References of "2020"
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See detailSMRL: A Metamorphic Security Testing Tool for Web Systems
Mai, Xuan Phu UL; Göknil, Arda; Pastore, Fabrizio UL et al

in 2020 IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering (2020)

We present a metamorphic testing tool that alleviates the oracle problem in security testing. The tool enables engineers to specify metamorphic relations that capture security properties of Web systems ... [more ▼]

We present a metamorphic testing tool that alleviates the oracle problem in security testing. The tool enables engineers to specify metamorphic relations that capture security properties of Web systems. It automatically tests Web systems to detect vulnerabilities based on those relations. We provide a domain-specific language accompanied by an Eclipse editor to facilitate the specification of metamorphic relations. The tool automatically collects the input data and transforms the metamorphic relations into executable Java code in order to automatically perform security testing based on the collected data. The tool has been successfully evaluated on a commercial system and a leading open source system (Jenkins). Demo video: https://youtu.be/9kx6u9LsGxs. [less ▲]

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See detailA Look into Privacy-Preserving Blockchains
Khan, Nida UL; Nassar, Mohamed

in IEEE BCA @AICCSA 2019 - Workshop on Blockchain and it's Applications (2020)

Blockchain is a revolutionary technology promising a new generation of decentralized, transparent and tamper-proof database systems. However, one of the main challenges of the emerging blockchain systems ... [more ▼]

Blockchain is a revolutionary technology promising a new generation of decentralized, transparent and tamper-proof database systems. However, one of the main challenges of the emerging blockchain systems remains to address data privacy. While in Bitcoin and similar e-cash systems, privacy was limited to anonymity and addressed by using cryptographic pseudonyms for identification and authentication of parties, the question of privacy has more breadth in systems maintaining actual data such as medical records or energy meters. In this paper, we look into recently proposed privacy-preserving blockchains, analyze their strengths and weaknesses, and highlight research questions requiring future investigation. We conclude that privacy-preserving blockchains are still in their infancy and more research is definitely needed in this area. [less ▲]

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See detailMehrebenenanalyse schulischer Inklusion: Zwischen globaler Diffusion der Inklusionsrhetorik, behinderten Bildungskarrieren und institutionellen Pfadabhängigkeiten in Deutschland
Biermann, Julia; Pfahl, Lisa; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Dietze, Torsten; Gloystein, Dietlind; Moser, Vera (Eds.) et al Inklusion – Partizipation – Menschenrechte: Transformationen in die Teilhabegesellschaft? (2020)

In Deutschland ist, wie in den meisten anderen Ländern Europas, eine Debatte über die Auflösung der traditionellen Dichotomie von Sonder- versus Regelschule zu beobachten. Diese Debatten reflektieren ... [more ▼]

In Deutschland ist, wie in den meisten anderen Ländern Europas, eine Debatte über die Auflösung der traditionellen Dichotomie von Sonder- versus Regelschule zu beobachten. Diese Debatten reflektieren, dass die derzeitige Lage im deutschen Schulsystem keineswegs einer Realisierung des Menschenrechts auf inklusive Bildung entspricht, wie es in Artikel 24 der UN-BRK verankert ist. Inklusive Bildung wird hier als gemeinsames Lernen an allgemeinen Schulen in allen Bildungsstufen definiert. Inklusion ist demnach weder vereinbar mit Sonderbeschulung (Segregation), Unterricht in separaten Klassen und Lerngruppen an allgemeinen Schulen (Separation) noch mit Unterricht, wel- cher zwar größtenteils gemeinsam stattfindet, jedoch nicht auf Vielfalt jeglicher Art ausgerichtet ist (etwa Schicht, Geschlecht, Migrationshintergrund, Behinderung) (Integration) (Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2016, S. 3). Die Institutionalisierung inklusiver Bildung setzt also eine De-Institutionalisierung segregierter und separierter Schulsysteme voraus (Biermann & Powell, 2014). Auf Grundlage dieses Verständnisses hat der UN Ausschuss für die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderungen im Rahmen des Staatenberichtsverfahrens im Jahr 2015 auch die Entwicklungen in Deutschland kritisiert (Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2015, S. 8). Eine Transformation hin zu einem inklusiven Bildungssystem, in dem alle Schüler*innen möglichst lange gemeinsam lernen, hat es bisher nur regional bedingt gegeben (Autorengruppe Bildungsberichterstattung, 2014, 2016, 2018; Blanck, Edelstein & Powell, 2013). Obwohl sonderpädagogische Förderung je nach Bundesland und Kreis an sehr unterschiedlichen Lernorten bereitgestellt wird, ist im Aggregat dennoch die Persistenz der Sonderbeschulung nicht zu verleugnen (Autorengruppe Bildungsberichterstattung, 2014, 2016, 2018; Blanck, Edelstein & Powell, 2013). In den verschiedenen Regionen Deutschlands kommt es daher weder zu einer allgemeinen Angleichung der Lebensbedingungen noch zu einer Konvergenz in den Bildungschancen. Dies hat weitreichende Folgen für die gegenwärtige Schüler*innengeneration und nimmt negativen Einfluss auf individuelle Bildungskarrieren. Die Frage, mit welcher wir uns in diesem Beitrag beschäftigen, lautet daher: Welche Wirkung hat der völkerrechtlich anerkannte Auftrag, inklusive Bildung zu gewährleisten, auf das deutsche Schulsystem? [less ▲]

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See detailComputational models of melanoma.
Albrecht, Marco; Lucarelli, Philippe; Kulms, Dagmar et al

in Theoretical biology & medical modelling (2020), 17(1), 8

Genes, proteins, or cells influence each other and consequently create patterns, which can be increasingly better observed by experimental biology and medicine. Thereby, descriptive methods of statistics ... [more ▼]

Genes, proteins, or cells influence each other and consequently create patterns, which can be increasingly better observed by experimental biology and medicine. Thereby, descriptive methods of statistics and bioinformatics sharpen and structure our perception. However, additionally considering the interconnectivity between biological elements promises a deeper and more coherent understanding of melanoma. For instance, integrative network-based tools and well-grounded inductive in silico research reveal disease mechanisms, stratify patients, and support treatment individualization. This review gives an overview of different modeling techniques beyond statistics, shows how different strategies align with the respective medical biology, and identifies possible areas of new computational melanoma research. [less ▲]

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See detailIsogeometric analysis of thin Reissner-Mindlin shells: locking phenomena and B-bar method
Hu, Qingyuan; Xia, Yang; Natarajan, Sundararajan et al

in Computational Mechanics (2020), 65(5), 1323-1341

We propose a local type of B-bar formulation, addressing locking in degenerated Reissner–Mindlin shell formulation in the context of isogeometric analysis. Parasitic strain components are projected onto ... [more ▼]

We propose a local type of B-bar formulation, addressing locking in degenerated Reissner–Mindlin shell formulation in the context of isogeometric analysis. Parasitic strain components are projected onto the physical space locally, i.e. at the element level, using a least-squares approach. The formulation allows the flexible utilization of basis functions of different orders as the projection bases. The introduced formulation is much cheaper computationally than the classical $$\bar{B}$$B¯ method. We show the numerical consistency of the scheme through numerical examples, moreover they show that the proposed formulation alleviates locking and yields good accuracy even for slenderness ratios of $$10^5$$105, and has the ability to capture deformations of thin shells using relatively coarse meshes. In addition it can be opined that the proposed method is less sensitive to locking with irregular meshes. [less ▲]

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See detailDual-Use Research In Ransomware Attacks: A Discussion on Ransomware Defence Intelligence
Genç, Ziya Alper UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy (2020)

Previous research has shown that developers rely on public platforms and repositories to produce functional but insecure code. We looked into the matter for ransomware, enquiring whether also ransomware ... [more ▼]

Previous research has shown that developers rely on public platforms and repositories to produce functional but insecure code. We looked into the matter for ransomware, enquiring whether also ransomware engineers re-use the work of others and produce insecure code. By methodically reverse-engineering 128 malware executables, we have found that, out of 21 ransomware samples, 9 contain copy-paste code from public resources. Thanks to this finding, we managed to retrieve the decryption keys with which to nullify the ransomware attacks. From this fact, we recall critical cases of code disclosure in the recent history of ransomware and, arguing that ransomware are components in cyber-weapons, reflect on the dual-use nature of this research. We further discuss benefits and limits of using cyber-intelligence and counter-intelligence strategies that could be used against this threat. [less ▲]

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See detailDesigning the (Most) Mobile University: The Centrality of International Student Mobility in Luxembourg’s Higher Education Policy Discourse
Kmiotek-Meier, Emilia Alicja UL; Karl, Ute; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Higher Education Policy (2020), 33

The nexus of national educational and migration policies and international student mobility (ISM) in Europe becomes strikingly visible in Luxembourg. ISM is central for higher education policy in ... [more ▼]

The nexus of national educational and migration policies and international student mobility (ISM) in Europe becomes strikingly visible in Luxembourg. ISM is central for higher education policy in Luxembourg, but also for larger questions of social integration and economic development. Based on a discourse analysis of the political debates surrounding the foundation of the University of Luxembourg in 2003, we analyze how and why ISM became a cornerstone of higher education policy in Luxembourg. Our findings reveal that, on the one hand, incoming student mobility — and the establishment of an international research university — was and is seen as a means of competing for the best and brightest, regionally and globally, and of securing human resources to satisfy a booming, internationalized labor market. On the other hand, outgoing student mobility has traditionally been viewed as the main mechanism to establish international networks across Europe and foster elites back home. Both incoming and outgoing mobility are thought necessary to establish and maintain a competitive and sustainable knowledge economy. Reconstructing the underlying rationales behind the support for ISM as the key to higher education policy, we explain why Luxembourg currently has the highest proportion of ISM worldwide. [less ▲]

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See detailUnlinkable Updatable Databases and Oblivious Transfer with Access Control
Damodaran, Aditya Shyam Shankar UL; Rial, Alfredo UL

in 25th Australasian Conference on Information Security and Privacy (2020)

An oblivious transfer with access control protocol (OTAC) allows us to protect privacy of accesses to a database while enforcing access control policies. Existing OTAC have several shortcomings. First ... [more ▼]

An oblivious transfer with access control protocol (OTAC) allows us to protect privacy of accesses to a database while enforcing access control policies. Existing OTAC have several shortcomings. First, their design is not modular. Typically, to create an OTAC, an adaptive oblivious transfer protocol (OT) is extended ad-hoc. Consequently, the security of the OT is reanalyzed when proving security of the OTAC, and it is not possible to instantiate the OTAC with any secure OT. Second, existing OTAC do not allow for policy updates. Finally, in practical applications, many messages share the same policy. However, existing OTAC cannot take advantage of that to improve storage efficiency. We propose an UC-secure OTAC that addresses the aforementioned shortcomings. Our OTAC uses as building blocks the ideal functionalities for OT, for zero-knowledge (ZK) and for an \emph{unlinkable updatable database} ($\UUD$), which we define and construct. $\UUD$ is a protocol between an updater $\fuudUpdater$ and multiple readers $\fuudReader_k$. $\fuudUpdater$ sets up a database and updates it. $\fuudReader_k$ can read the database by computing UC ZK proofs of an entry in the database, without disclosing what entry is read. In our OTAC, $\UUD$ is used to store and read the policies. We construct an $\UUD$ based on subvector commitments (SVC). We extend the definition of SVC with update algorithms for commitments and openings, and we provide an UC ZK proof of a subvector. Our efficiency analysis shows that our $\UUD$ is practical. [less ▲]

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See detailUC Updatable Databases and Applications
Damodaran, Aditya Shyam Shankar UL; Rial, Alfredo UL

in 12th International Conference on Cryptology (2020)

We define an ideal functionality $\Functionality_{\UD}$ and a construction $\mathrm{\Pi_{\UD}}$ for an updatable database ($\UD$). $\UD$ is a two-party protocol between an updater and a reader. The ... [more ▼]

We define an ideal functionality $\Functionality_{\UD}$ and a construction $\mathrm{\Pi_{\UD}}$ for an updatable database ($\UD$). $\UD$ is a two-party protocol between an updater and a reader. The updater sets the database and updates it at any time throughout the protocol execution. The reader computes zero-knowledge (ZK) proofs of knowledge of database entries. These proofs prove that a value is stored at a certain position in the database, without revealing the position or the value. (Non-)updatable databases are implicitly used as building block in priced oblivious transfer, privacy-preserving billing and other privacy-preserving protocols. Typically, in those protocols the updater signs each database entry, and the reader proves knowledge of a signature on a database entry. Updating the database requires a revocation mechanism to revoke signatures on outdated database entries. Our construction $\mathrm{\Pi_{\UD}}$ uses a non-hiding vector commitment (NHVC) scheme. The updater maps the database to a vector and commits to the database. This commitment can be updated efficiently at any time without needing a revocation mechanism. ZK proofs for reading a database entry have communication and amortized computation cost independent of the database size. Therefore, $\mathrm{\Pi_{\UD}}$ is suitable for large databases. We implement $\mathrm{\Pi_{\UD}}$ and our timings show that it is practical. In existing privacy-preserving protocols, a ZK proof of a database entry is intertwined with other tasks, e.g., proving further statements about the value read from the database or the position where it is stored. $\Functionality_{\UD}$ allows us to improve modularity in protocol design by separating those tasks. We show how to use $\Functionality_{\UD}$ as building block of a hybrid protocol along with other functionalities. [less ▲]

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See detailRezension von: Europäische Messegeschichte 9.–19. Jahrhundert, hg. von Markus A. Denzel. Böhlau, Köln–Weimar–Wien 2018. 434 S. ISBN 978-3-412-50794-7
Pauly, Michel UL

in Mitteilungen des Instituts für Osterreichische Geschichtsforschung (2020), 128(1), 174-176

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See detailJoint Power Allocation and Access Point Selection for Cell-free Massive MIMO
Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; ShahbazPanahi, Shahram et al

in IEEE International Conference on Communications (2020)

Cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CF-MIMO) is a promising technological enabler for fifth generation (5G) networks in which a large number of access points (APs) jointly serve the users ... [more ▼]

Cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CF-MIMO) is a promising technological enabler for fifth generation (5G) networks in which a large number of access points (APs) jointly serve the users. Each AP applies conjugate beamforming to precode data, which is based only on the AP's local channel state information. However, by having the nature of a (very) large number of APs, the operation of CF-MIMO can be energy-inefficient. In this paper, we investigate the energy efficiency performance of CF-MIMO by considering a practical energy consumption model which includes both the signal transmit energy as well as the static energy consumed by hardware components. In particular, a joint power allocation and AP selection design is proposed to minimize the total energy consumption subject to given quality of service (QoS) constraints. In order to deal with the combinatorial complexity of the formulated problem, we employ norm $l_{2,1}$-based block-sparsity and successive convex optimization to leverage the AP selection process. Numerical results show significant energy savings obtained by the proposed design, compared to all-active APs scheme and the large-scale based AP selection. [less ▲]

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See detailPoverty in Russia: the Role of the Marital Status and Gender
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailEvaluating ambiguity of privacy indicators in a secure email app
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Loreti, Michele; Spalazzi, Luca (Eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Italian Conference on Cyber Security, Ancona Italy, February 4th to 7th, 2020 (2020)

Informing laymen of security situations is a notoriously hard problem. Users are usually not cognoscenti of all the various secure and insecure situations that may arise, and this can be further worsened ... [more ▼]

Informing laymen of security situations is a notoriously hard problem. Users are usually not cognoscenti of all the various secure and insecure situations that may arise, and this can be further worsened by certain visual indicators that instead of helping users, fail to convey clear and unambiguous messages. Even in well-established and studied applications, like email clients providing end-to-end encryption, the problem seems far from being solved. Motivated to verify this claim, we studied the communication qualities of four privacy icons (in the form of coloured shapes) in conveying specific security messages, relevant for a particular secure emailing system called p≡p. We questioned 42 users in three different sessions, where we showed them 10 privacy ratings, along with their explanations, and asked them to match the rating and explanation with the four privacy icons. We compared the participants’ associations to those made by the p≡p developers. The results, still preliminary, are not encouraging. Except for the two most extreme cases, Secure and trusted and Under attack, users almost entirely missed to get the indicators’ intended messages. In particular, they did not grasp certain concepts such as Unsecure email and Secure email, which in turn were fundamental for the engineers. Our work has certain limitations and further investigation is required, but already at this stage our research calls for a closer collaboration between app engineers and icon designers. In the context of p≡p, our work has triggered a deeper discussion on the icon design choices and a potential revamp is on the way. [less ▲]

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See detailDiskursanalysen in der Bildungsforschung
Traue, Boris UL; Pfahl, Lisa; Biermann, Julia

in Jule-Marie, Lorenzen; Lisa-Marian, Schmidt; Zifonun, Dariuš (Eds.) Methodologien & Methoden der Bildungsforschung. Quantitative und qualitative Verfahren & ihre Verbindungen (2020)

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See detailEstimating the number of infected persons
Baraud, Yannick UL; Nourdin, Ivan UL; Peccati, Giovanni UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The aim of this paper is to provide a confidence interval on the number of infected persons by COVID-19 within the population from the number of deaths reported in the hospitals and the mortality rate ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to provide a confidence interval on the number of infected persons by COVID-19 within the population from the number of deaths reported in the hospitals and the mortality rate (that is assumed to be known). [less ▲]

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See detailMachine learning in nanoscience: big data at small scales
Brown, Keith A.; Brittman, Sarah; Maccaferri, Nicolò UL et al

in Nano Letters (2020), 20(1), 2-10

Recent advances in machine learning (ML) offer new tools to extract new insights from large data sets and to acquire small data sets more effectively. Researchers in nanoscience are experimenting with ... [more ▼]

Recent advances in machine learning (ML) offer new tools to extract new insights from large data sets and to acquire small data sets more effectively. Researchers in nanoscience are experimenting with these tools to tackle challenges in many fields. In addition to ML’s advancement of nanoscience, nanoscience provides the foundation for neuromorphic computing hardware to expand the implementation of ML algorithms. In this mini-review, which is not able to be comprehensive, we highlight some recent efforts to connect the ML and nanoscience communities focusing on three types of interaction: (1) using ML to analyze and extract new information from large nanoscience data sets, (2) applying ML to accelerate materials discovery, including the use of active learning to guide experimental design, and (3) the nanoscience of memristive devices to realize hardware tailored for ML. We conclude with a discussion of challenges and opportunities for future interactions between nanoscience and ML researchers. [less ▲]

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See detailParticle trapping and beaming using a 3D nanotip excited with a plasmonic vortex
Liu, Kai; Maccaferri, Nicolò UL; Shen, Yuefeng et al

in Optics Letters (2020), 45(4), 823-826

Recent advances in nanotechnology have prompted the need for tools to accurately and non-invasively manipulate individual nano-objects. Among the possible strategies, optical forces have been widely used ... [more ▼]

Recent advances in nanotechnology have prompted the need for tools to accurately and non-invasively manipulate individual nano-objects. Among the possible strategies, optical forces have been widely used to enable nano-optical tweezers capable of trapping or moving a specimen with unprecedented accuracy. Here, we propose an architecture consisting of a nanotip excited with a plasmonic vortex enabling effective dynamic control of nanoparticles in three dimensions. The structure illuminated by a beam with angular momentum can generate an optical field which can be used to manipulate single dielectric nanoparticles. We demonstrate that it’s possible to stably trap or push the particle from specific points, thus enabling a new platform for nanoparticle manipulation. [less ▲]

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See detailIntracellular recording of human cardiac action potentials on market-available multielectrode array platforms
Melle, Giovanni; Bruno, Giulia; Maccaferri, Nicolò UL et al

in Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology (2020), 8

High quality attenuated intracellular action potentials from large cell networks can be recorded on multi-electrode arrays by means of 3D vertical nanopillars using electrical pulses. However,most of the ... [more ▼]

High quality attenuated intracellular action potentials from large cell networks can be recorded on multi-electrode arrays by means of 3D vertical nanopillars using electrical pulses. However,most of the techniques require complex 3D nanostructures that prevent the straightforward translation into marketable products and the wide adoption in the scientific community. Moreover, 3D nanostructures are often delicate objects that cannot sustain several harsh use/cleaning cycles. On the contrary, laser optoacoustic poration allows the recording of action potentials on planar nanoporous electrodes made of noble metals. However, these constraints of the electrode material and morphology may also hinder the full exploitation of this methodology. Here, we show that optoacoustic poration is also very effective for porating cells on a large family of MEA electrode configurations, including robust electrodes made of nanoporous titanium nitride or disordered fractal-like gold nanostructures. This enables the recording of high quality cardiac action potentials in combination with optoacoustic poration, providing thus attenuated intracellular recordings on various already commercial devices used by a significant part of the research and industrial communities. [less ▲]

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