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See detailIntention as commitment toward time
van Zee, Marc; Doder, Dragan; van der Torre, Leon UL et al

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2020), 283

In this paper we address the interplay among intention, time, and belief in dynamic environments. The first contribution is a logic for reasoning about intention, time and belief, in which assumptions of ... [more ▼]

In this paper we address the interplay among intention, time, and belief in dynamic environments. The first contribution is a logic for reasoning about intention, time and belief, in which assumptions of intentions are represented by preconditions of intended actions. Intentions and beliefs are coherent as long as these assumptions are not violated, i.e. as long as intended actions can be performed such that their preconditions hold as well. The second contribution is the formalization of what-if scenarios: what happens with intentions and beliefs if a new (possibly conflicting) intention is adopted, or a new fact is learned? An agent is committed to its intended actions as long as its belief-intention database is coherent. We conceptualize intention as commitment toward time and we develop AGM-based postulates for the iterated revision of belief-intention databases, and we prove a Katsuno-Mendelzon-style representation theorem. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic Similarity Analysis Reveals Robust Gene-Disease Relationships in Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies
Galer, Peter D.; Ganesan, Shiva; Lewis-Smith, David et al

in The American Journal of Human Genetics (2020), 107(4), 683-697

Summary 2.1 × 10−5) and “focal clonic seizures” (HP: 0002266; p = 8.9 × 10−6), STXBP1 with “absent speech” (HP: 0001344; p = 1.3 × 10−11), and SLC6A1 with “EEG with generalized slow activity” (HP: 0010845 ... [more ▼]

Summary 2.1 × 10−5) and “focal clonic seizures” (HP: 0002266; p = 8.9 × 10−6), STXBP1 with “absent speech” (HP: 0001344; p = 1.3 × 10−11), and SLC6A1 with “EEG with generalized slow activity” (HP: 0010845; p = 0.018). Of 41 genes with de novo variants in two or more individuals, 11 genes showed significant phenotypic similarity, including SCN1A (n = 16, p < 0.0001), STXBP1 (n = 14, p = 0.0021), and KCNB1 (n = 6, p = 0.011). Including genetic and phenotypic data of control subjects increased phenotypic similarity for all genetic etiologies, whereas the probability of observing de novo variants decreased, emphasizing the conceptual differences between semantic similarity analysis and approaches based on the expected number of de novo events. We demonstrate that HPO-based phenotype analysis captures unique profiles for distinct genetic etiologies, reflecting the breadth of the phenotypic spectrum in genetic epilepsies. Semantic similarity can be used to generate statistical evidence for disease causation analogous to the traditional approach of primarily defining disease entities through similar clinical features. [less ▲]

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See detailAdherence to the physical distancing measures during the COVID‐19 pandemic : a HAPA‐based perspective
Beeckman, Melanie; De Paepe, Annick; Van Alboom, Maité et al

in Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being (2020), 12(4), 1224--1243

Background: The COVID‐19 pandemic requires massive and rapid behavior change. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) describes personal determinants that play a key role in behavior change. This study ... [more ▼]

Background: The COVID‐19 pandemic requires massive and rapid behavior change. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) describes personal determinants that play a key role in behavior change. This study investigated whether these determinants are associated with adherence to physical distancing measures to prevent the spread of COVID‐19 (i.e. keeping 1.5 m physical distance and staying at home). Decreased psychosocial well‐being and lack of social support were explored as barriers to adherence. 2,379; March 2020) focused on adherence to physical distancing measures. The second survey (N = 805; April 2020) focused on difficulty with, and perseverance in, adhering to these measures. Linear regression models were fitted to examine associations with HAPA determinants, psychosocial well‐being, and social support. Results: Self‐efficacy, outcome expectancies, intention, action planning, and coping planning were related to adhering to, difficulty with, and perseverance in, adhering to physical distancing measures. Decreased psychosocial well‐being and lack of social support were related to more difficulties with adhering to physical distancing and lower perseverance. Conclusions: Health action process approach determinants are associated with adherence to physical distancing measures. Future work could design HAPA‐based interventions to support people in adhering to these measures. [less ▲]

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See detailGeographien der Grenzen. Räume – Ordnungen – Verflechtungen
Weber, Florian; Wille, Christian UL; Caesar, Beate et al

Book published by VS Verlag (2020)

Border research has undergone profound changes in the last few decades, which has changed the study of national borders as unchallenged phenomena. This reorientation is based on constructivist approaches ... [more ▼]

Border research has undergone profound changes in the last few decades, which has changed the study of national borders as unchallenged phenomena. This reorientation is based on constructivist approaches and queries the processes of establishing, relativising, shifting or overcoming borders. It was based on this conception of borders as social constructions that in 2019 Florian Weber (Saarland University), Christian Wille (University of Luxembourg), Beate Caesar (TU Kaiserslautern) and Julian Hollstegge (University of Bayreuth) launched their book project "Geographien der Grenzen" (Geographies of Borders). The anthology, which was published in 2020 discusses the connection between spaces, orders and interdependencies. The authors from the spatial, social sciences and cultural studies choose different approaches to borders and analyze their (re)production processes as “geographies of borders”. By doing so, they also focus on borders other than nation-state borders, such as city-country hybrid differentiations. The volume therefore examines from various theoretical and thematic perspectives the question of how and which “geographies of border” can be (re)constructed in the interplay of various destabilizations and (re)stabilizations of borders. Contents • Entwicklungslinien der Border Studies und Zugänge zu Geographien der Grenzen (Weber, Florian / Wille, Christian / Caesar, Beate / Hollstegge, Julian) • Räumliche Identifikationen und Identifizierungen in Grenzregionen. Das Beispiel der Großregion SaarLorLux (Wille, Christian) • Zur Rolle von Strukturen und Kontingenz – das Beispiel des grenzüberschreitenden Pendelns im Alpenraum (Heugel, Anna / Chilla, Tobias) • Energy Borderlands – eine Analyse medialer Aushandlungsprozesse um das Kernkraftwerk Cattenom in der Großregion SaarLorLux (Biemann, Juli / Weber, Florian) • Planungskulturelle Vielfalt in Grenzräumen – Theoretische und methodische Ansätze zur grenzüberschreitenden Raumplanung (Caesar, Beate / Evrard, Estelle) • Die Entwicklung grenzüberschreitender Berufsausbildung im Spannungsfeld unterschiedlicher Dimensionen von Distanz – das Beispiel der Großregion (Dörrenbächer, H. Peter) • Zur Konstitution multipler Borderlands im Zuge der Frankreichstrategie des Saarlandes (Crossey, Nora / Weber, Florian) • Re-Figuration von Grenzen und Ordnungen im sozialen Raum. Konzeptualisierung eines Analysemodells partizipativer Governance in EU-Grenzregionen (Ulrich, Peter) • Grenzgeographien der COVID-19-Pandemie (Weber, Florian / Wille, Christian) • (Un-)Ordnungen der Kontrolle. Politische Auseinandersetzungen um das Asylsystem der Europäischen Union nach der Krise des Grenzregimes 2015 (Niebauer, David) • Mehr-als-menschliche Grenzen: Die Neuverhandlung des europäischen Grenzregimes im Kontext der Afrikanischen Schweinepest (Fleischmann, Larissa) • In Beton gegossene Grenzen: Wie Mauern als Instrumente der Macht die Realität des Raums verändern (Engelhardt, Marc) • Counter-Mapping Corporeal Borderlands: Border Imaginaries in the Americas (Fellner, Astrid M.) • Sehnsuchtsräume und Beheimatungsstrategien jamaikanischer Frauen in Montreal (Johnson, Lisa Katharina) • Migration and Urbanity in Rural Areas. Developments in the German-Luxembourg Border Region (Boesen, Elisabeth / Schnuer, Gregor / Wille, Christian) • The city’s internal boundaries in the light of socio-territorial realities (Stébé, Jean-Marc / Marchal, Hervé) • Hybrid Urban Borderlands (Roßmeier, Albert) • Postmoderne Siedlungsentwicklungen in Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Stadtlandhybridität und Raumpastiches zwischen Begrenzungen und Entgrenzungen (Kühne, Olaf / Jenal, Corrina / Koegst, Lara) [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid Transceivers Design for Large-Scale Antenna Arrays Using Majorization-Minimization Algorithms
Arora, Aakash UL; Tsinos, Christos UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2020), 68

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See detailUnderstanding Unemployment Normalization: Individual Differences in an Alternative Experience With Unemployment
Houssemand, Claude UL; thill, Steve; Pignault, Anne

in Frontiers in Psychology (2020)

Unemployment is a major concern of societies and people around the world. In addressing this phenomenon, the literature has suggested a change in unemployed people’s perceptions of this transition period ... [more ▼]

Unemployment is a major concern of societies and people around the world. In addressing this phenomenon, the literature has suggested a change in unemployed people’s perceptions of this transition period. In this paper, we apply a differential approach to explore the concept of unemployment normalization, an individual emotional regulation process. The results show how the global socioeconomic context and some individual and psychological variables influence the normalization of unemployment. Thus, the age of the person but also work involvement, coping strategies, locus of control, and level of self-esteem have indirect differential effects, mediated by unemployment normalization dimensions, on unemployed people’s perceived health. Only neuroticism has a direct link to subjective well-being. These results offer a new understanding of the perception of unemployment and are also discussed in the area of career and vocational counseling. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une évolution du rapport au travail et au chômage ? Points de vue de demandeurs d’emploi et discours de salariés
Thill, Steve; Houssemand, Claude UL; Pignault, Anne

in Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations (2020), 26(3), 197-213

Professional career paths are nowadays marked by multiple transitions. Job loss is one of the most frequent causes of professional transitions. Given this emphasis, recent studies questioned a possible ... [more ▼]

Professional career paths are nowadays marked by multiple transitions. Job loss is one of the most frequent causes of professional transitions. Given this emphasis, recent studies questioned a possible evolution of the “work” norm, the emergence of an “unemployment norm” and its effects on job seekers. This paper proposes to contribute to the discussion on the current evolution of the relation to work and unemployment. At first, the results of a study with 500 unemployed people, who completed a questionnaire on work centrality and on the perception of work, will be presented. Then, a discourse analysis on the meaning and meaningfulness of work of 15 working people will be discussed. The results show the central function of work and the relative normalization of unemployment. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining the Decline in the US Labor Share: Taxation and Automation
Irmen, Andreas UL

Presentation (2020)

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See detailEffects of meaning in life and of work on health in unemployment
Thill, Steve; Houssemand, Claude UL; Pignault, Anne

in Health Psychology Open (2020)

In line with the meaning making theory, people experience a discrepancy when their appraised meaning of a situation is in conflict with their general meaning framework. We wanted to replicate this result ... [more ▼]

In line with the meaning making theory, people experience a discrepancy when their appraised meaning of a situation is in conflict with their general meaning framework. We wanted to replicate this result in the context of unemployment. Heren the meaning of work and meaning in life influenced the perception of unemployment and consequently had an impact on mental health. This study points to new ways of thinking about unemployment and career transitions. Whereas the COVID-19-induced economic crisis will see millions of people losing their jobs, these results could assist counselors in helping unemployed people better understand the experiences they are going through. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomation, Growth, and Factor Shares in the Era of Population Aging
Irmen, Andreas UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

How does population aging affect economic growth and factor shares in times of increasingly automatable production processes? The present paper addresses this question in a new macroeconomic model of ... [more ▼]

How does population aging affect economic growth and factor shares in times of increasingly automatable production processes? The present paper addresses this question in a new macroeconomic model of automation where competitive firms perform tasks to produce output. Tasks require labor and machines as inputs. New machines embody superior technological knowledge and substitute for labor in the performance of tasks. The incentive to automate is stronger if wages are higher. Automation is shown to boost the aggregate demand for labor if and only if the incentives to automate are strong enough and to reduce the labor share. These predictions obtain even though automation is labor-augmenting in the reduced-form production function. Population aging due to a higher longevity or a decline in fertility may strengthen or weaken the incentives to automate. Irrespective of its source, population aging is predicted to increase the growth rate of per-capita GDP in the short and in the long run. The short-run effect of higher longevity on the labor share is positive whereas the effect of a declining fertility is negative. In the long run, population aging reduces the labor share. [less ▲]

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See detailMining Assumptions for Software Components using Machine Learning
Gaaloul, Khouloud UL; Menghi, Claudio UL; Nejati, Shiva UL et al

in Proceedings of the The ACM Joint European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE) (2020)

Software verification approaches aim to check a software component under analysis for all possible environments. In reality, however, components are expected to operate within a larger system and are ... [more ▼]

Software verification approaches aim to check a software component under analysis for all possible environments. In reality, however, components are expected to operate within a larger system and are required to satisfy their requirements only when their inputs are constrained by environment assumptions. In this paper, we propose EPIcuRus, an approach to automatically synthesize environment assumptions for a component under analysis (i.e., conditions on the component inputs under which the component is guaranteed to satisfy its requirements). EPIcuRus combines search-based testing, machine learning and model checking. The core of EPIcuRus is a decision tree algorithm that infers environment assumptions from a set of test results including test cases and their verdicts. The test cases are generated using search-based testing, and the assumptions inferred by decision trees are validated through model checking. In order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the assumption generation process, we propose a novel test case generation technique, namely Important Features Boundary Test (IFBT), that guides the test generation based on the feedback produced by machine learning. We evaluated EPIcuRus by assessing its effectiveness in computing assumptions on a set of study subjects that include 18 requirements of four industrial models. We show that, for each of the 18 requirements, EPIcuRus was able to compute an assumption to ensure the satisfaction of that requirement, and further, ≈78% of these assumptions were computed in one hour. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlocal electronic correlations in the cohesive properties of high-pressure hydrogen solids
Cui, Ting-Ting; Li, Jian-Chen; Gao, Wang et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (2020)

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See detailThe Emerging Role of RHOT1/Miro1 in the Pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease.
Grossmann, Dajana; Berenguer-Escuder, Clara; Chemla, Axel UL et al

in Frontiers in neurology (2020), 11

The expected increase in prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) as the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder over the next years underscores the need for a better understanding of the underlying ... [more ▼]

The expected increase in prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) as the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder over the next years underscores the need for a better understanding of the underlying molecular pathogenesis. Here, first insights provided by genetics over the last two decades, such as dysfunction of molecular and organellar quality control, are described. The mechanisms involved relate to impaired intracellular calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial dynamics, which are tightly linked to the cross talk between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. A number of proteins related to monogenic forms of PD have been mapped to these pathways, i.e., PINK1, Parkin, LRRK2, and α-synuclein. Recently, Miro1 was identified as an important player, as several studies linked Miro1 to mitochondrial quality control by PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy and mitochondrial transport. Moreover, Miro1 is an important regulator of mitochondria-ER contact sites (MERCs), where it acts as a sensor for cytosolic calcium levels. The involvement of Miro1 in the pathogenesis of PD was recently confirmed by genetic evidence based on the first PD patients with heterozygous mutations in RHOT1/Miro1. Patient-based cellular models from RHOT1/Miro1 mutation carriers showed impaired calcium homeostasis, structural alterations of MERCs, and increased mitochondrial clearance. To account for the emerging role of Miro1, we present a comprehensive overview focusing on the role of this protein in PD-related neurodegeneration and highlighting new developments in our understanding of Miro1, which provide new avenues for neuroprotective therapies for PD patients. [less ▲]

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See detailYoung people feel wise and older people feel energetic: Comparing age stereotypes and self-evaluations across adulthood
Bowen, Catherine E.; Spuling, Svenja M.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in European Journal of Ageing (2020), 17

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See detailAn efficient machine learning-based approach for screening individuals at risk of hereditary haemochromatosis.
Martins Conde, Patricia UL; Sauter, Thomas UL; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong UL

in Scientific reports (2020), 10(1), 20613

Hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive disease, where HFE C282Y homozygosity accounts for 80-85% of clinical cases among the Caucasian population. HH is characterised by the ... [more ▼]

Hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive disease, where HFE C282Y homozygosity accounts for 80-85% of clinical cases among the Caucasian population. HH is characterised by the accumulation of iron, which, if untreated, can lead to the development of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Since iron overload is preventable and treatable if diagnosed early, high-risk individuals can be identified through effective screening employing artificial intelligence-based approaches. However, such tools expose novel challenges associated with the handling and integration of large heterogeneous datasets. We have developed an efficient computational model to screen individuals for HH using the family study data of the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) cohort. This dataset, consisting of 254 cases and 701 controls, contains variables extracted from questionnaires and laboratory blood tests. The final model was trained on an extreme gradient boosting classifier using the most relevant risk factors: HFE C282Y homozygosity, age, mean corpuscular volume, iron level, serum ferritin level, transferrin saturation, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity. Hyperparameter optimisation was carried out with multiple runs, resulting in 0.94 ± 0.02 area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUCROC) for tenfold stratified cross-validation, demonstrating its outperformance when compared to the iron overload screening (IRON) tool. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomating System Test Case Classification and Prioritization for Use Case-Driven Testing in Product Lines
Hajri, Ines UL; Göknil, Arda UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2020), 25(5), 37113769

Product Line Engineering (PLE) is a crucial practice in many software development environments where software systems are complex and developed for multiple customers with varying needs. At the same time ... [more ▼]

Product Line Engineering (PLE) is a crucial practice in many software development environments where software systems are complex and developed for multiple customers with varying needs. At the same time, many development processes are use case-driven and this strongly influences their requirements engineering and system testing practices. In this paper, we propose, apply, and assess an automated system test case classification and prioritization approach specifically targeting system testing in the context of use case-driven development of product families. Our approach provides: (i) automated support to classify, for a new product in a product family, relevant and valid system test cases associated with previous products, and (ii) automated prioritization of system test cases using multiple risk factors such as fault-proneness of requirements and requirements volatility in a product family. Our evaluation was performed in the context of an industrial product family in the automotive domain. Results provide empirical evidence that we propose a practical and beneficial way to classify and prioritize system test cases for industrial product lines. [less ▲]

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See detailBorder Experiences in Europe. Everyday Life - Working Life - Communication - Languages
Wille, Christian UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Book published by Nomos (2020)

For a decade now, borders in Europe have been back on the political agenda. Border research has responded and is breaking new ground in thinking about and exploring borders. This book follows this ... [more ▼]

For a decade now, borders in Europe have been back on the political agenda. Border research has responded and is breaking new ground in thinking about and exploring borders. This book follows this development and strengthens a perspective that is interested in life realities and that focuses on everyday cultural experiences of borders. The authors reconstruct such experiences in the context of different forms of migration and mobility as well as language contact situations and are sensitive to the freedom of the participants. In this way, they empirically identify everyday cultural usage or appropriation strategies of borders as vastly different experiences of borders. The readers of this volume will gain insights into current developments in border research and life realities in Europe where borders are (made) relevant. With contributions by Christian Wille, Birte Nienaber, Carsten Yndigegn, Isabelle Pigeron-Piroth, Rachid Belkacem, Ursula Roos, Elisabeth Boesen, Ariela House, Ignacy Jóźwiak, Corinne Martin, Erika Kalocsányiová, Xosé-Afonso Álvarez, Konstanze Jungbluth, Florian Dost, Nicole Richter, Dominik Gerst. [less ▲]

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See detailAttribute evaluation on attack trees with incomplete information
Buldas, Ahto; Gadyatskaya, Olga UL; Lenin, Aleksandr et al

in Computers and Security (2020), 88(101630),

Attack trees are considered a useful tool for security modelling because they support qualitative as well as quantitative analysis. The quantitative approach is based on values associated to each node in ... [more ▼]

Attack trees are considered a useful tool for security modelling because they support qualitative as well as quantitative analysis. The quantitative approach is based on values associated to each node in the tree, expressing, for instance, the minimal cost or probability of an attack. Current quantitative methods for attack trees allow the analyst to, based on an initial assignment of values to the leaf nodes, derive the values of the higher nodes in the tree. In practice, however, it shows to be very difficult to obtain reliable values for all leaf nodes. The main reasons are that data is only available for some of the nodes, that data is available for intermediate nodes rather than for the leaf nodes, or even that the available data is inconsistent. We address these problems by developing a generalisation of the standard bottom-up calculation method in three ways. First, we allow initial attributions of non-leaf nodes. Second, we admit additional relations between attack steps beyond those provided by the underlying attack tree semantics. Third, we support the calculation of an approximative solution in case of inconsistencies. We illustrate our method, which is based on constraint programming, by a comprehensive case study. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Bodenreform – gestern und heute
Hertweck, Florian UL

Book published by jovis (2020)

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See detailThe World Economic History in 4 Figures, 1 Photo, and 1 Table
Irmen, Andreas UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2020)

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