References of "2020"
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See detailThe Rise of Television: Institutionalization and the Framing of National Audiences
Fickers, Andreas UL; Weber, Anne-Katrin; Mustata, Dana

in Arnold, Klaus; Preschton, Pascal; Kinnebrock, Susanne (Eds.) The Handbook of European Communication History (2020)

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See detailReview of Elizabeth Guffey (2018): Designing Disability: Symbols, Space and Society. London: Bloomsbury.
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Design Issues (2020), 36(1), 100-101

In her pathbreaking book Designing Disability: Symbols, Space and Society, Elizabeth Guffey provides vital insights into decades of social and design processes that ultimately produced the most ubiquitous ... [more ▼]

In her pathbreaking book Designing Disability: Symbols, Space and Society, Elizabeth Guffey provides vital insights into decades of social and design processes that ultimately produced the most ubiquitous symbol of disability—and accessibility—worldwide: The International Symbol of Access (ISA). Building on existing scholarship from a range of disciplines coupled with original historical research, this book uncovers the origins and evolving (largely transatlantic) architectural and design discourse, and several moments of serendipity, that led to its creation. The ISA has since diffused to become part of the built environment in all corners of the world. Richly illustrated and charting at times vitriolic debates, protest activities, and artistic interventions up to the contemporary era, Guffey weaves together activist and aesthetic perspectives into a tapestry of social and design history relating to disability and accessibility. Structured in historical phases, the book’s chapters progress across larger and shorter stretches over more than a century of wheelchair design, social and welfare policies and programs (mostly in the US, UK, and Scandinavia), architectural standards, and symbols relating to barriers and accessibility measures. Guffey engages the reader in what is necessarily a multidisciplinary, multilevel investigation, with unexpected twists and turns. On one level, the book focuses on the politics of highest office, with US Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Dwight D. Eisenhower (who permanently or temporarily used wheelchairs) sketched against the backdrop of the lack of accessible government buildings in Washington, DC, and the social consensus then to hide impairment for fear of stigmatization (shifted marginally by disabled Veterans). On another level, welfare state provisions in the US, UK, and Scandinavia are discussed in light of progressive legislation and the persistent challenges of implementation. Finally, at ground level, the utmost significance of individuals devoted to universal design writ large becomes manifestly evident. Guffey recounts how, in US universities, inspirational figures such as Timothy Nugent (at Illinois), Ron Mace (at North Carolina State), and Viktor Papanek (at Purdue, CalArts, Kansas, etc.), campus planners, and students designed and constructed new worlds on the drawing board and poured in concrete. We follow design professionals, such as architect Selwyn Goldsmith in the UK, who was a strident arbiter of accessibility. Academic initiatives went hand-in-fist with advocacy activities in organizations and protest and artistic actions in the streets. Indeed, to raise general awareness of the ever-present attitudinal and structural barriers—institutionalized discrimination—that disabled people face daily and to secure disability rights, disability protests and cross-national organizing have repeatedly been necessary. The long and bumpy road to universal design extends into the future. Integral to this history of design development, revision, and critiques of various symbols of disability have been international events (world expositions, Olympics & Paralympics) and organizations (Rehabilitation International), artistic inspiration, design competitions, and guerilla art interventions. Tracing the convoluted process of designing what would become the ISA—fifty years ago now—leads to Susanne Koefoed, a Danish design student, and Karl Montan, leader of the Swedish Institute for the Handicapped, but also to international negotiations and chance. The on-going questioning of the official ISA, especially, its “misfit” nature as an amalgam of technical aid and person, emphasizes the shift from invisibility to ubiquity of disability via social change and political activism as well as cultural representations and the need for signs of identity. In the new century, newer initiatives in the US, such as Brendan Murphy’s and the Accessible Icon Project (developed by Sara Hendren and Brian Glenney), have challenged the official ISA, revealing both persistence and change in understandings of disability and accessibility. When integrated into signage, the ISA designates accessible spaces and facilities. If the ISA has become present in public buildings and spaces everywhere, cultural notions of disability and access remain understudied across the social sciences, with especially the Global South remaining a blank page. Research is needed to chart the diverse local interpretations that mirror shifts from exclusion to inclusion of disabled people as the human rights revolution witnessed since the end of WWII continues, but also suffers backlash, even in the Global North. Paradoxically, this global icon refers simultaneously to disability, and its ameliorating factor, accessibility. Yet, the ambivalence and debate surrounding the ISA persist, as Guffey emphasizes especially in the later chapters, focusing on proposed alternatives to the existing ISA, codified as it is in law and conforming to the guidelines of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Until universal design (and the universalizing social policies likely needed to support it) succeeds in reducing the barriers in environments and in attitudes and in maximizing the usefulness of products and services during the design stage, identity formation processes are among the most positive aspects of the ISA. The icon’s influence and implementation extend far beyond marking modifications to the built environment. Whether taken-for-granted, modified or critiqued, the current ISA has spread globally. It can now be found wherever people move in physical space, finding their way. The symbol testifies to the on-going shift from exclusion, along a slow and winding road, to social inclusion and full participation of disabled people. In sum, Guffey brings scholarship on the ISA to the next stage. It complements studies that chart the influence of disabled peoples’ organizations and of international organizations as they facilitated remarkable shifts in disability paradigms. Yet institutionalized discrimination abounds, with the ISA marking that accessibility and universal design are far from achieved. If a few imprecisions tarnish the literature list, this historical work reconstructing a largely Western process cannot be faulted for not providing a complete global analysis of ISA implementation and adjustment. In that vein, with contributions from Guffey herself, the current exhibition “Viktor Papanek: The Politics of Design” (Kries, Klein & Clarke, 2018) indeed extends the discussion to the Global South and across further disciplines, rightfully embedding the dialogue about symbols of disability and enhancing access within broader contexts. Footnote: Kries, Matteo, Amelie Klein & Alison J. Clarke (eds.) (2018). Viktor Papanek: The Politics of Design. Weil am Rhein, Germany: Vitra Design Museum. ISBN: 978-3-945852-26-2. The exhibition is currently on view at Germany’s Vitra Design Museum (20 September 2018–10 March 2019), then at Barcelona Design Museum (20 October 2019–2 February 2020). [less ▲]

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See detailQualifying and Measuring Transparency: A Medical Data System Case Study
Spagnuelo, Dayana; Bartolini, Cesare UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Computers and Security (2020)

Transparency is a data processing principle enforced by the GDPR but purposely left open to interpretation. As such, the means to adhere to it are left unspecified. Article 29 Working Party provides ... [more ▼]

Transparency is a data processing principle enforced by the GDPR but purposely left open to interpretation. As such, the means to adhere to it are left unspecified. Article 29 Working Party provides practical guidance on how to interpret transparency, however there are no defined requirements nor ways to verify the quality of the implementation of transparency. We address this problem. We discuss and define applicable metrics for transparency, propose how measurement can be conducted in an operative system, and suggest a practical way in which these metrics can be interpreted in order to increase confidence that transparency is realised in a system. [less ▲]

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See detailThe exposome and health: Where chemistry meets biology
Vermeulen, Roel; Schymanski, Emma UL; Barabási, Albert-László et al

in Science (2020), 367(6476), 392--396

Despite extensive evidence showing that exposure to specific chemicals can lead to disease, current research approaches and regulatory policies fail to address the chemical complexity of our world. To ... [more ▼]

Despite extensive evidence showing that exposure to specific chemicals can lead to disease, current research approaches and regulatory policies fail to address the chemical complexity of our world. To safeguard current and future generations from the increasing number of chemicals polluting our environment, a systematic and agnostic approach is needed. The \textquotedblleftexposome\textquotedblright concept strives to capture the diversity and range of exposures to synthetic chemicals, dietary constituents, psychosocial stressors, and physical factors, as well as their corresponding biological responses. Technological advances such as high-resolution mass spectrometry and network science have allowed us to take the first steps toward a comprehensive assessment of the exposome. Given the increased recognition of the dominant role that nongenetic factors play in disease, an effort to characterize the exposome at a scale comparable to that of the human genome is warranted. [less ▲]

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See detailTracking complex mixtures of chemicals in our changing environment
Escher, Beate I.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Schymanski, Emma UL

in Science (2020), 367(6476), 388--392

Chemicals have improved our quality of life, but the resulting environmental pollution has the potential to cause detrimental effects on humans and the environment. People and biota are chronically ... [more ▼]

Chemicals have improved our quality of life, but the resulting environmental pollution has the potential to cause detrimental effects on humans and the environment. People and biota are chronically exposed to thousands of chemicals from various environmental sources through multiple pathways. Environmental chemists and toxicologists have moved beyond detecting and quantifying single chemicals to characterizing complex mixtures of chemicals in indoor and outdoor environments and biological matrices. We highlight analytical and bioanalytical approaches to isolating, characterizing, and tracking groups of chemicals of concern in complex matrices. Techniques that combine chemical analysis and bioassays have the potential to facilitate the identification of mixtures of chemicals that pose a combined risk. [less ▲]

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See detailLa disparition de la cause du contrat
Prüm, André UL

in Prüm, André; Ancel, Pascal (Eds.) Réformer le droit des contrats ? Analyse comparée autour du droit luxembourgeois (2020)

réflexions sur l'utilité des concept traditionnel de cause des contrats et discussion des arguments pour le maintien ou la suppression de la cause comme condition de validité des contrats

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See detailPDE6D Inhibitors with a New Design Principle Selectively Block K‑Ras Activity
Siddiqui, Farid A.; Alam, Catharina; Rosenqvist, Petja et al

in ACS Omega (2020), 5(1), 832-842

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See detailOn the long run sustainability of small jurisdictions
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

in Journal of Industrial and Business Economics (2020)

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See detailPatrimoine, Public History et Humanités numériques. L’Encyclopédie pour une Histoire nouvelle de l’Europe et le fonds Colbert
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Meynard, Cécile; Lebarbé, Thomas; Costa, Sandra (Eds.) Patrimoine et Humanités numériques (2020)

Taking the concept of digital “heritagisation” as a process that ranges from digitisation to the broad use of a collection of photos, this article explains how, from 2013 to 2015, LabEx EHNE planned to ... [more ▼]

Taking the concept of digital “heritagisation” as a process that ranges from digitisation to the broad use of a collection of photos, this article explains how, from 2013 to 2015, LabEx EHNE planned to turn a series of boxes of glass plate photographs into a digitised image-based corpus that would be used in the specific context of a research project and also be made available to the wider public. In this process, digital humanities methodologies and tools played a vital role. They provided a solid, sustainable foundation for the “datafication” of the collection (its digitisation and, importantly, improvements to the associated metadata), a crucial part of the process. They also served as a basis for various educational applications of the collection. The images were made available to a wider audience when the collection was brought online and used in the Encyclopédie pour une Histoire nouvelle de l’Europe. The datafication of the collection by means of digital humanities methods is therefore what enabled its transformation into digital heritage. [less ▲]

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See detail"Heldentod" - "Soldatenfriedhof" in Großes Lexikon der Bestattungs- und Friedhofskultur. Wörterbuch zur Sepulkralkultur, Medienkultureller Teil
Janz, Nina UL

in Janz, Nina (Ed.) Großes Lexikon der Bestattungs- und Friedhofskultur. Wörterbuch zur Sepulkralkultur, Medienkultureller Teil: Von Absurdes Theater bis Zombie (2020)

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See detailA new synuclein-transgenic mouse model for early Parkinson's reveals molecular features of preclinical disease
Hendrickx, Diana M.; Garcia, Pierre; Ashrafi, Amer et al

in Molecular Neurobiology (2020), 58

Understanding Parkinson’s disease (PD) in particular in its earliest phases, is important for diagnosis and treatment. However, human brain samples are collected post- mortem, reflecting mainly end stage ... [more ▼]

Understanding Parkinson’s disease (PD) in particular in its earliest phases, is important for diagnosis and treatment. However, human brain samples are collected post- mortem, reflecting mainly end stage disease. Because brain samples of mouse models can be collected at any stage of the disease process, they are useful to investigate PD progression. Here, we compare ventral midbrain transcriptomics profiles from α- synuclein transgenic mice with a progressive, early PD-like striatal neurodegeneration across different ages using pathway, gene set and network analysis methods. Our study uncovers statistically significant altered genes across ages and between genotypes with known, suspected, or unknown function in PD pathogenesis and key pathways associated with disease progression. Among those are genotype-dependent alterations associated with synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission, as well as mitochondria-related genes and dysregulation of lipid metabolism. Age-dependent changes were among others observed in neuronal and synaptic activity, calcium homeostasis, and membrane receptor signaling pathways, many of which linked to G- protein coupled receptors. Most importantly, most changes occurred before neurodegeneration was detected in this model, which points to a sequence of gene expression events that may be relevant for disease initiation and progression. It is tempting to speculate that molecular changes similar to those changes observed in our model happen in midbrain dopaminergic neurons before they start to degenerate. In other words, we believe we have uncovered molecular changes that accompany the progression from preclinical to early PD. [less ▲]

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See detailGene selection for optimal prediction of cell position in tissues from single-cell transcriptomics
Tanevski, Jovan; Nguyen, Thin; Truong, Buu et al

in Life Science Alliance (2020), 3(11), 202000867

Single-cell RNA-seq (scRNAseq) technologies are rapidly evolving. While very informative, in standard scRNAseq experiments the spatial organization of the cells in the tissue of origin is lost. Conversely ... [more ▼]

Single-cell RNA-seq (scRNAseq) technologies are rapidly evolving. While very informative, in standard scRNAseq experiments the spatial organization of the cells in the tissue of origin is lost. Conversely, spatial RNA-seq technologies designed to maintain cell localization have limited throughput and gene coverage. Mapping scRNAseq to genes with spatial information increases coverage while providing spatial location. However, methods to perform such mapping have not yet been benchmarked. To fill this gap, we organized the DREAM Single-Cell Transcriptomics challenge focused on the spatial reconstruction of cells from the Drosophila embryo from scRNAseq data, leveraging as silver standard, genes with in situ hybridization data from the Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project reference atlas. The 34 participating teams used diverse algorithms for gene selection and location prediction, while being able to correctly localize clusters of cells. Selection of predictor genes was essential for this task. Predictor genes showed a relatively high expression entropy, high spatial clustering and included prominent developmental genes such as gap and pair-rule genes and tissue markers. Application of the Top-10 methods to a zebrafish embryo dataset yielded similar performance and statistical properties of the selected genes than in the Drosophila data. This suggests that methods developed in this challenge are able to extract generalizable properties of genes that are useful to accurately reconstruct the spatial arrangement of cells in tissues. [less ▲]

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See detailAnomaly Detection and Analysis for Reliability Management Clustered Container Architectures
Samir, Areeg UL; El Ioini, Nabil; Fronza, Ilena et al

in International Journal on Advances in Systems and Measurements (2020), 12(3\&4), 247--264

Virtualised environments such as cloud and edgecomputing architectures allow software to be deployed andmanaged through third-party provided services. Here virtualisedresources available can be adjusted ... [more ▼]

Virtualised environments such as cloud and edgecomputing architectures allow software to be deployed andmanaged through third-party provided services. Here virtualisedresources available can be adjusted, even dynamically to changingneeds. However, the problem is often the boundary between theservice provider and the service consumer. Often there is no directaccess to execution parameters at resource level on the provider'sside. Generally, only some quality factors can be directly observedwhile others remain hidden from the consumer. We propose anarchitecture for autonomous anomaly analysis for clustered cloudor edge resources. The key contribution is that the architecturedetermines possible causes of consumer-observed anomalies inan underlying provider-controlled infrastructure. We use HiddenHierarchical Markov Models to map observed performanceanomalies to hidden resources, and to identify the root causes ofthe observed anomalies in order to improve reliability. We applythe model to clustered hierarchically organised cloud computingresources. We illustrate use cases in the context of containertechnologies to show the utility of the proposed architecture [less ▲]

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See detailUnbundling, Regulation, and Pricing: Evidence from Electricity Distribution
Heim, Sven; Krieger, Bastian UL; Liebensteiner, Mario

in Energy Journal (2020), 41

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See detailLe règlement des conflits entre actionnaires : mesures provisoires, exclusion, retrait et modes alternatifs de résolution des conflits
Corbisier, Isabelle UL

in Coipel, Michel; Delvaux, Marie-Amélie (Eds.) Jurisprudence en droit des sociétés commerciales - recueil annuel (2020)

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See detail. Consumer Law and Policy Relating to Change of Circumstances
Poillot, Elise UL; Micklitz, Hans; Howells, Geraint et al

in Journal of Consumer Policy (2020), 43

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See detailStochastic and Quantum Thermodynamics of Driven RLC Networks
Freitas, Nahuel; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in Physical Review X (2020), 10(3), 031005

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See detailThermodynamic cycles with active matter
Ekeh, Timothy; Cates, Michael E.; Fodor, Etienne UL

in Physical Review. E. (2020), 102(1),

Active matter constantly dissipates energy to power the self-propulsion of its microscopic constituents. This opens the door to designing innovative cyclic engines without any equilibrium equivalent. We ... [more ▼]

Active matter constantly dissipates energy to power the self-propulsion of its microscopic constituents. This opens the door to designing innovative cyclic engines without any equilibrium equivalent. We offer a consistent thermodynamic framework to characterize and optimize the performances of such cycles. Based on a minimal model, we put forward a protocol which extracts work by controlling only the properties of the confining walls at boundaries, and we rationalize the transitions between optimal cycles. We show that the corresponding power and efficiency are generally proportional, so that they reach their maximum values at the same cycle time in contrast with thermal cycles, and we provide a generic relation constraining the fluctuations of the power. [less ▲]

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See detailIn memory of Ihor Stasyuk
Kreisel, Jens UL; Roleder, Krystian

in Phase Transitions (2020), 93(10-11), 945-945

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