project “Socio-economic determinants of long COVID and vaccination, and economic consequences with focus on labour ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the CoVaLux project on vaccination and long COVID in Luxembourg, the project “Socio-economic determinants of long COVID and vaccination, and economic consequences with focus on labour market and health care” aims to triangulate evidence from different data sources such as social security and general population data, the national cohort CON-VINCE as well as national health surveys. We seek to arrive at robust assessments of how socio-economic determinants shape vaccination willingness, occurrence, severity and persistence of long COVID, and economic consequences of long COVID in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a screeneing tool for functional vision impairments in early childhood
Monteiro, Sara UL; Esch, Pascale UL; Hipp, Géraldine et al

Scientific Conference (2021, November 11)

Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is a term used to designate a neurological disorder of the visual pathways impacting visual processes at any given level (Lueck et al., 2019). Due to the advances n ... [more ▼]

Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is a term used to designate a neurological disorder of the visual pathways impacting visual processes at any given level (Lueck et al., 2019). Due to the advances n perinatal and medicinal care, CVI’s occurrence has increased significantly over the last years (Chokron & Dutton, 2016). The condition almost always entails aggregated functional vision impairments, i.e., limitations on the use of binocular vision during everyday tasks (Dutton, 2015). CVI can have effects on school achievements if undetected. Early detection is thus key to offer appropriate aids to avoid a negative impact on learning processes. The aim of this project is to develop a large-scale screener at the beginning of formal schooling, to identify functional vision impairments early on. For this reason, a set of items assessing different visual functions will be incorporated into the Luxembourgish school monitoring program. Based on a theoretical model of object recognition (Humphreys and Riddoch, 1987), we developed items that can be administered in a classroom setting which target different stages of visual perceptual processing, as well as visual functions connected with both dorsal and ventral streams, visual spatial processing and visual memory. We will present the design of the large-scale screener in relation to the theoretical model, as well as the rationale used to include or exclude various perceptual visual functions in the final test. Furthermore, we will explain the foreseen data collection and tool validation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailFrontières et pluralité des marchés du travail : l’exemple du Luxembourg
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, rachid

Scientific Conference (2021, November 11)

L’objet de cette communication est d’aborder la structuration des marchés transfrontaliers du travail. La situation du Luxembourg est particulièrement riche d’enseignements empiriques et théoriques. Dans ... [more ▼]

L’objet de cette communication est d’aborder la structuration des marchés transfrontaliers du travail. La situation du Luxembourg est particulièrement riche d’enseignements empiriques et théoriques. Dans ce petit pays au cœur de la Grande Région SaarLorLux, les frontières se vivent au quotidien. Le marché du travail est ouvert sur ses régions frontalières ainsi que sur l’espace mondial. Dans ce contexte, deux questions organisent notre problématique : Quels sont les effets des frontières sur la structuration du marché du travail ? Et quelles grilles de lectures théoriques paraissent les plus appropriées pour analyser cette structuration particulière du marché du travail ? [less ▲]

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See detailPresenter: Childhood in Times of Political Transformation in the 20th Century
Venken, Machteld UL

Presentation (2021, November 11)

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See detailAnalogical Transfer despite Misleading Information in 2.5-5.5-year-olds
Bobrowicz, Katarzyna UL

Presentation (2021, November 11)

Analogical transfer is a pivotal skill early in life and has been repeatedly investigated by developmental psychologists. Recently, it was shown that already 2.5-year-olds are capable of such transfers ... [more ▼]

Analogical transfer is a pivotal skill early in life and has been repeatedly investigated by developmental psychologists. Recently, it was shown that already 2.5-year-olds are capable of such transfers, even with a 24-hour delay between two analogical situations [1; cf. 2, 3]. This ability, however, is poorly reflected in early curricula, failing to build upon early problem- solving flexibility. In this study, analogical transfer of relevant information despite irrelevant, distracting or misleading information is investigated in 2.5- to 5.5-year-olds. Children participate in a play session at day-care facilities and preschools, where they attempt to transfer relevant tool-use knowledge across two analogical problems despite a distracting or a misleading problem solved in between. Preliminary results suggest that 2.5-to-5.5-year-olds are capable of discarding both distracting and misleading information in analogical transfers. Further data collection should show whether this ability correlates with general intelligence, executive function, and bi-/multilingualism. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing Automatic Item Generation in the context of the Épreuves Standardisées (Épstan): A pilot study on effects of altering item characteristics and semantic embeddings
Michels, Michael Andreas UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Inostroza Fernandez, Pamela Isabel UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, November 11)

Assessing mathematical skills in national school monitoring programs such as the Luxembourgish Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan) creates a constant demand of developing high-quality items that is both ... [more ▼]

Assessing mathematical skills in national school monitoring programs such as the Luxembourgish Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan) creates a constant demand of developing high-quality items that is both expensive and time-consuming. One approach to provide high-quality items in a more efficient way is Automatic Item Generation (AIG, Gierl, 2013). Instead of creating single items, cognitive item models form the base for an algorithmic generation of a large number of new items with supposedly identical item characteristics. The stability of item characteristics is questionable, however, when different semantic embeddings are used to present the mathematical problems (Dewolf, Van Dooren, & Verschaffel, 2017, Hoogland, et al., 2018). Given culture-specific knowledge differences in students, it is not guaranteed that illustrations showing everyday activities do not differentially impact item difficulty (Martin, et al., 2012). Moreover, the prediction of empirical item difficulties based on theoretical rationales has proved to be difficult (Leighton & Gierl, 2011). This paper presents a first attempt to better understand the impact of (a) different semantic embeddings, and (b) problem-related variations on mathematics items in grades 1 (n = 2338), 3 (n = 3835) and 5 (n = 3377) within the context of ÉpStan. In total, 30 mathematical problems were presented in up to 4 different versions, either using different but equally plausible semantic contexts or altering the problem’s content characteristics. Preliminary results of IRT-scaling and DIF-analysis reveal substantial effects of both, the embedding, as well as the problem characteristics on general item difficulties as well as on subgroup level. Further results and implications for developing mathematic items, and specifically, for using AIG in the course of Épstan will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Photovoltaic Hosting Capacity in Distribution Grid via Grid Reconfigurations, PV Droops and Battery Inverter Control
Torchyan, Khachatur UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

The EU 2030 climate and energy framework has set a mandatory goal to achieve a renewable energy share in the final energy demand of 32% by 2030. Moreover, in the final National Energy and Climate Plan ... [more ▼]

The EU 2030 climate and energy framework has set a mandatory goal to achieve a renewable energy share in the final energy demand of 32% by 2030. Moreover, in the final National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) Luxembourg has defined its renewable generation share goal at 25% by 2030. Between 2018 and 2019, three times more photovoltaic (PV) panels were installed than in the previous years. To achieve the NECP target and to ensure further smooth integration of PV systems, the PV hosting capacity (HC) of the grid should be enhanced. This thesis discusses the common issues and current developments of HC enhancement and presents three HC enhancement techniques: grid reconfiguration and grid-code modification, extended current droop control and transformer loading control. First, the thesis analyzes the potential of grid reconfiguration in HC enhancement. For the analysis the grid configurations are divided into meshed and radial subsets. The grid reconfiguration analysis and HC calculation are done using pandapower and NetworkX library. The cross-influence and the location of DG are considered while determining the HC of the grid. The analysis shows that proper grid configuration selection is important as it can substantially increase the HC and decrease the average loading in the lines. Second, the impact of extended current droops on HC enhancement is investigated. In the designed extended current droops (Id(V ), Iq(V )), extra reactive power reserve is made available by changing the droop gain of the reactive current droop when the overvoltage is not cleared by the existing reactive power reserve. The simulations proved that the extended current droops are a viable grid reinforcement strategy which can not only regulate the voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC), but also relax the transformer loading and improve overall voltage and frequency stability. Additionally, oversizing of the inverter increases the reactive power reserve, which in turn lowers the voltage profile and decreases the amount of curtailed active power. Finally, two novel communication-less transformer overloading protection strategies based on a battery energy storage (BES): transformer protection droops (TPD) and direct loading control (DLC), are designed and compared. Both strategies force the PV inverters to curtail their active power output without relying on communication. The strategies have been tested on detailed models, where the total installed PV power varies between 0.9 to 2 times the transformer rating. The static and dynamic performance of the DLC is superior to the TPD control strategy. DLC is a robust control strategy. It can reduce the transformer loading by 41%, compared to the grid configuration without BES and bring the system to the steady-state within 700ms in the worst-case scenario. It also ensures to keep the system voltages within safe operational limits. It can be used as a backup active power curtailment solution in the cases of communication failure in centralized control. [less ▲]

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See detailApplying the Presumption of Innocence to Policing with AI
Blount, Kelly UL

in International Review of Penal Law (2021), 92(1),

This paper argues that predictive policing, which relies upon former arrest records, hinders the future application of the presumption of innocence. This is established by positing that predictive ... [more ▼]

This paper argues that predictive policing, which relies upon former arrest records, hinders the future application of the presumption of innocence. This is established by positing that predictive policing is comparable to traditional criminal investigations in substance and scope. Police records generally do not clarify whether former charges result in dismissal or acquittal, or conversely, conviction. Therefore, police as state actors may unlawfully act in reliance on an individual’s former arrest record, despite a favourable disposition. Accordingly, it is argued that the presumption of innocence as a fair trial right may be effectively nullified by predictive policing. [less ▲]

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See detailFair Assessment of Cognitive Abilities in Multilingual Children
Kijamet, Dzenita UL; Ugen, Sonja UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November 11)

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See detailExploring the Exposomewith HPC
Schymanski, Emma UL

Presentation (2021, November 10)

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See detailElectrospinning Ethanol–Water Solutions of Poly(Acrylic Acid): Nonlinear Viscosity Variations and Dynamic Taylor Cone Behavior
Vats, Shameek UL; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Macromolecular Materials and Engineering (2021)

Electrospinning of polymer solutions is a multifaceted process that depends on the careful balancing of many parameters to achieve a desired outcome, in many cases including mixtures of multiple solvents ... [more ▼]

Electrospinning of polymer solutions is a multifaceted process that depends on the careful balancing of many parameters to achieve a desired outcome, in many cases including mixtures of multiple solvents. A systematic study of how the solution viscosity 𝜼—a good probe of solvent–polymer interactions—and the electrospinnability change when poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) is dissolved in ethanol–water mixtures at varying mixing ratio is carried out. A pronounced maximum is found in 𝜼 at a water-to-ethanol molar ratio of about 2:1, where the solvent mixture deviates maximally from ideal mixing behavior and partial deprotonation of carboxyl groups by water coincides synergistically with dissolution of the uncharged protonated PAA fraction by ethanol. The PAA concentration is tuned as a function of water–ethanol ratio to obtain a common value of 𝜼 for all solvent mixtures that is suitable for electrospinning. For high PAA content, the Taylor cone grows in volume over time despite minimum solution flow rate, even experiencing surface gelation for ethanol-rich solutions. This is attributed to the hygroscopic nature of PAA, drawing excess water into the Taylor cone from the air during spinning. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of Brexit on “bail-inable” liabilities under English law
Lupinu, Pier Mario UL

in Queen Mary Law Journal (2021), (1), 22

Several years have passed since 29 March 2017, the date when the United Kingdom (UK) triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This date has become well-known for paving the way to ... [more ▼]

Several years have passed since 29 March 2017, the date when the United Kingdom (UK) triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This date has become well-known for paving the way to multiple legal and political issues, most of which depend on the agreement setting the conditions for the future relations between the European Union (EU) and the UK. In reference to the resolution of a credit institution established in the EU in a state of imminent crisis, Brexit might negatively affect its shareholders and bondholders who were called upon to contribute by absorbing losses and recapitalising the bank through the bail-in instrument. In particular, when the bail-in converts or writes down liabilities previously established under English law. To date, the EU legal framework for the resolution of credit institutions envisages a provision for the direct recognition of liabilities governed under any of the EU Member States’ law. This means that, due to Brexit, English law liabilities are no longer directly recognised at the EU level. However, the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD), one of the pillars of the EU legislation relating to resolution, leaves to each EU Member State the duty to require financial entities to include “resolution-proof” clauses in the contracts establishing such liabilities or, alternatively, to conclude a binding agreement with the relevant third country. This creates issues concerning both the recognition of English law liabilities established pre-BRRD and to post-BRRD liabilities not compliant with the contractual requirement. By analysing the EU and UK legal frameworks, this paper aims to address possible solutions to ease a future resolution procedure involving the use of the bail-in instrument towards English law liabilities. The purpose is to ease both the determination of the Minimum Requirement for own fund and Eligible Liabilities (MREL) and the resolution process for the relevant authority in charge of the resolution procedure, since an orderly bail-in of those problematic liabilities could improve the effectiveness of the instrument and the success of the whole resolution procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailGene-corrected p.A30P SNCA patient-derived isogenic neurons rescue neuronal branching and function
Barbuti, Peter A; Ohnmacht, Jochen UL; Santos, Bruno FR et al

in Scientific Reports (2021), 11

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterised by the degeneration of A9 dopaminergic neurons and the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein. The p.A30P SNCA mutation generates the pathogenic form of the ... [more ▼]

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterised by the degeneration of A9 dopaminergic neurons and the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein. The p.A30P SNCA mutation generates the pathogenic form of the alpha-synuclein protein causing an autosomal-dominant form of PD. There are limited studies assessing pathogenic SNCA mutations in patient-derived isogenic cell models. Here we provide a functional assessment of dopaminergic neurons derived from a patient harbouring the p.A30P SNCA mutation. Using two clonal gene-corrected isogenic cell lines we identified image-based phenotypes showing impaired neuritic processes. The pathological neurons displayed impaired neuronal activity, reduced mitochondrial respiration, an energy deficit, vulnerability to rotenone, and transcriptional alterations in lipid metabolism. Our data describes for the first time the mutation-only effect of the p.A30P SNCA mutation on neuronal function, supporting the use of isogenic cell lines in identifying image-based pathological phenotypes that can serve as an entry point for future disease-modifying compound screenings and drug discovery strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailOpening minds to translanguaging pedagogies: perspectives and practices of professionals in early childhood education and primary school.Keynote
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November 09)

In Europe, migration, mobility, technology and globalisation have resulted in multilingualism at the societal and individual level. These changes require policy-makers and educationalists to adapt ... [more ▼]

In Europe, migration, mobility, technology and globalisation have resulted in multilingualism at the societal and individual level. These changes require policy-makers and educationalists to adapt teaching. For the last decades, institutions and scholars have called for multilingual education programmes that recognise the existence of the multiple languages spoken by children. The policies of the Council of Europe encourage ‘pluralistic approaches’ as well as early language learning. In the United States, García and her team developed multilingual pedagogies, later called translanguaging pedagogies, that draw on the students’ entire semiotic repertoire to leverage their learning. Research findings in monolingual, bilingual and multilingual contexts testify to the benefits of translanguaging for learning, well-being and identity-building. Such programmes are in line with the UN convention of children’s rights demanding respect for their language, culture and values. While multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood education and primary schools in several countries in Europe, professionals seem to be unsure of how to promote multilingualism and deal with language diversity. This presentation is based on the perspectives and practices of professionals in early education and primary schools in multilingual Luxembourg where a programme of plurilingual education has been implemented in the early years in 2017 and where children follow a trilingual curriculum in primary school. I will provide insights into the perspectives of practitioners by drawing on several research projects carried out over the last 6 years in Luxembourg. I will show excerpts of interviews and observations that indicate that early years practitioners have opened up to multilingual education over the last years and are tackling the multiple challenges they face during the implementation of the multilingual programme. Translanguaging also exists in primary schools but a clear language hierarchy is in place and teachers and children do not draw on their entire semiotic repertoire. The presentation concludes with implications for practitioners and policy-makers. [less ▲]

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See detailNetwork model and four-terminal transport in minimally twisted bilayer graphene
De Beule, Christophe UL; Dominguez, Fernando; Recher, Patrik

in Physical Review. B (2021), 104

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See detailEffects of topological band structure on thermoelectric transport of bismuthene
Gaffar, Muhammad; Wella, Sasfan Arman; Hasdeo, Eddwi Hesky UL

in Physical Review. B (2021), 104(20), 205105

Two-dimensional bismuth (Bi) layer, known as bismuthene, exhibits Z2 topological bulk states due to large spin-orbit coupling that inverts the bands. Using the tight-binding method, we calculate the band ... [more ▼]

Two-dimensional bismuth (Bi) layer, known as bismuthene, exhibits Z2 topological bulk states due to large spin-orbit coupling that inverts the bands. Using the tight-binding method, we calculate the band structure of buckled bismuthene to understand its topological and trivial phases. We determine the thermoelectric properties for some considered phases, incorporating the edge states contribution, by using the linearized Boltzmann transport equation with a constant relaxation time approximation. It is shown that the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, actually drops in undoped topological bismuthene due to the edge effects. Surprisingly, the topological edge states enhance ZT at large doping with the Fermi energy near the bottom of bulk bands when bismuthene is nearly metallic. [less ▲]

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See detailCentrality and city size effects on NO2 ground and tropospheric concentrations within European cities
Wei, Yufei UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi

Scientific Conference (2021, November 05)

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See detailStable Electrospinning of Core-Functionalized Coaxial Fibers Enabled by the Minimum-Energy Interface Given by Partial Core− Sheath Miscibility
Vats, Shameek UL; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Langmuir (2021), 37(45), 1326513277

Core−sheath electrospinning is a powerful tool for producing composite fibers with one or multiple encapsulated functional materials, but many material combinations are difficult or even impossible to ... [more ▼]

Core−sheath electrospinning is a powerful tool for producing composite fibers with one or multiple encapsulated functional materials, but many material combinations are difficult or even impossible to spin together. We show that the key to success is to ensure a well-defined core−sheath interface while also maintaining a constant and minimal interfacial energy across this interface. Using a thermotropic liquid crystal as a model functional core and polyacrylic acid or styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer as a sheath polymer, we study the effects of using water, ethanol, or tetrahydrofuran as polymer solvent. We find that the ideal core and sheath materials are partially miscible, with their phase diagram exhibiting an inner miscibility gap. Complete immiscibility yields a relatively high interfacial tension that causes core breakup, even preventing the core from entering the fiber- producing jet, whereas the lack of a well-defined interface in the case of complete miscibility eliminates the core−sheath morphology, and it turns the core into a coagulation bath for the sheath solution, causing premature gelation in the Taylor cone. Moreover, to minimize Marangoni flows in the Taylor cone due to local interfacial tension variations, a small amount of the sheath solvent should be added to the core prior to spinning. Our findings resolve a long-standing confusion regarding guidelines for selecting core and sheath fluids in core−sheath electrospinning. These discoveries can be applied to many other material combinations than those studied here, enabling new functional composites of large interest and application potential. [less ▲]

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See detailЛюксембургские военнопленные в СССР и советские военнопленные в Люксембурге
Ganschow, Inna UL

Speeches/Talks (2021)

Presentation of a special course in which students of the Luxembourg and Tambov universities participate. Students of both countries are working on digitizing objects of war life, collecting information ... [more ▼]

Presentation of a special course in which students of the Luxembourg and Tambov universities participate. Students of both countries are working on digitizing objects of war life, collecting information at a microhistorical level, as well as immersing themselves in different aspects of war. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (1 UL)