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See detailCommercial Radio Stations and their Dispositif. Transnational and Intermedial Perspectives on Radio Luxembourg and Europe n°1 in the Long Sixties.
Legay, Richard UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Commercial radio stations Radio Luxembourg (French and English services) and Europe n°1 are the focal point of this work. They were popular institutions in Western Europe throughout the Long Sixties (1958 ... [more ▼]

Commercial radio stations Radio Luxembourg (French and English services) and Europe n°1 are the focal point of this work. They were popular institutions in Western Europe throughout the Long Sixties (1958-1974) working across media and broadcasting transnationally. This thesis postulates the existence of an overarching dispositif of commercial radio stations that enabled them to operate on various dimensions and differentiated them from other broadcasters. The research conducted in this thesis leans on various historical sources (i.e. institutional archives, maps, radio programmes, magazines) to analyse the dispositif through three main lenses. The first lens focuses on the appropriation and representation by the stations of a transnational broadcasting space, thanks to institutional archives and maps. The second inquires into the construction of a soundscape of commercial radio and identifies its key features by a close study and thick description of recordings as source material. Magazines - namely Salut les Copains and Fabulous 208 - are the core sources of the third lens, which studies the intermedial and intertextual entanglements of Europe n°1 and Radio Luxembourg with other media. This thesis relies on various scales and multiple dimensions of radio - such as its materiality, content, significance, and commercialism - to conduct an historical analysis on a particularly diverse source material. Building on the empirical results obtained throughout the research, this thesis shows the relevance of the dispositif concept to encompass and explains the transnational and intermedial nature of commercial radio stations. By doing so, the thesis contributes to current calls in media history to look beyond national and single-medium borders. [less ▲]

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See detailA patient-based model of RNA mis-splicing uncovers treatment targets in Parkinson's disease.
Boussaad, Ibrahim UL; Obermaier, Carolin D.; Hanss, Zoé et al

in Science translational medicine (2020), 12(560),

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder with monogenic forms representing prototypes of the underlying molecular pathology and reproducing to variable degrees the sporadic ... [more ▼]

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder with monogenic forms representing prototypes of the underlying molecular pathology and reproducing to variable degrees the sporadic forms of the disease. Using a patient-based in vitro model of PARK7-linked PD, we identified a U1-dependent splicing defect causing a drastic reduction in DJ-1 protein and, consequently, mitochondrial dysfunction. Targeting defective exon skipping with genetically engineered U1-snRNA recovered DJ-1 protein expression in neuronal precursor cells and differentiated neurons. After prioritization of candidate drugs, we identified and validated a combinatorial treatment with the small-molecule compounds rectifier of aberrant splicing (RECTAS) and phenylbutyric acid, which restored DJ-1 protein and mitochondrial dysfunction in patient-derived fibroblasts as well as dopaminergic neuronal cell loss in mutant midbrain organoids. Our analysis of a large number of exomes revealed that U1 splice-site mutations were enriched in sporadic PD patients. Therefore, our study suggests an alternative strategy to restore cellular abnormalities in in vitro models of PD and provides a proof of concept for neuroprotection based on precision medicine strategies in PD. [less ▲]

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See detailTaxation in matching markets
Dupuy, Arnaud UL; Galichon, Alfred; Jaffe, Sonia et al

in International Economic Review (2020), 61(4), 1591-1634

We analyze the effects of taxation in two-sided matching markets where agents have heterogeneous preferences over potential partners. Our model provides a continuous link between models of matching with ... [more ▼]

We analyze the effects of taxation in two-sided matching markets where agents have heterogeneous preferences over potential partners. Our model provides a continuous link between models of matching with and without transfers. Taxes generate inefficiency on the allocative margin, by changing who matches with whom. This allocative inefficiency can be non-monotonic, but is weakly increasing in the tax rate under linear taxation if each worker has negative non-pecuniary utility of working. We adapt existing econometric methods for markets without taxes to our setting, and estimate preferences in the college-coach football market. We show through simulations that standard methods inaccurately measure deadweight loss. [less ▲]

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See detailBody weight and high-fat diet are associated with epigenetic aging in female members of the BXD murine family.
Sandoval-Sierra, Jose Vladimir; Helbing, Alexandra H. B.; Williams, Evan UL et al

in Aging cell (2020), 19(9), 13207

DNA methylation (DNAm) is shaped by genetic and environmental factors and modulated by aging. Here, we examine interrelations between epigenetic aging, body weight (BW), and life span in 12 isogenic ... [more ▼]

DNA methylation (DNAm) is shaped by genetic and environmental factors and modulated by aging. Here, we examine interrelations between epigenetic aging, body weight (BW), and life span in 12 isogenic strains from the BXD family of mice that exhibit over twofold variation in longevity. Genome-wide DNAm was assayed in 70 liver specimens from predominantly female cases, 6-25 months old, that were maintained on normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD). We defined subsets of CpG regions associated with age, BW at young adulthood, and strain-by-diet-dependent life span. These age-associated differentially methylated CpG regions (age-DMRs) featured distinct genomic characteristics, with DNAm gains over time occurring in sites such as promoters and exons that have high CpG density and low average methylation. CpG regions associated with BW were enriched in introns, tended to have lower methylation in mice with higher BW, and were inversely correlated with gene expression (i.e., higher mRNA levels in mice with higher BW). CpG regions associated with life span were linked to genes involved in life span modulation, including the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene, Tert, which had both lower methylation and higher expression in long-lived strains. An epigenetic clock defined from age-DMRs revealed accelerated aging in mice belonging to strains with shorter life spans. Both higher BW and the HFD were associated with accelerated epigenetic aging. Our results highlight the age-accelerating effect of heavier BW. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the measure of epigenetic aging derived from age-DMRs can predict genotype and diet-induced differences in life span among female BXD members. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de Thierry Grosbois (éd.), Les enrôlés de force en Union Soviétique (1941–1955). Actes du colloque du 7 mai 2015
Brüll, Christoph UL

in Hemecht: Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte (2020), (4), 500-502

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See detailIntroduction: The ITU as Actor, Arena, and Antenna of Techno-Diplomacy
Fickers, Andreas UL; Balbi, Gabriele

in Fickers, Andreas; Balbi, Gabriele (Eds.) History of the International Telecoommunication Union (ITU): Transnational Techno-Diplomacy from the Telegraph to the Internet (2020)

This book focuses on the history of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), from its origins in the mid-19th century to nowadays. ITU was the fi rst international organization ever and still ... [more ▼]

This book focuses on the history of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), from its origins in the mid-19th century to nowadays. ITU was the fi rst international organization ever and still plays a crucial role in managing global telecommunications today. Putting together some of the most relevant scholars in the fi eld of transnational communications, the book covers the history of ITU from 1865 to digital times in a truly global perspective, taking into account several technologies like the telegraph, the telephone, cables, wireless, radio, television, satellites, mobile phone, the internet and others. The main goal is to identify the long-term strategies of regulation and the techno-diplomatic manoeuvres taken inside ITU, from convincing the majority of the nations to establish the offi cial seat of the Telegraph Union bureau in Switzerland in the 1860s, to contrasting the multi-stakeholder model of Internet governance (supported by US and ICANN). History of the International Telecommunication Union is a trans-disciplinary text and can be interesting for scholars and students in the fi elds of telecommunications, media, international organizations, transnational communication, diplomacy, political economy of communication, STS, and others. It has the ambition to become a reference point in the history of ITU and, at the same time, just the fi rst comprehensive step towards a longer, inter-technological, political and cultural history of transnational communications to be written in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailHistory of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Transnational Techno-Diplomacy from the Telegraph to the Internet.
Fickers, Andreas UL; Balbi, Gabriele

Book published by De Gruyter (2020)

This book focuses on the history of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), from its origins in the mid-19th century to nowadays. ITU was the fi rst international organization ever and still ... [more ▼]

This book focuses on the history of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), from its origins in the mid-19th century to nowadays. ITU was the fi rst international organization ever and still plays a crucial role in managing global telecommunications today. Putting together some of the most relevant scholars in the fi eld of transnational communications, the book covers the history of ITU from 1865 to digital times in a truly global perspective, taking into account several technologies like the telegraph, the telephone, cables, wireless, radio, television, satellites, mobile phone, the internet and others. The main goal is to identify the long-term strategies of regulation and the techno-diplomatic manoeuvres taken inside ITU, from convincing the majority of the nations to establish the offi cial seat of the Telegraph Union bureau in Switzerland in the 1860s, to contrasting the multi-stakeholder model of Internet governance (supported by US and ICANN). History of the International Telecommunication Union is a trans-disciplinary text and can be interesting for scholars and students in the fi elds of telecommunications, media, international organizations, transnational communication, diplomacy, political economy of communication, STS, and others. It has the ambition to become a reference point in the history of ITU and, at the same time, just the fi rst comprehensive step towards a longer, inter-technological, political and cultural history of transnational communications to be written in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailCore Values that Influence the Patient—Healthcare Professional Power Dynamic: Steering Interaction towards Partnership
Odero, Angela UL; Pongy, Manon UL; Chauvel, Louis UL et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020), 7(8458),

Healthcare has long been marked by the authoritative-physician–passive-patient interaction, with patients seeking help and physicians seeking to restore patients back to health. However, lobalisation ... [more ▼]

Healthcare has long been marked by the authoritative-physician–passive-patient interaction, with patients seeking help and physicians seeking to restore patients back to health. However, lobalisation, social movements, and technological advancements are transforming the nature of this relationship. We aim to identify core values that influence the power dynamic betweenpatients and healthcare professionals, and determine how to steer these interactions towards partnership, a more suitable approach to current healthcare needs. Patients with physical chronic diseases (10 men, 18 women) and healthcare professionals (11 men, 12 women) were interviewed, sessions transcribed, and the framework method used to thematically analyse the data. Validation was done through analyst triangulation and member check recheck. Core values identified as influencing the patient-healthcare professional power dynamic include: (A) values that empower patients (acceptance of diagnosis and autonomy); (B) values unique to healthcare professionals (HCPs) (acknowledging patients experiential knowledge and including patients in the therapeutic process); and (C) shared capitals related to their interactions (communication, information sharing and exchange, collaboration, and mutual commitment). These interdependent core values can be considered prerequisites to the implementation of the patient-as-partner approach in healthcare. Partnership would imply a paradigm shift such that stakeholders systematically examine each other’s perspective, motivations, capabilities, and goals, and then adapt their interactions in this accord, for optimal outcome. [less ▲]

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See detailPower-sharing and democratization in Africa: the Kenyan experience
Mochtak, Michal UL; Drnovsky, Adam

in Journal of International Relations and Development (2020), 23(3), 607-635

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See detailThe Rise of Television: Institutionalization and the Framing of National Audiences
Fickers, Andreas UL; Weber, Anne-Katrin; Mustata, Dana

in Arnold, Klaus; Preschton, Pascal; Kinnebrock, Susanne (Eds.) The Handbook of European Communication History (2020)

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See detailReview of Elizabeth Guffey (2018): Designing Disability: Symbols, Space and Society. London: Bloomsbury.
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Design Issues (2020), 36(1), 100-101

In her pathbreaking book Designing Disability: Symbols, Space and Society, Elizabeth Guffey provides vital insights into decades of social and design processes that ultimately produced the most ubiquitous ... [more ▼]

In her pathbreaking book Designing Disability: Symbols, Space and Society, Elizabeth Guffey provides vital insights into decades of social and design processes that ultimately produced the most ubiquitous symbol of disability—and accessibility—worldwide: The International Symbol of Access (ISA). Building on existing scholarship from a range of disciplines coupled with original historical research, this book uncovers the origins and evolving (largely transatlantic) architectural and design discourse, and several moments of serendipity, that led to its creation. The ISA has since diffused to become part of the built environment in all corners of the world. Richly illustrated and charting at times vitriolic debates, protest activities, and artistic interventions up to the contemporary era, Guffey weaves together activist and aesthetic perspectives into a tapestry of social and design history relating to disability and accessibility. Structured in historical phases, the book’s chapters progress across larger and shorter stretches over more than a century of wheelchair design, social and welfare policies and programs (mostly in the US, UK, and Scandinavia), architectural standards, and symbols relating to barriers and accessibility measures. Guffey engages the reader in what is necessarily a multidisciplinary, multilevel investigation, with unexpected twists and turns. On one level, the book focuses on the politics of highest office, with US Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Dwight D. Eisenhower (who permanently or temporarily used wheelchairs) sketched against the backdrop of the lack of accessible government buildings in Washington, DC, and the social consensus then to hide impairment for fear of stigmatization (shifted marginally by disabled Veterans). On another level, welfare state provisions in the US, UK, and Scandinavia are discussed in light of progressive legislation and the persistent challenges of implementation. Finally, at ground level, the utmost significance of individuals devoted to universal design writ large becomes manifestly evident. Guffey recounts how, in US universities, inspirational figures such as Timothy Nugent (at Illinois), Ron Mace (at North Carolina State), and Viktor Papanek (at Purdue, CalArts, Kansas, etc.), campus planners, and students designed and constructed new worlds on the drawing board and poured in concrete. We follow design professionals, such as architect Selwyn Goldsmith in the UK, who was a strident arbiter of accessibility. Academic initiatives went hand-in-fist with advocacy activities in organizations and protest and artistic actions in the streets. Indeed, to raise general awareness of the ever-present attitudinal and structural barriers—institutionalized discrimination—that disabled people face daily and to secure disability rights, disability protests and cross-national organizing have repeatedly been necessary. The long and bumpy road to universal design extends into the future. Integral to this history of design development, revision, and critiques of various symbols of disability have been international events (world expositions, Olympics & Paralympics) and organizations (Rehabilitation International), artistic inspiration, design competitions, and guerilla art interventions. Tracing the convoluted process of designing what would become the ISA—fifty years ago now—leads to Susanne Koefoed, a Danish design student, and Karl Montan, leader of the Swedish Institute for the Handicapped, but also to international negotiations and chance. The on-going questioning of the official ISA, especially, its “misfit” nature as an amalgam of technical aid and person, emphasizes the shift from invisibility to ubiquity of disability via social change and political activism as well as cultural representations and the need for signs of identity. In the new century, newer initiatives in the US, such as Brendan Murphy’s and the Accessible Icon Project (developed by Sara Hendren and Brian Glenney), have challenged the official ISA, revealing both persistence and change in understandings of disability and accessibility. When integrated into signage, the ISA designates accessible spaces and facilities. If the ISA has become present in public buildings and spaces everywhere, cultural notions of disability and access remain understudied across the social sciences, with especially the Global South remaining a blank page. Research is needed to chart the diverse local interpretations that mirror shifts from exclusion to inclusion of disabled people as the human rights revolution witnessed since the end of WWII continues, but also suffers backlash, even in the Global North. Paradoxically, this global icon refers simultaneously to disability, and its ameliorating factor, accessibility. Yet, the ambivalence and debate surrounding the ISA persist, as Guffey emphasizes especially in the later chapters, focusing on proposed alternatives to the existing ISA, codified as it is in law and conforming to the guidelines of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Until universal design (and the universalizing social policies likely needed to support it) succeeds in reducing the barriers in environments and in attitudes and in maximizing the usefulness of products and services during the design stage, identity formation processes are among the most positive aspects of the ISA. The icon’s influence and implementation extend far beyond marking modifications to the built environment. Whether taken-for-granted, modified or critiqued, the current ISA has spread globally. It can now be found wherever people move in physical space, finding their way. The symbol testifies to the on-going shift from exclusion, along a slow and winding road, to social inclusion and full participation of disabled people. In sum, Guffey brings scholarship on the ISA to the next stage. It complements studies that chart the influence of disabled peoples’ organizations and of international organizations as they facilitated remarkable shifts in disability paradigms. Yet institutionalized discrimination abounds, with the ISA marking that accessibility and universal design are far from achieved. If a few imprecisions tarnish the literature list, this historical work reconstructing a largely Western process cannot be faulted for not providing a complete global analysis of ISA implementation and adjustment. In that vein, with contributions from Guffey herself, the current exhibition “Viktor Papanek: The Politics of Design” (Kries, Klein & Clarke, 2018) indeed extends the discussion to the Global South and across further disciplines, rightfully embedding the dialogue about symbols of disability and enhancing access within broader contexts. Footnote: Kries, Matteo, Amelie Klein & Alison J. Clarke (eds.) (2018). Viktor Papanek: The Politics of Design. Weil am Rhein, Germany: Vitra Design Museum. ISBN: 978-3-945852-26-2. The exhibition is currently on view at Germany’s Vitra Design Museum (20 September 2018–10 March 2019), then at Barcelona Design Museum (20 October 2019–2 February 2020). [less ▲]

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See detailQualifying and Measuring Transparency: A Medical Data System Case Study
Spagnuelo, Dayana; Bartolini, Cesare UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Computers and Security (2020)

Transparency is a data processing principle enforced by the GDPR but purposely left open to interpretation. As such, the means to adhere to it are left unspecified. Article 29 Working Party provides ... [more ▼]

Transparency is a data processing principle enforced by the GDPR but purposely left open to interpretation. As such, the means to adhere to it are left unspecified. Article 29 Working Party provides practical guidance on how to interpret transparency, however there are no defined requirements nor ways to verify the quality of the implementation of transparency. We address this problem. We discuss and define applicable metrics for transparency, propose how measurement can be conducted in an operative system, and suggest a practical way in which these metrics can be interpreted in order to increase confidence that transparency is realised in a system. [less ▲]

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See detailThe exposome and health: Where chemistry meets biology
Vermeulen, Roel; Schymanski, Emma UL; Barabási, Albert-László et al

in Science (2020), 367(6476), 392--396

Despite extensive evidence showing that exposure to specific chemicals can lead to disease, current research approaches and regulatory policies fail to address the chemical complexity of our world. To ... [more ▼]

Despite extensive evidence showing that exposure to specific chemicals can lead to disease, current research approaches and regulatory policies fail to address the chemical complexity of our world. To safeguard current and future generations from the increasing number of chemicals polluting our environment, a systematic and agnostic approach is needed. The \textquotedblleftexposome\textquotedblright concept strives to capture the diversity and range of exposures to synthetic chemicals, dietary constituents, psychosocial stressors, and physical factors, as well as their corresponding biological responses. Technological advances such as high-resolution mass spectrometry and network science have allowed us to take the first steps toward a comprehensive assessment of the exposome. Given the increased recognition of the dominant role that nongenetic factors play in disease, an effort to characterize the exposome at a scale comparable to that of the human genome is warranted. [less ▲]

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See detailTracking complex mixtures of chemicals in our changing environment
Escher, Beate I.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Schymanski, Emma UL

in Science (2020), 367(6476), 388--392

Chemicals have improved our quality of life, but the resulting environmental pollution has the potential to cause detrimental effects on humans and the environment. People and biota are chronically ... [more ▼]

Chemicals have improved our quality of life, but the resulting environmental pollution has the potential to cause detrimental effects on humans and the environment. People and biota are chronically exposed to thousands of chemicals from various environmental sources through multiple pathways. Environmental chemists and toxicologists have moved beyond detecting and quantifying single chemicals to characterizing complex mixtures of chemicals in indoor and outdoor environments and biological matrices. We highlight analytical and bioanalytical approaches to isolating, characterizing, and tracking groups of chemicals of concern in complex matrices. Techniques that combine chemical analysis and bioassays have the potential to facilitate the identification of mixtures of chemicals that pose a combined risk. [less ▲]

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See detailLa disparition de la cause du contrat
Prüm, André UL

in Prüm, André; Ancel, Pascal (Eds.) Réformer le droit des contrats ? Analyse comparée autour du droit luxembourgeois (2020)

réflexions sur l'utilité des concept traditionnel de cause des contrats et discussion des arguments pour le maintien ou la suppression de la cause comme condition de validité des contrats

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See detailPDE6D Inhibitors with a New Design Principle Selectively Block K‑Ras Activity
Siddiqui, Farid A.; Alam, Catharina; Rosenqvist, Petja et al

in ACS Omega (2020), 5(1), 832-842

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See detailOn the long run sustainability of small jurisdictions
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

in Journal of Industrial and Business Economics (2020)

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See detailPatrimoine, Public History et Humanités numériques. L’Encyclopédie pour une Histoire nouvelle de l’Europe et le fonds Colbert
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Meynard, Cécile; Lebarbé, Thomas; Costa, Sandra (Eds.) Patrimoine et Humanités numériques (2020)

Taking the concept of digital “heritagisation” as a process that ranges from digitisation to the broad use of a collection of photos, this article explains how, from 2013 to 2015, LabEx EHNE planned to ... [more ▼]

Taking the concept of digital “heritagisation” as a process that ranges from digitisation to the broad use of a collection of photos, this article explains how, from 2013 to 2015, LabEx EHNE planned to turn a series of boxes of glass plate photographs into a digitised image-based corpus that would be used in the specific context of a research project and also be made available to the wider public. In this process, digital humanities methodologies and tools played a vital role. They provided a solid, sustainable foundation for the “datafication” of the collection (its digitisation and, importantly, improvements to the associated metadata), a crucial part of the process. They also served as a basis for various educational applications of the collection. The images were made available to a wider audience when the collection was brought online and used in the Encyclopédie pour une Histoire nouvelle de l’Europe. The datafication of the collection by means of digital humanities methods is therefore what enabled its transformation into digital heritage. [less ▲]

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See detail"Heldentod" - "Soldatenfriedhof" in Großes Lexikon der Bestattungs- und Friedhofskultur. Wörterbuch zur Sepulkralkultur, Medienkultureller Teil
Janz, Nina UL

in Janz, Nina (Ed.) Großes Lexikon der Bestattungs- und Friedhofskultur. Wörterbuch zur Sepulkralkultur, Medienkultureller Teil: Von Absurdes Theater bis Zombie (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (2 UL)