References of "2020"
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See detailGendering (Splitting) als Phänomen des Sprachwandels?
Sieburg, Heinz UL

in Ammer, Jessica; Meiser, Gerhard; Link, Heike (Eds.) 'In vriuntschaft als es was gedâht'. Freundschaftsschrift für Hans-Joachim Solms (2020)

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See detailProteggere o controllare? Il sistema europeo comune di asilo nello spazio Schengen
Vianelli, Lorenzo UL

in Zapruder (2020), 51(Jan-Apr 2020), 34-53

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See detailRatings, Rankings, Research Evaluation: How do Schools of Education Behave Strategically within Stratified UK Higher Education?
Marques, Marcelo UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Higher Education (2020), 79

While higher education research has paid considerable attention to the impact of both ratings and rankings on universities, less attention has been devoted to how university subunits, such as Schools of ... [more ▼]

While higher education research has paid considerable attention to the impact of both ratings and rankings on universities, less attention has been devoted to how university subunits, such as Schools of Education, are affected by such performance measurements. Anchored in a new institutional approach, we analyze the formation of a competitive institutional environment in UK higher education in which ratings and rankings assume a central position in promoting competition among Schools of Education (SoE). We apply the concepts of “ institutional environment” and “ organizational strategic actors” to UK SoE to demonstrate how such university subunits articulate their qualities and respond to the institutional environment in which they are embedded—by using ratings and rankings (R&R) to compete for material and symbolical resources as well as inter-organizational and intra-organizational legitimacy. Through findings from 22 in-depth expert interviews with members ofthe multidisciplinary field of education and a content analysis of websites (n = 75) of SoE that participated in REF 2014, we examine the stratified environment in which SoE are embedded (1). We uncover how R&R are applied by SoE within this competitive, marketized higher education system (2). Finally, we indicate the strategic behaviors that have been triggered by the rise of R&R in a country with a highly formalized and standardized research evaluation system (3). The results show both homogenization and differentiation among SoE in their use of organizational vocabulary and the applications of R&R while simultaneously revealing strategic behavior, ranging from changes in internal practices to changes in organizational structures. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated Recommendation of Templates for Legal Requirements
Sleimi, Amin UL; Ceci, Marcello UL; Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad UL et al

in Proceedings of the 28th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE'20) (2020)

[Context] In legal requirements elicitation, requirements analysts need to extract obligations from legal texts. However, legal texts often express obligations only indirectly, for example, by attributing ... [more ▼]

[Context] In legal requirements elicitation, requirements analysts need to extract obligations from legal texts. However, legal texts often express obligations only indirectly, for example, by attributing a right to the counterpart. This phenomenon has already been described in the Requirements Engineering (RE) literature. [Objectives] We investigate the use of requirements templates for the systematic elicitation of legal requirements. Our work is motivated by two observations: (1) The existing literature does not provide a harmonized view on the requirements templates that are useful for legal RE; (2) Despite the promising recent advancements in natural language processing (NLP), automated support for legal RE through the suggestion of requirements templates has not been achieved yet. Our objective is to take steps toward addressing these limitations. [Methods] We review and reconcile the legal requirement templates proposed in RE. Subsequently, we conduct a qualitative study to define NLP rules for template recommendation. [Results and Conclusions] Our contributions consist of (a) a harmonized list of requirements templates pertinent to legal RE, and (b) rules for the automatic recommendation of such templates. We evaluate our rules through a case study on 400 statements from two legal domains. The results indicate a recall and precision of 82,3% and 79,8%, respectively. We show that introducing some limited interaction with the analyst considerably improves accuracy. Specifically, our human-feedback strategy increases recall by 12% and precision by 10,8%, thus yielding an overall recall of 94,3% and overall precision of 90,6%. [less ▲]

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See detailThe low-dimensional algebraic cohomology of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras of Virasoro-type
Ecker, Jill Marie-Anne UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

In this doctoral thesis, the low-dimensional algebraic cohomology of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras of Virasoro-type is investigated. The considered Lie algebras include the Witt algebra, the Virasoro ... [more ▼]

In this doctoral thesis, the low-dimensional algebraic cohomology of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras of Virasoro-type is investigated. The considered Lie algebras include the Witt algebra, the Virasoro algebra and the multipoint Krichever-Novikov vector field algebra. We consider algebraic cohomology, meaning we do not put any constraints of continuity on the cochains. The Lie algebras are considered as abstract Lie algebras in the sense that we do not work with particular realizations of the Lie algebras. The results are thus independent of any underlying choice of topology. The thesis is self-contained, as it starts with a technical chapter introducing the definitions, concepts and methods that are used in the thesis. For motivational purposes, some time is spent on the interpretation of the low-dimensional cohomology. First results include the computation of the first and the third algebraic cohomology of the Witt and the Virasoro algebra with values in the trivial and the adjoint module, the second algebraic cohomology being known already. A canonical link between the low-dimensional cohomology of the Witt and the Virasoro algebra is exhibited by using the Hochschild-Serre spectral sequence. More results are given by the computation of the low-dimensional algebraic cohomology of the Witt and the Virasoro algebra with values in general tensor-densities modules. The study consists of a mix between elementary algebra and algorithmic analysis. Finally, some results concerning the low-dimensional algebraic cohomology of the multipoint Krichever-Novikov vector field algebra are derived. The thesis is concluded with an outlook containing possible short-term goals that could be achieved in the near future as well as some long-term goals. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous Breuer-Major theorem: tightness and non-stationarity
Campese, Simon UL; Nourdin, Ivan UL; Nualart, David

in Annals of Probability (2020), 48(1), 147-177

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See detailBorders and COVID-19
Wille, Christian UL; Kanesu, Rebekka

in Borders in Perspective (2020), 4

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See detailBorder(ing)s in Times of COVID-19
Wille, Christian UL

in Borders in Perspective (2020), 4

Territorial borders and social demarcation processes are becoming dramatically more important during the coronavirus pandemic. A concise example is the 25th anniversary of the Schengen Agreement that ... [more ▼]

Territorial borders and social demarcation processes are becoming dramatically more important during the coronavirus pandemic. A concise example is the 25th anniversary of the Schengen Agreement that coincides with border control tightening and the closure of internal EU borders. At the same time, there is a certain degree of solidarity between the EU countries, which, at the end of March, slowly seems to be picking up speed. This includes not only the increasingly articulated concern to act in a coordinated manner both with the containment matters and the exit strategy. It is also shown in the increasing admission of critically ill patients from neighboring countries and the dispatch of medical supplies to particularly affected areas in other countries. [less ▲]

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See detailKummer theory for number fields and the reductions of algebraic numbers II
Perucca, Antonella UL; Sgobba, Pietro UL

in Uniform Distribution Theory (2020)

Let K be a number field, and let G be a finitely generated and torsion-free subgroup of K*. For almost all primes p of K, we consider the order of the cyclic group (G mod p), and ask whether this number ... [more ▼]

Let K be a number field, and let G be a finitely generated and torsion-free subgroup of K*. For almost all primes p of K, we consider the order of the cyclic group (G mod p), and ask whether this number lies in a given arithmetic progression. We prove that the density of primes for which the condition holds is, under some general assumptions, a computable rational number which is strictly positive. We have also discovered the following equidistribution property: if \ell^e is a prime power and a is a multiple of \ell (and a is a multiple of 4 if \ell=2), then the density of primes p of K such that the order of (G mod p) is congruent to a modulo \ell^e only depends on a through its \ell-adic valuation. [less ▲]

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See detailOxidation as Key Mechanism for Efficient Interface Passivation in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells
Werner, Florian UL; Veith-Wolf, Boris; Spindler, Conrad UL et al

in Physical Review Applied (2020)

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See detailAuthentication and Key Management Automation in Decentralized Secure Email and Messaging via Low-Entropy Secrets
Vazquez Sandoval, Itzel UL; Atashpendar, Arash; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Proceedings of the 17th International Joint Conference on e-Business and Telecommunications (2020)

We revisit the problem of entity authentication in decentralized end-to-end encrypted email and secure messaging to propose a practical and self-sustaining cryptographic solution based on password ... [more ▼]

We revisit the problem of entity authentication in decentralized end-to-end encrypted email and secure messaging to propose a practical and self-sustaining cryptographic solution based on password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE). This not only allows users to authenticate each other via shared low-entropy secrets, e.g., memorable words, without a public key infrastructure or a trusted third party, but it also paves the way for automation and a series of cryptographic enhancements; improves security by minimizing the impact of human error and potentially improves usability. First, we study a few vulnerabilities in voice-based out-of-band authentication, in particular a combinatorial attack against lazy users, which we analyze in the context of a secure email solution. Next, we propose solving the problem of secure equality test using PAKE to achieve entity authentication and to establish a shared high-entropy secret key. Our solution lends itself to offline settings, compatible with the inherently asynchronous nature of email and modern messaging systems. The suggested approach enables enhancements in key management such as automated key renewal and future key pair authentications, multi-device synchronization, secure secret storage and retrieval, and the possibility of post-quantum security as well as facilitating forward secrecy and deniability in a primarily symmetric-key setting. We also discuss the use of auditable PAKEs for mitigating a class of online guess and abort attacks in authentication protocols. [less ▲]

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See detailThe atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3/CXCR7 is a broad-spectrum scavenger for opioid peptides.
Meyrath, Max; Szpakowska, Martyna; Zeiner, Julian et al

in Nature communications (2020), 11(1), 3033

Endogenous opioid peptides and prescription opioid drugs modulate pain, anxiety and stress by activating opioid receptors, currently classified into four subtypes. Here we demonstrate that ACKR3/CXCR7 ... [more ▼]

Endogenous opioid peptides and prescription opioid drugs modulate pain, anxiety and stress by activating opioid receptors, currently classified into four subtypes. Here we demonstrate that ACKR3/CXCR7, hitherto known as an atypical scavenger receptor for chemokines, is a broad-spectrum scavenger of opioid peptides. Phylogenetically, ACKR3 is intermediate between chemokine and opioid receptors and is present in various brain regions together with classical opioid receptors. Functionally, ACKR3 is a scavenger receptor for a wide variety of opioid peptides, especially enkephalins and dynorphins, reducing their availability for the classical opioid receptors. ACKR3 is not modulated by prescription opioids, but we show that an ACKR3-selective subnanomolar competitor peptide, LIH383, can restrain ACKR3's negative regulatory function on opioid peptides in rat brain and potentiate their activity towards classical receptors, which may open alternative therapeutic avenues for opioid-related disorders. Altogether, our results reveal that ACKR3 is an atypical opioid receptor with cross-family ligand selectivity. [less ▲]

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