References of "2020"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Peer Reviewed
See detailTackling educational inequalities using school effectiveness measures
Levy, Jessica UL; Mussack, Dominic UL; Brunner, Martin et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 11)

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (12 UL)
Full Text
See detailBeyond School Effects: Private Schooling, Segregation and Standardization of School Systems in Latin America
Ceron, Francisco UL

in Tackling Educational Inequalities in Luxembourg and Beyond. Abstract Booklet (2020, November 11)

The design of educational institutions may face policy trade-offs in the tasks of school systems that are served by them (van de Werfhorst and Mijs, 2010; Pedró et al 2015). Differentiation of school ... [more ▼]

The design of educational institutions may face policy trade-offs in the tasks of school systems that are served by them (van de Werfhorst and Mijs, 2010; Pedró et al 2015). Differentiation of school systems may foster efficient sorting of students and then maximize learnings but at the cost of exacerbating social inequalities. A centralized education system may guarantee equality of educational opportunities, but it is not clear if it increases or hinder the overall performance level (e.g. Woessman 2003; Brunello & Checchi 2007; Bol et al., 2014; Bol & van de Werfhorst, 2016; Mijs 2016). Until now, researchers have overlooked the role of private schooling as an important dimension of stratification in national school systems, focusing mainly on its relative effectiveness and assuming implicitly that school sector capacity truly reflects a level of differentiation (e.g. Hanushek & Woessman, 2015; Chmielewski & Reardon 2016). I attempt to address the following research question: to what extend the differentiation induced by private schooling increase achievement inequalities, counteracting the effects of standardization of the school systems in Latin American countries? Using data from the 2013 UNESCO TERCE regional large-scale assessment, I study how private schooling is related to overall levels of stratification and the extent to which it affects achievement inequality in a context of varying levels of standardization, across countries. I construct a generalized entropy measure of segregation to capture system level differentiation induced by private schooling, a standardization index (Bol & van de Werfhorst, 2016) and by using multilevel models with county fixed effects, I find that private schooling counterbalance the equalizing effect of higher levels of standardization on achievement inequalities, no matter their relative size, on top of individual and school level controls. I conclude by discussing how these findings speak to the potential policy trade-off between equality and efficiency in the region. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (7 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMixed method situational review of primary family violence care in IMOCAFV
Ares Blanco, Sara; Frese, Thomas; Lacatus, Anca et al

in 90th European General Practice Research Network Meeting (2020, November 10)

Background: The ‘IMOCAFV’ project is developing a multi-country vision on how to provide effective primary care for family violence (FV). In phase I, a situational analysis is performed based on mixed ... [more ▼]

Background: The ‘IMOCAFV’ project is developing a multi-country vision on how to provide effective primary care for family violence (FV). In phase I, a situational analysis is performed based on mixed method review of countries’ policies and interventions, key persons inquiries and professional questionnaires. Aim: Provide in a first phase of IMOCAFV a mixed methods analysis of policies and interventions for primary FV care in different health care settings, high, low and middle income countries. Research questions: How to perform a multi-level in depth mixed method analysis of policies, protocols, problems and good practices on primary FV care? Method: National guidance for FV primary care tasks is centralised into a central online database. Documentation is reviewed online nationally answering questions about prevention, detection, assessment and collaborative care for intimate partner violence, child abuse and elder abuse. Semistructured online inquiries are sent to a pragmatic sample of key persons and professionals in each country. Online training provides guidance for standardized mixed method review of materials. A continuous comparative analysis is made at local and international level; it should provide cues for the Delphi study planned in the second phase. Results: The key questionnaire describes policies and interventions defined for primary health care and advocacy support in different health services settings in three continents. The professional questionnaire describes problems encountered and professionals opinion´s. Different online software packages are suitable for international research collaboration with some limitations. Ethical and security requirements may differ, while high security level applications require more budgets. Conclusions: The organisation of a two-level international qualitative analysis is challenging from a methodological and organisational point of view. A qualitative analysis in a multilanguage context requires specific agreements. Challenges will be discussed using first results. Points for discussion: 1.How to facilitate a good qualitative analysis at both national and international level? 2.How to use different software platforms taking into account countries’ different requirements and organisational facilities in different income countries? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (2 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailScanning of questionnaires as a tool to identify difficult questions - lessons learned
Heinz, Andreas UL; van Duin, Claire UL; Catunda, Carolina UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 10)

Background: In 2018, the Luxembourg HBSC team scanned the questionnaires to make the data available faster and to avoid entry errors. Scanning has been shown to be suitable for identifying difficult ... [more ▼]

Background: In 2018, the Luxembourg HBSC team scanned the questionnaires to make the data available faster and to avoid entry errors. Scanning has been shown to be suitable for identifying difficult questions. Objective: The presentation shows which questions were difficult to answer and what the difficulty was. Method: The questionnaires were scanned by student assistants and the data was validated by them if the scanning programme did not detect any errors. If errors occurred (e.g. missing answers or multiple answers), then these questionnaires were checked by HBSC team members. This gave us a systematic overview of which questions were difficult to answer. Results 1. The data from 10000 questionnaires were entered in 6 weeks (half the time needed compared to manual entry in 2014). 2. The MVPA question was frequently the subject of multiple answers. This may indicate that these students use the answer scale as a counting aid. 3. Students who state that they have never smoked in their lives often skip the question about tobacco use in the last month. This behaviour can be explained by Grice's conversational maxims. 4. Behaviours indicating that the answers are not serious (crossed-out questions, crosses outside the boxes, fun answers to open questions) are rare. Conclusions: Scanning is an efficient way to enter many questionnaires in a short time and high quality. Furthermore, it can help to discover difficult questions and to find out what the difficulty is. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 82 (6 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTalking War: Representation, Veterans and Ideology in Post-War Parliamentary Debates
Mochtak, Michal UL; Glaurdic, Josip UL; Lesschaeve, Christophe UL

in Government and Opposition (2020), Online

How do politicians in post-war societies talk about the past war? How do they discursively represent vulnerable social groups created by the conflict? Does the nature of this representation depend on the ... [more ▼]

How do politicians in post-war societies talk about the past war? How do they discursively represent vulnerable social groups created by the conflict? Does the nature of this representation depend on the politicians’ ideology or their record of combat service? We answer these questions by pairing natural language processing tools and a large corpus of parliamentary debates with an extensive data set of biographical information including detailed records of war service for all members of parliament during two recent terms in Croatia. We demonstrate not only that veteran politicians talk about war differently from their non-veteran counterparts, but also that the sentiment of war-related political discourse is highly dependent on the speaker’s exposure to combat and ideological orientation. These results improve our understanding of the representational role played by combat veterans, as well as of the link between descriptive and substantive representation of vulnerable groups in post-war societies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 96 (14 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMitochondria interaction networks show altered topological patterns in Parkinson's disease.
Zanin, Massimiliano; Santos, Bruno F. R.; Antony, Paul UL et al

in NPJ systems biology and applications (2020), 6(1), 38

Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, individual mitochondria-based analyses do not show a uniform feature in PD patients. Since mitochondria interact ... [more ▼]

Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, individual mitochondria-based analyses do not show a uniform feature in PD patients. Since mitochondria interact with each other, we hypothesize that PD-related features might exist in topological patterns of mitochondria interaction networks (MINs). Here we show that MINs formed nonclassical scale-free supernetworks in colonic ganglia both from healthy controls and PD patients; however, altered network topological patterns were observed in PD patients. These patterns were highly correlated with PD clinical scores and a machine-learning approach based on the MIN features alone accurately distinguished between patients and controls with an area-under-curve value of 0.989. The MINs of midbrain dopaminergic neurons (mDANs) derived from several genetic PD patients also displayed specific changes. CRISPR/CAS9-based genome correction of alpha-synuclein point mutations reversed the changes in MINs of mDANs. Our organelle-interaction network analysis opens another critical dimension for a deeper characterization of various complex diseases with mitochondrial dysregulation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe health, well-being and life satisfaction of young people in Luxembourg before the COVID-19 pandemic and during deconfinement
Residori, Caroline UL; Schomaker, Léa UL; Samuel, Robin UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 10)

Background: During 2020, most aspects of young people’s lives have been altered by the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures being implemented to contain it. Early studies on the effects of the COVID-19 ... [more ▼]

Background: During 2020, most aspects of young people’s lives have been altered by the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures being implemented to contain it. Early studies on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic suggest that confinement (so-called “lockdowns”) affect health, well-being and life satisfaction. However, the current situation in many countries is not confinement but prolonged deconfinement with less strict but still considerable measures and recommendations. Objectives: The possible effects of this deconfinement on the health, well-being and life satisfaction of young people is the focus of this oral presentation, which is based on the YAC-Young Adults and COVID-19 study (see Residori et al., 2020). Methods: The study relies on data collected from a random sample of residents of Luxembourg for the Youth Survey Luxembourg in Mai-July 2019 (age-range: 16-29, n=2.800) and in July 2020 (age-range: 12-29, n=3768, preliminary data). The data was gathered via online survey and using the same items as the HBSC study (self-rated health, life satisfaction (Cantril ladder) and the WHO-5 Well-being Index) (Sozio et al., 2020). Results: The cross-sectional comparison of this representative data, explores the health, wellbeing and life satisfaction of young people in Luxembourg before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results are presented for the overall population and detailed by socio-demographic groups. For the 12-15-year-olds, the observed proportion reporting a low life satisfaction (<6) was, for example, 31.3% in 2020. This proportion has increased from 19.9% in 2019 to 25.5 % in 2020 for the 16-20-year-olds, from 23.9% to 35.3 % for the 21-25-year-olds and from 20.2% to 32.8% for the 26-29-year-olds. Conclusion: The presentation will conclude on a reflection of the links between the observed differences and the measures implemented to during deconfinement as well as the scientific and political relevance of the observed differences for Luxembourg and other countries. Literature: Residori, Caroline; Sozio, Maria E.; Schomaker, Lea; Samuel, Robin (2020): YAC – Young People and COVID-19. Preliminary Results of a Representative Survey of Adolescents and Young Adults in Luxembourg. University of Luxembourg: Esch-sur-Alzette Sozio, M., Procopio, A., & Samuel, R. (2020). Youth Survey Luxembourg – Technical Report 2019. Esch-sur-Alzette: University of Luxembourg. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 126 (21 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDigitale Kommunikation im Alter – Erste Ergebnisse der CRISIS-Studie
Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 10)

In Folge der Kontaktbeschränkungen und Maßnahmen der sozialen Distanzierung zur Eindämmung der Corona Pandemie wurde vielfach von einem vermehrten Gebrauch digitaler Medien zur Aufrechterhaltung sozialer ... [more ▼]

In Folge der Kontaktbeschränkungen und Maßnahmen der sozialen Distanzierung zur Eindämmung der Corona Pandemie wurde vielfach von einem vermehrten Gebrauch digitaler Medien zur Aufrechterhaltung sozialer Kontakte berichtet. Die vorliegende Studie liefert erste Hinweise darauf, inwiefern sich das Kommunikationsverhalten älterer Menschen während der COVID-19 Krise verändert hat, wie der Gebrauch verschiedener Kommunikationsmittel mit der Reduktion von Einsamkeit und sozialer Isolation zusammenhängt und ob digitale Medien traditionelle Formen der Kommunikation verdrängen oder ergänzen. Im Juni 2020 wurden im Rahmen des vom FNR Luxemburg geförderten CRISIS-Projekts N = 611 in Privathaushalten lebende Personen im Alter zwischen 60 und 98 Jahren zu ihrem Erleben während der COVID-19 Krise befragt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass das Telefon insgesamt zwar weiterhin das wichtigste Kommunikationsmittel älterer Menschen bleibt, jedoch nehmen digitale Medien insbesondere in der Gruppe der 60-69-jährigen einen wichtigen Stellenwert ein, um mit anderen in Kontakt zu bleiben. Dabei reduzierte ein gestiegener Gebrauch digitaler Medien (wie auch traditioneller Medien) das Gefühl, nicht genug Gesellschaft zu haben. Außerdem scheinen neue Arten der Kommunikation traditionelle Arten in unserer Zielgruppe nicht zu ersetzen, sondern sie ergänzen sich gegenseitig. Die Ergebnisse werden mit Bezug auf Maßnahmen zur Reduktion sozialer Isolation und Einsamkeit im Alter und im Kontext von COVID-19 diskutiert. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 165 (3 UL)
Full Text
See detailArgument Acceptance and Commitment in Formal Argumentation
Dauphin, Jérémie UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (3 UL)
Full Text
See detailMICROGLIA IN PARKINSON´S DISEASE: IDENTITY, HETEROGENEITY AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO NEURODEGENERATION
Uriarte Huarte, Oihane UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Parkinson´s disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder caused by dopamine deficiency owing to a loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN). So far, there is no cure available ... [more ▼]

Parkinson´s disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder caused by dopamine deficiency owing to a loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN). So far, there is no cure available, hence understanding the mechanisms by which dopaminergic neurons degenerate is essential for the development of future treatment strategies. Recently, a potential role of neuroinflammation, and especially the activation of microglial cells in PD was suggested, not being secondary to neuronal death, but rather primarily implicated in PD pathogenesis. Hence, we have ventured in to study neuroinflammation and microglia activation in the context of PD using in vivo and in vitro mouse models. Firstly, we addressed microglial heterogeneity in the healthy nigrostriatal pathway, the primary circuit affected in PD. By using single-cell RNA sequencing, we have identified four different microglial immune subsets within the midbrain and the striatum. Notably, we were able to distinguish a microglial subset with an immune alerted phenotype, which was mainly composed of microglial cells from the midbrain. The transcriptomic identity of this subset resembled partially to the one of inflammatory microglia. Additionally, in situ morphological studies, such as 3D reconstruction, revealed that microglia located within the midbrain is less complex than microglia with a striatal origin. Secondly, we studied the potential role of neuroinflammation and microglia in PD progression by using a PD-like mouse model of a-synuclein (a-syn) seeding and spreading. In this study, pre-formed fibrils (PFF) were injected into the mice striatum, and a combined neuropathological and transcriptomic analysis was performed at two time points that have distinct and increasing levels and distribution of a-syn pathology across different brain regions (13 and 90 days post-injection). Interestingly, neuropathological quantifications at 90 days post-injection uncovered that neuroinflammation and microglial reactivity are linked to neurodegeneration. However, pathology neither correlates with neurodegeneration nor with a-syn aggregation. Importantly, at 13 days post-injection, the transcriptomic analysis of the midbrain revealed the dysregulation of several inflammatory pathways and pointed to the overexpression of neurotoxic inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, at this time point, the presence of a-syn oligomers was detected in certain areas of the brain. Subsequently, we hypothesised that at early stages of PD pathogenesis, the presence of a-syn oligomeric forms induces a robust inflammatory response of microglia, which can be further associated with neurodegeneration. Thirdly, to understand if a-syn oligomers are the main inducers of microglial activation, we examined further the microglial inflammatory response to other a-syn conformations, monomers and fibrils (PFF1 and PFF2). For that, BV2 and primary microglial cells were exposed to the a-syn moieties at different concentrations and incubations times. Electron microscopy depicted some heterogeneity across the synthetic a-syn fibrils, suggesting that PFF1 and PFF2 were composed by different structures. Then, microglial reactivity to a-syn monomers and fibrils was investigated by RT-PCR, and no specific response of microglia to a-syn was encountered. Also, only one of the a-syn fibrils, the PFF1, decreased microglial phagocytic activity and reduced the expression of Il1b by microglia after LPS stimulation. Concomitant to the findings in the a-syn seeding and spreading model, we attempted to elucidate the molecular profile of microglia associated with neurodegeneration. In this particular study, RNA-sequencing was performed in isolated microglial cells in an early stage of pathology progression. In contrast with our previous results, no differences in the microglial profile were found between the PFF and the control mice. Lastly, we have investigated potential neuroprotective mechanisms associated with microglial reactivity counter-regulation. Considering previous observations that microglia express dopaminergic receptors, we investigated further whether apomorphine, a dopamine agonist with anti-oxidant properties, could govern microglial activation. The effect of apomorphine enantiomers was analysed within primary microglia cultures that were activated by exposure to mutated A53T monomeric a-syn. Herein, we demonstrated that microglial activation can be dampened by apomorphine, via the recruitment of Nrf2 to the nucleus, which results in a decreased release of proinflammatory mediators, such as TNFa or PGE2. Taken together, this study provides an additional characterisation of neuroinflammation and microglial cells in the context of PD, which ultimately contributes to a better understanding of their relationship with neurodegeneration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 107 (14 UL)
Full Text
See detailCreate Digital Games for Education: Game Design as a Teaching Methodology
Wernbacher, Thomas; Reuter, Robert UL; Denk, Natalie et al

in Proceedings of ICERI 2020 (2020, November 09)

Besides the pure application of serious games as tools for knowledge transfer, a further trend has been observed in the last few years: The creation of games as an opportunity to gain practical experience ... [more ▼]

Besides the pure application of serious games as tools for knowledge transfer, a further trend has been observed in the last few years: The creation of games as an opportunity to gain practical experience and thereby also build up valuable knowledge. In this context several approaches are possible, such as using paper prototyping, applying Game-Maker tools like Scratch, RPG-Maker, Construct 3 or Game Maker Studio 2, next to the option to use actual game engines like Unity. This contribution aims to discuss the possibility of creating games in a very specific, predefined genre using Game Maker tools that have been especially developed for use in an educational context and therefore offer didactic guidance. The Game Creator tool which was developed as part of the Erasmus+ project Create Digital Games for Education (CDG4E) is presented in more depth. With this tool you can create decision card games inspired by the mobile game bestseller "Reigns". Within the project, the consortium created educational games in different areas such as fake news prevention and STEM education. In addition to these ready-made games, another focus was placed on using the tool itself as a teaching technique, for example to create games on a specific topic with school classes or within youth work, but also as an instrument for setting up dedicated "game jams". This contribution reports on the advantages and drawbacks of creating the tool itself by analyzing qualitative and quantitative data gathered during the iterative design process of the Game Creator. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (8 UL)
Full Text
See detailOne Size to Fit Them All: Interoperability, the Artemis Accords and the Future of Space Exploration
Salmeri, Antonino UL

Article for general public (2020)

On October 13th 2020, at the occasion of the 71st International Astronautical Congress, a coalition of 8 Countries including Australia, Canada, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the United Arab Emirates, the ... [more ▼]

On October 13th 2020, at the occasion of the 71st International Astronautical Congress, a coalition of 8 Countries including Australia, Canada, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States of America presented a multilateral document called “The Artemis Accords”. Legally, the Artemis Accords constitute a political commitment towards certain “Principles for Cooperation in the Civil Exploration and Use of the Moon, Mars, Comets and Asteroids for Peaceful Purposes”. Politically, the Accords aim to “operationalize” the norms of the Outer Space Treaty for the development and execution of the Artemis Program. Unsurprisingly, this announcement has raised both appreciation and scepticism, with some States considering to sign the document and some others criticising the process as “too US- centric”. In parallel, the space law community has started to discuss the legal and policy impact of the Accords, with eminent colleagues either speaking in their support or calling for more cautiousness. In this context, this article focuses on the principle of interoperability described in Section 5 of the Accords, discussing its implications on the future of space exploration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 288 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWhen does my program do this? learning circumstances of software behavior
Kampmann, Alexander; Havrikov, Nikolas; Soremekun, Ezekiel UL et al

in Proceedings of the 28th ACM Joint Meeting on European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (2020, November 08)

We introduce Alhazen — an approach that automatically determines the circumstances under which a particular program behavior, such as a failure, takes place. Alhazen starts with a run that exhibits this ... [more ▼]

We introduce Alhazen — an approach that automatically determines the circumstances under which a particular program behavior, such as a failure, takes place. Alhazen starts with a run that exhibits this behavior and automatically determines input features associated with the behavior in question: (1) We use a grammar to parse the input into individual elements. (2) We determine features from the elements such as existence, length, or numerical values. (3) We use a decision tree learner to observe and learn which input features are associated with the behavior in question. (4) We use the grammar to generate additional inputs to further strengthen or refute hypotheses as learned associations. (5) By repeating steps 2 to 4, we obtain a theory that explains and predicts the given behavior. In our evaluation using inputs for find, grep, NetHack, and a JavaScript transpiler, the theories produced by Alhazen predict and produce failures with high accuracy and allow developers to focus on a small set of input features: “grep fails whenever the --fixed-strings option is used in conjunction with an empty search string.” [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detailGerichtliche Kontrolle verbessern
Gerkrath, Jörg UL

Article for general public (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (1 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailBeyond School Effects: Private Schooling, Segregation and Standardization of School Systems in Latin America
Ceron, Francisco UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 07)

Introduction A considerable body of studies have shown that specific institutional arrangements in educational systems help in understanding cross-national differences in educational outcomes (Woessman ... [more ▼]

Introduction A considerable body of studies have shown that specific institutional arrangements in educational systems help in understanding cross-national differences in educational outcomes (Woessman 2003, Brunello and Checchi 2007, Bol and van de Werfhorst 2011, Bol et al 2014, Mijs 2016). The design of educational institutions may face policy trade-offs in the tasks of school systems that are served by them. Deregulation as privatization and school autonomy may enhance efficient sorting of students and then maximize learnings but at the cost of exacerbating social inequalities. A centralized education system may guarantee equality of educational opportunities, but it is not clear if it increases or hinder the overall performance level (Bol and van de Werfhorst 2011, Pedró et al 2015). This study is aimed to fill this gap, first, by departing from the widely supported assumption that the organization of educational systems affect, partly, the educational outcomes of students. Second, I focus on developing countries –Latin American countries- as we know less about the impact of institutions in educational outcomes in the region. Third, I attempt to address the following research question: what is the effect of the level of privatization increase achievement inequalities, given the level of standardization of the school systems in Latin American countries? Data and Methods I analyse data from the Tercer Estudio Regional Comparativo y Explicativo (TERCE), implemented in in year 2013 by UNESCO office in Santiago, Chile. TERCE is the most recent large-scale assessment that exclusively cover students and schools in Latin American countries. Fifteen countries participated: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Following the comparative research body, I use two-level hierarchical model to account for the multilevel structure of the data, students nested in schools, with random school effects and country fixed effects, to identify variability in the educational institutions of interest, given the small number of countries. The dependent variable is performance in mathematics in 6th grade as it is the subject that is most clearly learned at schools (Coleman 1975, Bol et al 2014), and seems to be more sensitive to socioeconomic background than other subjects. The main predictor is socioeconomic status of student, and I control for several indicators related to learning home environment, and sociodemographic variables. At school level, I control for several organizational characteristics and social composition. Findings The main findings show that country-specific configurations of school systems are associated to difference in mathematics achievement. Differences between schools in performance are partly explained by differences at country level. In this regard, I have chosen two important dimensions of school systems, for the Latin American region: the level of standardization and privatization. These results confirm some recent findings that achievement inequality is larger in school systems with a great level of differentiation between schools, in which the stratification triggered by the private sector is one important indicator (Chmielewski and Reardon, 2016). In case of the level of standardization results show that is associated to a lesser degree of achievement inequality. However, the main finding points to persistent inequalities as much as private sector in school systems is bigger. Further, the models predict that these inequalities are not decreasing as the standardization level increases. In this respect, I also find support for a diminishing effect of policies that points to equalization of opportunities (Woessman 2003, Bol and van de Werfhorst 2011). The results suggest higher inequalities as the stratification induced by private school sector increases. These effects are still significant after adding school level controls, which suggest that over and above school processes, uneven between school sorting induces by private sector. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (6 UL)
See detailCovid-19 in Portuguese educational scenario: actions, responses and reflections
de Albuquerque Trigo, Maiza UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 06)

On March 13th, the Portuguese government declared that children were going home, and classes would resume after Easter in an online/distance mode. Children were sent home and the system panicked. As a ... [more ▼]

On March 13th, the Portuguese government declared that children were going home, and classes would resume after Easter in an online/distance mode. Children were sent home and the system panicked. As a majority of teachers are over 45 years old, trainings on online platforms were made available, as well as the platforms to be used. In the meantime, the government announced a plan to broadcast via television general lessons starting from April 20th (two 40-minute lessons per day per school year grouping, for primary and elementary school classes only). Secondary classes were mainly online, but 11th and 12th graders went back to school for a few weeks to prepare themselves to the national exams. As the school year came to an end, new guidelines are being outlined and, at this time, each school has to develop their own return and contingency plans (accordingly to the Health Authorities guidelines). This presentation will discuss the responses in Portugal with a reflective focus on education actions and effects. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (15 UL)
Full Text
See detailIWalk in Luxembourg: Jewish public history in forgotten places
Bronec, Jakub UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 06)

The contribution will introduce the process of designing two IWalk tours with bachelor students in Luxembourg. The presentation will contain the digital source criticism and new perspectives of digital ... [more ▼]

The contribution will introduce the process of designing two IWalk tours with bachelor students in Luxembourg. The presentation will contain the digital source criticism and new perspectives of digital hermeneutics related to themes of individual stops. The students were divided into two working groups, with each group assigned to a different area. Group A was in charge of designing a virtual tour in Luxembourg City and group B created one for the town of Esch-sur-Alzette. The participants took pictures of current buildings and locations associated with Jewish war history and compared them with original historical photos taken before and during the war. The students were encouraged to reflect on how the appearance and function of certain buildings had changed over time. Besides critical analysis of all pros and cons, I will introduce MAXQDA, a tool for qualitative data analysis to be an invaluable assistant for easier pre-selection of interviews. From a methodological perspective, we were able to judge the relevance of interviews for our work. Students also learned to link different text passages to each other as well as to other documents, educational websites, images or geographical locations. When several students are working with one data set, it is important to create a clear system of memos, codes and intercoder agreements. For a comparative analysis, students used a unified thematic coding tree they had created themselves. The use of a common code book tree enables them to find thematic intersections in their work. The contribution will also demonstrate the purpose of pre-question and post-questions, which make users consider the content of each IWalk stop. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (6 UL)