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See detailUnderstanding through Experimentation: An Experimental Media Archaeological Approach to Early Twentieth-Century Home Movie Making
van der Heijden, Tim UL

Scientific Conference (2020, December 11)

This presentation addresses the question in what ways visual media have contributed to the construction of a specific view on twentieth-century century (family) life by means of an experimental media ... [more ▼]

This presentation addresses the question in what ways visual media have contributed to the construction of a specific view on twentieth-century century (family) life by means of an experimental media archaeological approach to early home movie making. Based on hands-on experiments with an original Ciné-Kodak 16mm film camera from 1930, it will be shown how filming one’s family was never truly a neutral practice of capturing everyday life. Rather, making a home movie should be regarded a highly “co-constructive” practice that includes various social, sensorial, technological and user-related dimensions. The presentation reflects work in progress from the research project “Doing Experimental Media Archaeology” (DEMA) of the Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) of the University of Luxembourg: https://dema.uni.lu/. [less ▲]

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See detailThe potential of Language Technology and AI
Schommer, Christoph UL

Speeches/Talks (2020)

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See detailGood practice between good neighboors
Molostoff, Leslie UL; Tischer, Peter

Presentation (2020, December 10)

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See detailRecycling of gravel wash mud for manufacturing CO2-reduced cement
Thapa, Vishojit Bahadur UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The present research project “CO2REDCEM” is carried out at the Laboratory of Solid Structures (LSS) of the University of Luxembourg, in close collaboration with Luxembourgish industrial partners (Cimalux ... [more ▼]

The present research project “CO2REDCEM” is carried out at the Laboratory of Solid Structures (LSS) of the University of Luxembourg, in close collaboration with Luxembourgish industrial partners (Cimalux S.A., Carrières Feidt S.A. and Contern S.A.). This project aims at reducing the generation of CO2 emissions during cement production by minimisation of the use of cement clinker or its complete replacement by new binder compositions and concepts, containing novel material resources derived from local unused industrial waste products. Such a potential raw material is gravel wash mud (GWM), which occurs as a waste product from gravel mining. This clayey mud is collected from a sludge reservoir, located in the North West of Luxembourg. Currently, this waste product is landfilled without any further use. However, this prime material offers very promising properties, which require a thorough characterisation and verification before its revalorisation as a viable supplementary cementitious material (SCMs). Reusing or recycling of waste elements into goods has been among the greatest ambitions of our and earlier generations, and it will take a more important role in the future economy. One primary goal of this project is to replace the “end-of-life” concept of gravel wash mud by reusing it as new raw material. This endeavour will bring double benefit to environment as the waste is prevented from landfilling, and it is revalorised as a prime resource in another system.This research work shares the outcomes from the assessment of the performance of the prime material GWM within the following binder concepts and binder reaction mechanisms: • The use of gravel wash mud (GWM) powders as a precursor material for the synthesis of alkali-activated binders: A “cementless” binder is synthesised by alkaline activation of processed and calcined GWM powders. The mitigation of the CO2 emissions is achieved by the calcination process of the clayey gravel wash mud, which requires less thermal energy and thus lower energy consumption than for cement clinker production. • Substitution of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) by calcined GWM powders: Cement and concrete mixtures are prepared based on partial replacement of Portland cement by calcined GWM powders. This study presents the investigations on the involved reaction mechanisms (pozzolanic and cementitious hydration reactions), the optimal mixture configurations and the optimal material treatment processes. • The development of lime-Metakaolin-GWM binder concepts: Mixtures without cement are developed using GWM and other constituents, classified as industrial by-products. This research includes the mineralogical and microstructural characterisation of the constituents, the understanding of the reaction mechanism, and the optimisation of the mixtures to enhance the performance of the novel cementitious products. This thesis allowed to assess the performance of the waste product GWM as a valid pozzolanic prime material and to understand the requirements on physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of any potential raw material to ensure its permissibility as an alternative supplementary cementitious material (SCM). [less ▲]

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See detailDEMAND-SIDE-MANAGEMENT MIT WÄRMEPUMPEN IN LUXEMBURG - POTENZIALE UND HERAUSFORDERUNGEN DER WÄRMEPUMPENFLEXIBILITÄT FÜR DIE SYSTEMINTEGRATION DER ERNEUERBAREN ENERGIEN
Bechtel, Steffen UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

In 2020 the European Union introduced the “Green Deal” and declared the target of climate neutrality until 2050. The necessary measures will lead to a massive roll-out of fluctuating renewable energies ... [more ▼]

In 2020 the European Union introduced the “Green Deal” and declared the target of climate neutrality until 2050. The necessary measures will lead to a massive roll-out of fluctuating renewable energies such as wind power and photovoltaic. This in turn will lead to an increasing need for flexibility in the energy system. The design of the future European internal market for electricity intends to let end-consumers actively participate by managing their consumption based on variable electricity prices and in that way contributing to the flexibility demand. For private households, these Demand-Side-Management measures target heat pumps in particular. This work analyzes the flexibility potential of heat pumps in residential buildings and addresses challenges in the Luxembourgish context. The time horizon for the evaluation is defined as 2030. The methodology presented in this work is applicable to similar regions in Europe. The research questions are investigated by the means of thermal simulation. The software TRNSYS is used for the building models and heating systems. A Model-Predictive-Control, developed in MATLAB, is sending control signals to the heat pump that are based on variable electricity tariffs. The heat extraction of the thermal energy storage tank is determined by a neural network, so that the Model-Predictive-Control in itself works without an integrated building model. The suitability of the approach is validated by the simulation results. Based on the national developments in the building stock, there is a theoretical heat pump potential of 236-353 MWel that can offer flexibility. The band with arises because of different suppositions for the yearly refurbishment rate. The technical potential is significantly lower and is determined by the developments of the national heat pump market. As the data availability for Luxemburg was insufficient, a heat market study was initiated that investigated sales numbers for the period of 2014-2018 and derived scenarios until 2030. The technical potential in conclusion amounts to 30-73 MWel. The insights of the national context are used for the design of the simulation models. The concept of Demand-Side-Management is tested with numerous simulation cases and is then evaluated on aspects of energy efficiency, profitability and load shifting. In total there are three reference buildings, one single-family and one multi-family house, each according to the energetic standard of a new construction, and one single-family house that meets the legal requirements for energetic refurbishment in Luxembourg. In order to demonstrate the influence of the heat source there are simulations with air-to-water as well as geothermal heat pumps. The analysis furthermore considers six different thermal energy storage capacities. The influence of the predictive control strategy is demonstrated by a comparison with reference cases that work with a common control. The flexible electricity tariffs are based on real market data of the EPEX-Spot Day-Ahead auction and is completed with grid fees and taxes in Luxembourg. The simulation results confirm the suitability of the Model-Predictive-Control approach without integrated building model. Air-to-water heat pumps achieve better efficiency and cost reduction than geothermal heat pumps, as they have two ways to reduce the costs: via the variable electricity tariffs and via a performance optimization of the heat pump itself. The performance optimization is the preferred choice of the control strategy if the price profile consists of mainly static components. Buildings with high insulation level show a sharper reaction to price signals than buildings with lower insulation standard. For the latter in return the absolute cost reduction potential is better as the overall energy demand is higher. With low capacity thermal energy storage, the energy efficiency and cost reduction potential are limited since the reaction to price signals immediately leads to a temperature rise in the tank counteracting the overall objective by increasing the heat pump consumption. With increasing tank capacity, this aspect improves. Nevertheless, there is a limit where the increasing heat losses of the tank compensate the positive aspects of bigger tanks. As the heating systems are usually not equipped with larger thermal energy storage tanks, there is an extra investment for the end-consumer that needs to be compensated by the cost reduction of the Demand-Side-Management. This profitability is only given for the multi-family house and the less insulated single-family house, equipped with an air-to-water heat pump and small to medium sized storage tanks. Two alternative price profiles are tested in order to demonstrate the influence of the price signals. In the first case, a higher volatility of the prices is presumed, to reflect a higher market share of renewable energies. In the second case variable grid fees are added to the volatile prices to further increase the incentive of Demand-Side-Management. In all simulation cases the cost reduction increases so that that buildings with high thermal insulation and air-to-water heat pump are profitable with medium sized thermal energy storage. At the same time a change of behavior of the predictive controller can be observed as the price signals become more attractive than the aspect of performance optimization, leading to an increased electricity consumption in comparison to the previous price profile. An overall economic potential of 22-53 MWel can be concluded. The numerous constraints for the heat pump operation lead to an implicit load management effect that is difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, there is a clear systemic benefit of Demand-Side-Management that result from the better performance of air-to-water heat pumps and the highly probable reaction to extreme price signals. The assessment of a high number of heat pumps by the grid operator in order to stabilize the electricity grid is questionable. The main counter arguments are the limited reliability considering the constraints and the low electric power compared to the e-mobility that will be the major challenge of the low voltage grids in the nearer future. Concepts, where energy providers or direct marketers assess the flexibility to optimize procurement strategies seems more interesting. In this context the profitability is the main question that cannot be verified based on the findings, except if there is added value stemming from synergy effects that were not considered in this work. In relation to the peak demand of the Luxembourgish energy system there is a relevant heat pump potential for Demand-Side-Management. In the nearer future the subject should be further investigated, keeping in mind the findings and sensitivities presented in this work. [less ▲]

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See detailTransition from in-class to outdoor learning with real-world mathematical modelling: PhD research project 2015-2021
Haas, Ben; Lavicza, Zsolt; Dana-Picard, Noah et al

Presentation (2020, December 10)

In this PhD outline, I will present highlights from my PhD research project on mathematical modelling with real-world information in the classroom, remote teaching and outdoor learning in Luxemburg ... [more ▼]

In this PhD outline, I will present highlights from my PhD research project on mathematical modelling with real-world information in the classroom, remote teaching and outdoor learning in Luxemburg. Through design-based explanatory studies, I investigated different technology enhanced tasks, learning and teaching settings that could likely engage students in understanding and transferring mathematical modelling to their living environments. The selected design-based research methodology and its characteristics, allowed to adapt task designs, settings and methods during my PhD research project. Hence, firstly, I investigated process skills learning (e.g.: mathematical modelling) with an automated tutoring system (the educational technology software MathemaTIC) within an international project. Although findings were promising, I redesigned my interventions to connect further students mathematical modelling learning to real-world information. Thus, secondly, I performed mathematical modelling tasks with augmented reality on real-world objects in remote teaching and in special needs educations. Utilising findings of these studies and a redesign of the intervention based on outdoor mathematical trails, thirdly, I undertook my final study. In pre-service teacher higher education, I explored outdoor mathematical modelling with an integrated STEAM (Science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) approach. With the aim of such holistic approach, I collected data on education-related perceptions from different stakeholders of elementary school education (students, parents, in-service, and pre service teachers) and developed conceptual frameworks on task creation, mathematical modelling, and stakeholders' roles. In my PhD research project, I aspired to contribute and explain how in-class learning and teaching could be connected and transferred to mathematical modelling within students living environments. Although there are many crucial moments, method choices and findings within these studies, in this report, I will offer highlights of my PhD work and results. [less ▲]

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See detailBREXIT: état des lieux
Danescu, Elena UL; Esposito, Marie-Claude; Da Silva, Joana

Speeches/Talks (2020)

Au 31 janvier 2020 à minuit (heure de Bruxelles), le Royaume-Uni a quitté l'Union européenne. Cette sortie n'est pourtant pas totale : conformément à l’accord de retrait, le pays est entré dans une ... [more ▼]

Au 31 janvier 2020 à minuit (heure de Bruxelles), le Royaume-Uni a quitté l'Union européenne. Cette sortie n'est pourtant pas totale : conformément à l’accord de retrait, le pays est entré dans une transition qui lui permet de négocier sa future relation avec l’UE, tout en restant provisoirement intégré à un certain nombre de politiques européennes. Cette phase doit prendre fin au 31 décembre 2020 au plus tôt, mais les pourparlers semblent actuellement en impasse. S’il demeure la conséquence directe du référendum organisé le 23 juin 2016 par l’ancien Premier Ministre David Cameron, le « Brexit » reflète de longues décennies de rapports tumultueux avec l’Europe supranationale, qui ont nourri l’euroscepticisme et anti-européenisme des Britanniques.[...] [less ▲]

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See detailA NEW CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN TASEPAND BURGERS’ EQUATION
Flandoli, Franco; Gess, Benjamin; Grotto, Francesco UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

We introduce a new particle model, which we dub Active Bi-Directional Flow, conjugated to the Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Processin discrete time. We then associate to our model intrinsically stochastic ... [more ▼]

We introduce a new particle model, which we dub Active Bi-Directional Flow, conjugated to the Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Processin discrete time. We then associate to our model intrinsically stochastic, non-entropic weak solutions of Burgers’ equation onR, thus linking the latter tothe KPZ universality class. [less ▲]

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See detailExtended Producer Responsibility in the Construction Sector through Blockchain, BIM and Smart Contract Technologies
Akbarieh, Arghavan UL; Carbone, William; Schäfer, Markus UL et al

Poster (2020, December 09)

Despite the enormous amount of raw or secondary materials flowing within the construction industry, the actual available volume of materials and their respective End-of-Lifecycle (EoL) treatment is not ... [more ▼]

Despite the enormous amount of raw or secondary materials flowing within the construction industry, the actual available volume of materials and their respective End-of-Lifecycle (EoL) treatment is not regulated nor uniform. On top of that, the EoL responsibility of different stakeholders after the future building deconstruction is confusing and disputable. Consequently, different sustainability policies and metrics suffer from inaccurately reported volumes of circulating materials in the economy. Hence, this article aims to find a new way to improve and regulate the EoL treatment of recyclable materials and to create value for them. The ultimate goal of the proposed framework is to make original manufacturers responsible for the EoL treatment of their recyclable construction materials and products under the Extended Producers Responsibility (EPR) policy that is enacted in the European Union for sustainable management of waste streams. Adhering to the EPR is difficult for buildings as they are long-term and complex assets. A high degree of transparency, accuracy and security is required to correctly track the lifecycle information of building parts and their respective manufacturers for the EPR implementation. For this purpose, a framework is conceptualised based on the immutability and transparency of blockchain technology to remove trust and trace barriers in the current supply chain. The proposed conceptual model results from the synergy of Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology, material and component banks, blockchain technology and smart contracts for the EoL treatment of recyclable materials. As a result, a data-driven and closed-loop material cycle will be accomplished. This paper demonstrates that through self-executing smart contracts, a clear line of responsibility and ownership could be defined while manufacturers could be made accountable in the post-consumer phase of their construction products. [less ▲]

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See detailUne télé-justice est-il encore une justice?
Becker, Katrin UL

Diverse speeches and writings (2020)

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See detailWie haben sich emotionale Anforderungen für Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg über die Zeit entwickelt?
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Im Rahmen dieser Newsletter wird analysiert, wie sich emotionale Anforderungen für Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg über die letzten Jahre entwickelt haben. Emotionale Anforderungen sind mit reduziertem Well ... [more ▼]

Im Rahmen dieser Newsletter wird analysiert, wie sich emotionale Anforderungen für Arbeitnehmer in Luxemburg über die letzten Jahre entwickelt haben. Emotionale Anforderungen sind mit reduziertem Well-Being assoziiert. Dabei weisen Arbeitnehmer mit ausgeprägten emotionalen Anforderungen insbesondere ein höheres Burnoutlevel auf. Zwischen 2016 und 2020 kam es zu einem deutlichen Anstieg der emotionalen Anforderungen. Arbeitnehmerinnen weisen über die Zeit konstant höhere emotionale Anforderungen auf im Vergleich zu Arbeitnehmern. Insbesondere Arbeitnehmer in akademischen Berufen, Manager und Arbeitnehmer in Dienstleistungsberufen weisen über die Zeit konstant hohe emotionale Anforderungen auf. Bediener von Anlagen und Hilfsarbeitskräfte weisen dagegen einen Anstieg zwischen 2016 und 2020 auf. [less ▲]

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See detailFormation of ultra-thin Ge1−xSnx/Ge1−x−ySixSny quantum heterostructures and their electrical properties for realizing resonant tunneling diode
Suwito, Galih Ramadana; Fukuda, Masahiro; Suprayoga, Edi et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2020), 117(23), 232104

Huge thermal noise owing to the narrow energy bandgap is one of the critical issues for group IV-based photonics in the mid-infrared regime. With this motivation, we examined to form Ge1−xSnx ... [more ▼]

Huge thermal noise owing to the narrow energy bandgap is one of the critical issues for group IV-based photonics in the mid-infrared regime. With this motivation, we examined to form Ge1−xSnx/Ge1−x−ySixSny quantum heterostructures (QHs) by molecular beam epitaxy for realizing resonant tunneling diodes composed of group-IV materials. We confirmed the formation of approximately 2 nm-thick Ge1−xSnx/Ge1−x−ySixSny QHs with atomically flat interfaces by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy methods. Moreover, by the current density–voltage (J–V) measurement at 10 K, we observed the occurrence of a non-linear distinct hump in the J–V characteristic, which is possibly originated from quantum transport of heavy holes. According to the tunneling transmission spectra simulation result, the hump property would be due to two possible scenarios: a resonant tunneling of heavy holes in the QH and/or a resonance phenomenon that heavy holes pass just above a potential barrier. [less ▲]

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See detailBoosting Automated Program Repair for Adoption By Practitioners
Koyuncu, Anil UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Automated program repair (APR) attracts a huge interest from research and industry as the ultimate target in automation of software maintenance. Towards realizing this automation promise, the research ... [more ▼]

Automated program repair (APR) attracts a huge interest from research and industry as the ultimate target in automation of software maintenance. Towards realizing this automation promise, the research community has explored various ideas and techniques, which are increasingly demonstrating that APR is no longer fictional. Although literature techniques constantly set new records in fixing a significant fraction of defects within well-established benchmarks, we are not aware of large-scale adoption of APR in practice. Meanwhile, open-source and commercial organizations have started to reflect on the potential of integrating some automated steps in the software development cycle. Actually, the current practice has several development settings that use a number of tools to automate and systematize various tasks such as code style checking, bug detection, and systematic patching. Our work is motivated by this fact. We advocate that systematic and empirical exploration of the current practice that leverage tools to automate debugging tasks would provide valuable insights for rethinking and boosting the APR agenda towards its acceptability by developer communities. We have identified three investigation axes in this dissertation. First, mining software repositories towards understanding code change properties that could be valuable to guide program repair. Second, analyzing communication channels in software development in order to assess to what extent they could be relevant in a real-world program repair scenario. Third, exploring generic concepts of patching in the literature for establishing a common foundation for program repair pipelines that can be integrated with industrial settings. This dissertation makes the following contributions to the community: • An empirical study of tool support in a real development setting providing concrete insights on the acceptance, stability and the nature of bugs being fixed by manually-craft patches vs tool-supported patches and manifests opportunities for improving automated repair techniques. • A novel information retrieval based bug localization approach that learns how to compute the similarity scores of various types of features. • An automated mining strategy to infer fix pattern that can be integrated to automated program repair pipelines. • A practical bug report driven program repair pipeline. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust Real-time Sense-and-Avoid Solutions for Remotely Piloted Quadrotor UAVs in Complex Environments
Wang, Min UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

UAV teleoperation is a demanding task: to successfully accomplish the mission without collision requires skills and experience. In real-life environments, current commercial UAVs are to a large extent ... [more ▼]

UAV teleoperation is a demanding task: to successfully accomplish the mission without collision requires skills and experience. In real-life environments, current commercial UAVs are to a large extent remotely piloted by amateur human pilots. Due to lack of teleoperation experience or skills, they often drive UAVs into collision. Therefore, in order to ensure safety of the UAV as well as its surroundings, it is necessary for the UAV to boast the capability of detecting emergency situation and acting on its own when facing imminent threat. However, the majority of UAVs currently available in the market are not equipped with such capability. To fill in the gap, in this work we present 2D LIDAR based Sense-and-Avoid solutions which are able to actively assist unskilled human operator in obstacle avoidance, so that the operator can focus on high-level decisions and global objectives in UAV applications such as search and rescue, farming etc. Specifically, with our novel 2D LIDAR based obstacle detection and tracking algorithm, perception-assistive flight control design, progressive emergency evaluation policies and optimization based and adaptive virtual cushion force field (AVCFF) based avoidance strategies, our proposed UAV teleoperation assistance systems are capable of obstacle detection and tracking, as well as automatic obstacle avoidance in complex environment where both static and dynamic objects are present. Additionally, while the optimization based solution is validated in Matlab, the AVCFF based avoidance system has been fully integrated with sensing system, perception-assistive flight controller on the basis of the Hector Quadrotor open source framework, and the effectiveness of the complete Sense-and-Avoid solution has been demonstrated and validated on a realistic simulated UAV platform in Gazebo simulations, where the UAV is operated at a high speed. [less ▲]

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See detailElectronic and compositional properties of the rear-side of stoichiometric CuInSe2 absorbers
Kameni Boumenou, Christian UL; Elisabeth, Amala; Babbe, Finn et al

in Progress in Photovoltaics (2020)

In-depth understanding and subsequent optimization of the contact layers in thin film solar cells are of high importance in order to reduce the amount of nonradiative recombination and thereby improve ... [more ▼]

In-depth understanding and subsequent optimization of the contact layers in thin film solar cells are of high importance in order to reduce the amount of nonradiative recombination and thereby improve device performance. In this work, the buried MoSe2/CuInSe2 interface of stoichiometric absorbers is investigated with scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy combined with compositional measurements acquired via photo-electron spectroscopy after a mechanical lift-off process. We find that the local density of states, as measured with scanning tunneling spectroscopy, is similar to the front-side of ultra-high vacuum annealed CISe absorbers. The grain boundaries exhibit a weak upward band bending, opposite to Cu-poor CuGaSe2, and we measure an increased Cu accumulation at the rear CISe surface compared to the bulk composition and a non-zero concentration of Cu on the Mo-side. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements corroborate that a small amount of a CuxSe secondary phase is present at the MoSe2/CuInSe2 interface in contrast to reports on Cu-poor material. Our findings shed new light into the complex interface formation of CuInSe2-based thin film solar cells grown under Cu-rich conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailNotes on the ECHR and the Disunited Kingdom 'After' Brexit - In Memoriam Scott Crosby
Robinson, Gavin UL

in New Journal of European Criminal Law (2020)

When the idea of this special edition occurred to the team behind the New Journal of European Criminal Law, my first thought was to go back through all of Scott Crosby’s contributions in print as editor ... [more ▼]

When the idea of this special edition occurred to the team behind the New Journal of European Criminal Law, my first thought was to go back through all of Scott Crosby’s contributions in print as editor-in-chief and see whether a mini-retrospective on the themes and views therein would be worthy of inclusion here – by Scott’s own standards. These notes focus on what gradually became the single biggest concern expressed in Scott’s editorials: the perilous position of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in a post-Brexit UK – in concreto, the prospect of what he labelled ‘Brexit plus’: a British exit from the ECHR system. I begin with Scott’s views on the European Union (EU) Referendum and the Brexit process. Next comes the great uncertainty currently surrounding the future of Convention rights in the United Kingdom, set against the emphasis placed by the editorials on the instrumental role of the ECHR in fostering peace across the whole of Europe, within and beyond the territory of the EU. In the event that Brexit plus should materialise, writing in the wake of polls showing all-time record support in Scotland for secession from the United Kingdom I close by asking whether Scotland might be able to ‘leave a light on for Strasbourg’. [less ▲]

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