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See detailNotes on the ECHR and the Disunited Kingdom 'After' Brexit - In Memoriam Scott Crosby
Robinson, Gavin UL

in New Journal of European Criminal Law (2020)

When the idea of this special edition occurred to the team behind the New Journal of European Criminal Law, my first thought was to go back through all of Scott Crosby’s contributions in print as editor ... [more ▼]

When the idea of this special edition occurred to the team behind the New Journal of European Criminal Law, my first thought was to go back through all of Scott Crosby’s contributions in print as editor-in-chief and see whether a mini-retrospective on the themes and views therein would be worthy of inclusion here – by Scott’s own standards. These notes focus on what gradually became the single biggest concern expressed in Scott’s editorials: the perilous position of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in a post-Brexit UK – in concreto, the prospect of what he labelled ‘Brexit plus’: a British exit from the ECHR system. I begin with Scott’s views on the European Union (EU) Referendum and the Brexit process. Next comes the great uncertainty currently surrounding the future of Convention rights in the United Kingdom, set against the emphasis placed by the editorials on the instrumental role of the ECHR in fostering peace across the whole of Europe, within and beyond the territory of the EU. In the event that Brexit plus should materialise, writing in the wake of polls showing all-time record support in Scotland for secession from the United Kingdom I close by asking whether Scotland might be able to ‘leave a light on for Strasbourg’. [less ▲]

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See detailBoosting Automated Program Repair for Adoption By Practitioners
Koyuncu, Anil UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Automated program repair (APR) attracts a huge interest from research and industry as the ultimate target in automation of software maintenance. Towards realizing this automation promise, the research ... [more ▼]

Automated program repair (APR) attracts a huge interest from research and industry as the ultimate target in automation of software maintenance. Towards realizing this automation promise, the research community has explored various ideas and techniques, which are increasingly demonstrating that APR is no longer fictional. Although literature techniques constantly set new records in fixing a significant fraction of defects within well-established benchmarks, we are not aware of large-scale adoption of APR in practice. Meanwhile, open-source and commercial organizations have started to reflect on the potential of integrating some automated steps in the software development cycle. Actually, the current practice has several development settings that use a number of tools to automate and systematize various tasks such as code style checking, bug detection, and systematic patching. Our work is motivated by this fact. We advocate that systematic and empirical exploration of the current practice that leverage tools to automate debugging tasks would provide valuable insights for rethinking and boosting the APR agenda towards its acceptability by developer communities. We have identified three investigation axes in this dissertation. First, mining software repositories towards understanding code change properties that could be valuable to guide program repair. Second, analyzing communication channels in software development in order to assess to what extent they could be relevant in a real-world program repair scenario. Third, exploring generic concepts of patching in the literature for establishing a common foundation for program repair pipelines that can be integrated with industrial settings. This dissertation makes the following contributions to the community: • An empirical study of tool support in a real development setting providing concrete insights on the acceptance, stability and the nature of bugs being fixed by manually-craft patches vs tool-supported patches and manifests opportunities for improving automated repair techniques. • A novel information retrieval based bug localization approach that learns how to compute the similarity scores of various types of features. • An automated mining strategy to infer fix pattern that can be integrated to automated program repair pipelines. • A practical bug report driven program repair pipeline. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Luxembourg, bien plus qu'un espace intermédiaire
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2020)

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See detailL'Europe des droits fondamentaux
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2020)

Sept décennies après la signature de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme (Rome, 4 novembre 1950) et vingt ans après la proclamation la Charte des droits fondamentaux de l’Union européenne (Nice ... [more ▼]

Sept décennies après la signature de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme (Rome, 4 novembre 1950) et vingt ans après la proclamation la Charte des droits fondamentaux de l’Union européenne (Nice, 7 décembre 2000), la sauvegarde des libertés fondamentales et de l’État de droit mis en cause par certains État membres se trouvent parmi les défis majeurs de l’Europe. À l’heure ou l’Union cherche des réponses pour contrecarrer les atteintes portées à son socle des valeurs communes, un regard rétrospectif sur la problématique européenne des libertés et droits fondamentaux permettra de mieux comprendre la gravité des enjeux actuels. [less ▲]

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See detailLehrende und Schüler im Film: Performanzen, Ansprüche, Begehren und Geniessen in Bildungsprozessen.
Weber, Jean-Marie UL

Scientific Conference (2020, December 05)

Das Kino ist ein pädagogisches Institut, das unsere Fantasien formt. Es sagt uns, wie wir überhaupt begehren können, behauptet der Kulturtheoretiker und Psychoanalytiker Slavoj Zizek. So ist es sinnvoll ... [more ▼]

Das Kino ist ein pädagogisches Institut, das unsere Fantasien formt. Es sagt uns, wie wir überhaupt begehren können, behauptet der Kulturtheoretiker und Psychoanalytiker Slavoj Zizek. So ist es sinnvoll, sich als Lehrerinnen für die filmischen Inszenierungen des Lehrens und Lernens zu interessieren und sich durch sie «an-sprechen» und affizieren zu lassen. Der Workshop gilt als Austausch über markante Ausschnitte in denen Lehrer, Schule oder Unterricht Subjektwerden bzw. in ihrer Subjektivation und Humanisation blockiert sind. Bestimmte Symptome des kollektiven und individuellen Imaginären sollen freigelegt werden. Dabei stellt sich auch die Frage, inwiefern man mit Hilfe dieser (Re)-Inszenierungen des Lehrens auf der Leinwand anthropologische und strukturelle Elemente des Lehrens und von transformatorischen Bildungsprozessen erschließen kann. Besonderes Interesse gilt dabei der Frage, wie Lehrerinnen im Spielfilm Singularität und Kollektivität erfolgreich artikulieren oder dabei scheitern. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is problematic about binary questions on gender in health surveys – a missing answer analysis
Heinz, Andreas UL; Költő, András; Godeau, Emmanuelle et al

in Cogent Medicine (2020, December 04)

Background: In many studies, participants who do not state their gender are excluded from the analysis. This may be appropriate if they do not answer the questionnaire seriously. However, some ... [more ▼]

Background: In many studies, participants who do not state their gender are excluded from the analysis. This may be appropriate if they do not answer the questionnaire seriously. However, some participants may have understandable reasons for not reporting their gender, e.g. questioning their gender identity. Research question: How many students and which students do not answer the question on gender? Methods: We analyzed data of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study from Ireland, France, Hungary, Scotland, Belgium (Flemish) and Luxembourg (n = 40,053). To explore the reasons for non-response, we divided the participants into 3 groups: 1. Responders answered both socio- demographic questions (age and gender) 2. age non-responders did not answer the question on age. 3. Gender non-responders answered the question on age, but not the one on gender. Results: 311 out of 40,053 (0.8%) pupils aged 11–18 did not report their gender. About 40% of them did not answer the age question either. However, the other 60% belong to the group of gender non-responders and this group is disadvantaged compared to responders: they report lower self-rated health, more health complaints, less family support and more substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis). 1.9% of pupils did not answer the question about age. These age non-responders answered the questionnaire more selectively overall and skipped more questions. Conclusion: The data suggest that the reasons for age non-response and gender non-response are different. For age non-responders, the fear of de-anonymization seems to be the reason for not indicating their age. Not answering the question on gender is rare. If the participants answered the question on age, but not the question on gender, then the variable gender is missing not at random. The health problems of gender non-responders correspond to the health problems of gender non-conforming adolescents. Thus, the question arises if the group of gender non-responders should be included in the analysis and if the question on gender should be asked differently in the future [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic-Geometry-Based Interference Modeling in Automotive Radars Using Matérn Hard-Core Process
Mishra, K. V.; R., B. Shankar M.; Ottersten, Björn UL

in 2020 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf20), Stochastic-Geometry-Based Interference Modeling in Automotive Radars Using Matérn Hard-Core Process (2020, December 04)

As the use of radars in autonomous driving systems becomes more prevalent, these systems are increasingly susceptible to mutual interference. In this paper, we employ stochastic geometry to model the ... [more ▼]

As the use of radars in autonomous driving systems becomes more prevalent, these systems are increasingly susceptible to mutual interference. In this paper, we employ stochastic geometry to model the automotive radar interference in realistic traffic scenarios and then derive trade-offs between the radar design parameters and detection probability. Prior works model the locations of radars in the lane as a homogeneous Poisson point process (PPP). However, the PPP models assume all nodes to be independent, do not account for the lengths of vehicles, and ignore spatial mutual exclusion. In order to provide a more realistic interference effect, we adopt the Matérn hardcore process (MHCP) instead of PPP, in which two vehicles are not closer than an exclusion radius from one another. We show that the MHCP model leads to more practical design trade-offs for adapting the radar parameters than the conventional PPP model. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring sex and gender identity in a cross-national adolescent population survey: Perspectives of adolescent health experts from 44 countries
Költő, András; Heinz, Andreas UL; Moreno-Maldonado, Concepcion et al

in Cogent Medicine (2020, December 04)

Introduction: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) is a World Health Organization collaborative cross-cultural study of adolescents aged 11–15 years, from 50 countries and regions in Europe ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) is a World Health Organization collaborative cross-cultural study of adolescents aged 11–15 years, from 50 countries and regions in Europe, North America and the former Soviet republics. Since 1983 (the first survey round), the sex/gender of the respondents have been categorised with the question “Are you a boy or a girl?”, the response options being “a boy” and “a girl”. In the light of lived experiences of young people and contemporary theoretical and empirical approaches to the measurement of sex assigned birth and gender identity, this item is contested.Research Questions: What are HBSC National Research Teams’ experiences with using this item? What is their position on any potential change or amendment of the item? Have they already made any changes? Do they see potential drawbacks and benefits in changing the item? Method: In Summer 2019, an online survey was conducted with HBSC National Teams, to under-stand member countries’ position on the measurement of sex and gender in the HBSC survey. Results: Of the 50 research teams, 44 responded to the online questionnaire. Opinions on potential changes or amendments of the item were polarised, with 19 teams (43%) not supporting any changes, 15 teams (34%) agreeing with a change, and 10 teams (23%) indicating they don’t know or not sure if changes are necessary. Various arguments were raised for and against any changes or amendments. Six national teams already implemented a change, by adding a third response option, replacing the item, or using additional items. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the issue of sex and gender in HBSC needs to be addressed, but methodological, political and cultural implications need to be considered. The complexity of this problem makes it impossible to suggest a “one-size-fits-all” solution. [less ▲]

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See detailStrengthening links between multilingual practices in professional environments and university language programmes
Lejot, Eve UL

Presentation (2020, December 04)

Lorsque les pratiques multilingues en contexte professionnel international sont encadrées par des politiques linguistiques, elles donnent un point d’ancrage pour mesurer les oscillations entre le « ... [more ▼]

Lorsque les pratiques multilingues en contexte professionnel international sont encadrées par des politiques linguistiques, elles donnent un point d’ancrage pour mesurer les oscillations entre le « prescrit » et l’«existant ». La caractérisation des pratiques multilingues d’une entreprise aéronautique européenne et de l’UNESCO demande de placer notre recherche à la croisée des champs de la linguistique, de la didactique des langues, de la sociologie, et de la psychologie sociale et cognitive. Nous allons présenter les résultats d’analyse des besoins déclarés par les salariés eux-mêmes, des interactions enregistrées en réunions et aussi des bilans d’entretiens. Ces deux terrains de recherche ont des caractéristiques linguistiques similaires : l’utilisation de l’anglais comme langue véhiculaire, la localisation d’un site à Hambourg en Allemagne, leurs sièges sociaux respectifs en France, des communications régulières avec des sites en zone hispanophone, ainsi que l’offre de cours d’anglais, de français, d’allemand et d’espagnol auprès de leurs employés. La polyphonie des discours sur les pratiques multilingues en entreprise montre les tensions existantes entre le choix de l’usage de l’anglais comme lingua franca et celui du français, de l’allemand et de l’espagnol qui ouvre différents « univers du discours » (Charolles 1997). A partir de la question de cadrage, envisagé au plan linguistique comme au plan sociologique, nous essayons d’établir le lien entre posture professionnelle et pratiques langagières. Il semblerait que les faits de pluri-compétences, de pluri-linguisme, de multi-linguisme et de pluri-activités donnent matière à repenser nos méthodologies d’enseignement des langues. Par ailleurs. La relation d’aide (Amério 1991, Lejot 2014) entre les employés favorise le développement des compétences linguistiques dans la langue cible. Notre objectif est ici de faire un lien entre les besoins linguistiques et culturels identifiés en milieu professionnel et le développement des compétences multilingues en milieu universitaire. La personne bilingue n’est pas une somme de deux personnes monolingues (Grosjean 1989), et au même titre, l’enseignement plurilingue n’est pas une somme d’enseignements monolingues au sein d’une même formation en langues appliquées. Des recherches en linguistiques comparatistes (Huemer, Lejot, Deroey 2019) et des méthodes pédagogiques basées sur l’autonomie de l’étudiant ouvrent des perspectives à explorer ou à approfondir. [less ▲]

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See detailEffektive Rechtsdurchsetzung - Was der Digital Services Act leisten sollte
Cole, Mark David UL

in epd medien (2020), 2020(49), 6-10

Die Europäische Kommission will mit dem „Digital Services Act“ die Richtlinie über elektronischen Handel im Binnenmarkt (ECommerce- Richtlinie) novellieren und erweitern. Ziel ist eine moderne ... [more ▼]

Die Europäische Kommission will mit dem „Digital Services Act“ die Richtlinie über elektronischen Handel im Binnenmarkt (ECommerce- Richtlinie) novellieren und erweitern. Ziel ist eine moderne Gesetzgebung für die Online-Welt; für digitale Dienste sollen klare Verantwortlichkeiten festgelegt werden (epd 37, 38, 40, 44/20). Ein Entwurf für das Gesetzespaket soll am 9. Dezember vorgestellt werden. Mark D. Cole, Wissenschaftlicher Direktor des Instituts für Europäisches Medienrecht (EMR) in Saarbrücken, hat mit seinem Team im Auftrag der Landesanstalt für Medien NRW eine Studie erstellt, die sich mit der Reform des Rechtsrahmens bei der grenzüberschreitenden Verbreitung von Online-Inhalten befasst und dabei legislative Optionen der Europäischen Union (EU) in den Blick nimmt. Die Untersuchung knüpft an eine umfassende Studie an, die den aktuellen Regelungsrahmen und insbesondere die E-Commerce-Richtlinie auf Reformbedarf untersucht hat (Zusammenfassungen von beiden Studien: 􀀀http:// u.epd.de/1p2c). In seinem Beitrag für epd medien leitet Cole, der auch Professor für Medienund Telekommunikationsrecht an der Universität Luxemburg ist, aus diesen Überlegungen konkrete Ansätze für den europäischen Gesetzgeber ab. [less ▲]

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See detailTertium non datur: Various aspects of value-added (VA) models used as measures of educational effectiveness
Levy, Jessica UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Value-added (VA) models are used as measures of educational effectiveness which aim to find the “value” that has been added by teachers or schools to students’ achievement, independent of students’ ... [more ▼]

Value-added (VA) models are used as measures of educational effectiveness which aim to find the “value” that has been added by teachers or schools to students’ achievement, independent of students’ backgrounds. Statistically speaking, teacher or school VA scores are calculated as the part of an outcome variable that cannot be explained by the covariates that are in the VA model (i.e., the residual). Teachers or schools are classified as effective (or ineffective) if they have a positive (or negative) effect on students’ achievement compared to a previously specified norm value. Although VA models have gained popularity in recent years, there is a lack of consensus concerning various aspects of VA scores. The present dissertation aims at shedding light on these aspects, including the state of the art of VA research in the international literature, covariate choice, and model selection for the estimation of VA scores. In a first step, a systematic literature review was conducted, in which 370 studies from 26 countries were classified, focusing on methodological issues (Study 1 of the present dissertation). Results indicated no consensus concerning the applied statistical model type (the majority applied a linear regression, followed by multilevel models). Concerning the covariate choice, most studies used prior achievement as a covariate, cognitive and/or motivational student data were hardly considered, and there was no consensus on the in- or exclusion of students’ background variables. Based on these findings, it was suggested that VA models are better suited to improve the quality of teaching than for accountability and decision-making purposes. Secondly, based on one of the open questions resulting from Study 1 (i.e., covariate choice), the aim of Study 2 was to systematically compare different covariate combinations in the estimation of school VA models. Based on longitudinal data from primary school students participating in the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme in Grades 1 and 3, three covariate sets were found to be essential when calculating school VA scores with math or language achievement as dependent variables: prior language achievement, prior math achievement, and students’ sociodemographic and sociocultural background. However, the evaluation of individual schools’ effectiveness varied widely depending on the covariate set that was chosen, casting further doubt on the use of VA scores for accountability purposes. Thirdly, the aim of Study 3 was to investigate statistical model selection, as Study 1 showed no consensus on which model types are most suitable for the estimation of VA scores, with the majority of studies applying linear regression or multilevel models. These classical linear models, along with nonlinear models and different types of machine learning models were systematically compared to each other. Covariates were kept constant (based on the results from Study 2) across models. Multilevel models led to the most accurate prediction of students’ achievement. However, as school VA scores varied depending on specific model choices and as these results can be only generalized for a Luxembourgish sample, it was suggested for future research that the model selection process should be made transparent and should include different specifications in order to obtain ranges of potential VA scores. In conclusion, all three studies imply that the application of VA models for decision-making and accountability should be critically discussed and that VA scores should not be used as the only measure for accountability or high-stakes decisions. In addition, it can be concluded that VA scores are more suitable for informative purposes. Thus, the findings from the present dissertation prepare the ground for future research, where schools with stable high VA scores can be part of further investigations (both qualitatively and quantitatively) to study their pedagogical strategies and learn from them. [less ▲]

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See detailActionable knowledge for sustainability at the water-land nexus: An inquiry into governance and social learning in two river basins in Luxembourg
Hondrila, Kristina UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The thesis offers in-depth empirical insights into diverse factors that foster or hinder collective capacities of actors to address sustainability challenges at the water-land nexus. It focuses on how ... [more ▼]

The thesis offers in-depth empirical insights into diverse factors that foster or hinder collective capacities of actors to address sustainability challenges at the water-land nexus. It focuses on how relations, knowledge, and practices in diverse organisations and professions engaged in governance and social learning processes in the Syr and Upper Sûre river basins in Luxembourg have changed following the entering into force of the EU Water Framework Directive in 2000. Finding that contradictions in water and land systems grow while spaces for self-organisation and meaning-making shrink, the thesis raises fundamental questions concerning both dominant supply- and productivity-oriented paradigms and managerial approaches to sustainability. New governance approaches are needed to foster social learning and actionable knowledge, embracing interrelations between ecological and social dimensions of sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailCan You Trust Your Number Sense: Distinct Processing of Numbers and Quantities in Elementary School Children
Marinova, Mila UL; Reynvoet, Bert

in Journal of Numerical Cognition (2020), 6(3), 304-321

Theories of number development have traditionally argued that the acquisition and discrimination of symbolic numbers (i.e., number words and digits) are grounded in and are continuously supported by the ... [more ▼]

Theories of number development have traditionally argued that the acquisition and discrimination of symbolic numbers (i.e., number words and digits) are grounded in and are continuously supported by the Approximate Number System (ANS)—an evolutionarily ancient system for number. In the current study, we challenge this claim by investigating whether the ANS continues to support the symbolic number processing throughout development. To this end, we tested 87 first- (Age M = 6.54 years, SD = 0.58), third- (Age M = 8.55 years, SD = 0.60) and fifth-graders (Age M = 10.63 years, SD = 0.67) on four audio-visual comparison tasks (1) Number words–Digits, (2) Tones–Dots,(3) Number words–Dots, (4) Tones–Digits, while varying the Number Range (Small and Large), and the Numerical Ratio (Easy, Medium,and Hard). Results showed that larger and faster developmental growth in the performance was observed in the Number Words–Digits task, while the tasks containing at least one non-symbolic quantity showed smaller and slower developmental change. In addition, the Ratio effect (i.e., the signature of ANS being addressed) was present in the Tones–Dots, Tones–Digits, and Number Words–Dots tasks, but was absent in the Number Words–Digits task. These findings suggest that it is unlikely that the ANS continuously underlines the acquisition and the discrimination of the symbolic numbers. Rather, our results indicate that non-symbolic quantities and symbolic numbers follow qualitatively distinct developmental paths, and argue that the latter ones are processed in a semantic network which starts to emerge from an early age. [less ▲]

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See detailHomogeneous selection promotes microdiversity in the glacier-fed stream microbiome
Fodelianakis, Styliianos; Busi, Susheel Bhanu UL; Wilmes, Paul UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Microdiversity, the organization of microorganisms into groups with closely related but ecologically different sub-types, is widespread and represents an important linchpin between microbial ecology and ... [more ▼]

Microdiversity, the organization of microorganisms into groups with closely related but ecologically different sub-types, is widespread and represents an important linchpin between microbial ecology and evolution. However, the drivers of microdiversification remain largely unknown. Here we show that selection promotes microdiversity in the microbiome associated with sediments in glacier-fed streams (GFS). Applying a novel phylogenetic framework, we identify several clades that are under homogeneous selection and that contain genera with higher levels of microdiversity than the rest of the genera. Overall these clades constituted ~44% and ~64% of community α-diversity and abundance, and both percentages increased further in GFS that were largely devoid of primary producers. Our findings show that strong homogeneous selection drives the microdiversification of specialized microbial groups putatively underlying their success in the extreme environment of GFS. This microdiversity could be threatened as glaciers shrink, with unknown consequences for microbial diversity and functionality in these ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailStereotype in der Kindheit
Kerger, Sylvie UL

Speeches/Talks (2020)

Dr Sylvie Kerger est docteure en psychologie et enseignante-chercheuse à l’Université du Luxembourg. Elle enseigne au Bachelor en sciences de l’éducation et dans ses travaux de recherche, elle s’intéresse ... [more ▼]

Dr Sylvie Kerger est docteure en psychologie et enseignante-chercheuse à l’Université du Luxembourg. Elle enseigne au Bachelor en sciences de l’éducation et dans ses travaux de recherche, elle s’intéresse aux stéréotypes de genre dans l’enfance. Depuis leur plus jeune âge, les enfants sont confrontés à de nombreux stéréotypes de genre, notamment dans leur environnement familial, sociétal (par exemple, à travers le marketing genré) et éducatif. C’est notamment dans ce dernier contexte que la Dr Sylvie Kerger mène, ensemble avec la Dr Laurence Brasseur, un projet de recherche qui a été rendu possible grâce au financement du Ministère de l’égalité entre les femmes et les hommes. L’objectif de cette étude est de révéler les représentations du genre dans les manuels scolaires utilisés à l’école fondamentale au Luxembourg. Transmetteurs de valeurs et de connaissances, les manuels scolaires jouent un rôle prépondérant dans la socialisation. Grâce à un état des lieux du contexte luxembourgeois, ce projet permettra d’élaborer un ensemble de recommandations pour les acteurs concernés et fournira des outils qui faciliteront l’application d’un regard critique sur le matériel didactique. [less ▲]

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See detailA newform theory for Katz modular forms
Mamo, Daniel Berhanu UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

In this thesis, a strong multiplicity one theorem for Katz modular forms is studied. We show that a cuspidal Katz eigenform which admits an irreducible Galois representation is in the level and weight old ... [more ▼]

In this thesis, a strong multiplicity one theorem for Katz modular forms is studied. We show that a cuspidal Katz eigenform which admits an irreducible Galois representation is in the level and weight old space of a uniquely associated Katz newform. We also set up multiplicity one results for Katz eigenforms which have reducible Galois representation. [less ▲]

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See detailScoping review on machine learning methods for stratification
Glaab, Enrico UL

Presentation (2020, December 02)

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