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See detailPerforming a historical re-enactment: the making of a 16mm home movie
van der Heijden, Tim UL

Presentation (2020, December 18)

In this presentation, I will “perform” the making of a 16mm home movie based on my media archaeological experiments with an original Ciné-Kodak film camera from 1930. A split screen montage shows the ... [more ▼]

In this presentation, I will “perform” the making of a 16mm home movie based on my media archaeological experiments with an original Ciné-Kodak film camera from 1930. A split screen montage shows the recorded analogue film fragments besides footage that illustrates the process of making the film captured by my documentation equipment, including a digital video camera, GoPro and 360 degree camera. My contribution aims to discuss and re-evaluate the performative nature of media archaeological experiments, and how digital (documentation) tools enable new forms of presentation, explication and dissemination of historical tacit knowledge in early-twentieth century amateur filmmaking. [less ▲]

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See detailMultipath Mitigation Maps feasibility and applicability as an International GNSS Service product
Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Elgered, Gunnar et al

Scientific Conference (2020, December 17)

There have been many advances in the modeling of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observables when estimating position and other parameters of interest. Some of these bias models are related to ... [more ▼]

There have been many advances in the modeling of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observables when estimating position and other parameters of interest. Some of these bias models are related to improvements of reference frames, phase center offsets and variations of transmitter and receiver antennas, satellite orbits and clocks, and troposphere. Nonetheless, multipath remains for the most part an unmodelled source of error which causes range errors in the GNSS observations. The associated effects show highly localized features and have a different impact for each receiver and antenna. Multipath errors can propagate, can cause in-situ position biases and are also contributing to the prevalent draconitic harmonic signals. In order to mitigate the problem we generate site-specific corrections by employing a suitable averaging scheme for the stacking of carrier phase residuals. Our processing is based on globally distributed static multi-GNSS observations using several scientific GNSS software packages (Bernese GNSS Software, NAPEOS, GAMIT-GLOBK, and CSRS-PPP). Our multipath stacking maps (MPS) use the stacking of carrier phase residuals generated by variable azimuth cell size (congruent cells) and by allocating carrier phase residuals in each cell to generate the correction maps, unlike the standard fixed azimuth cell resolution approaches. This reduces the binning of fewer residuals at higher elevation angles. Before stacking, we also apply rigorous statistical outlier screening tests for each one-way post-fit carrier phase residual assigned to each of the congruent cells. We thus correct the multipath effects by subtracting the stacked multipath map from the post-fit carrier phase residual. Using this technique we produce a model available in the form of the Antenna Exchange (ANTEX) file format, that can potentially be implemented in routine GNSS analysis with no or little additional overhead for individual analysis centers (ACs). In this study, we assess the feasibility and applicability of the MPS maps as an International GNSS Service (IGS) product for routine GNSS analysis. We demonstrate the multipath stacking technique to result in a significant reduction of the variation in the one-way post-fit carrier phase residuals from multi-GNSS observations. [less ▲]

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See detailUnlawful Content Online: Towards A New Regulatory Framework For Online Platforms
Ullrich, Carsten UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The thesis reviews the online intermediary liability framework of the E-Commerce Directive (in Articles 12 - 15) along two research questions. 1) Is the current legal framework regulating content ... [more ▼]

The thesis reviews the online intermediary liability framework of the E-Commerce Directive (in Articles 12 - 15) along two research questions. 1) Is the current legal framework regulating content liability of online platforms under the ECD still adequate when it comes to combating illegal content? 2) Are there alternative models for intermediary regulation that are better suited to include internet intermediaries in the fight against illegal content? These questions were formulated against the premises that unlawful content online has been a persisting and growing problem and that the position of online intermediaries today makes enhanced responsibilities on their part necessary. The thesis undertakes to analyse the nature of the enforcement challenges in the EU when trying to engage online platforms under the current liability framework, and charts out an alternative approach to holding online platforms responsible. Chapter 3 reviews the current intermediary framework in the EU and the horizontal challenges of holding internet intermediaries liable. This is analysed against the backdrop of the proliferation of the internet and online platforms, sketched out in the preceding Chapter 2. Due to the ambiguity and outdatedness of the ECD provisions, on the one hand, and different national secondary liability traditions, on the other hand, the liability protections of online platforms have been interpreted and applied differently by EU Member States, and most importantly courts, leading to an uneven and ineffective enforcement landscape. Chapter 4 analyses sectoral provisions that cover different kinds of offences related to unlawful content and their interactions with the ECD and national legislation on intermediary liability. The thesis evaluates enforcement efforts in the areas of defamation, hate speech, terrorist content, copyright, trademarks, product safety and food safety. While none of the national (sectoral) approaches reviewed appear to be effective when trying to enlist intermediaries in the fight against unlawful content, the latter have built up powerful own private enforcement systems that have come to rival and run counter to public interests and fundamental rights. Chapter 5 introduces case studies of online enforcement in the areas of product and food safety, based on interviews conducted with market surveillance authorities in the EU. The specific enforcement system of EU product regulation poses particular challenges, but also offers some useful lessons for the eventual framework proposed in Chapter 6. This system eschews today’s liability cornerstones and the reliance of self-regulatory tools favoured by EU and national legislators so far. Instead it proposes an enhanced responsibility system, based on harmonised technical standards as used in the EU's New Approach regulatory method. Technical standards would define duty of care obligations in the guise of risk management approaches, which focus on defined (sectoral) harms that arise from the business practices of online platforms. They incorporate prospective responsibilities, such as for example safety by design for user onboarding, user empowerment, or (algorithmic) content management, as well as specific retrospective responsibilities relating to e.g. notice and takedown or content identification system. The standard can be adapted to the type of harm/violation, thus taking account of the specific fundamental rights and public interests involved on a sectoral level. [less ▲]

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See detailThe legacy of intimate partner violence in heterosexual and gay (LGBTQ) communities. New challenges for the family doctor.
Klusova Noguiná, Elena; Chety, Ula; Conde-Valvis, Sara et al

in Baum, Erika; Ungan, Mehmet; Steylaerts, Carl (Eds.) The World Book of Family Medicine (2020)

The “classic” gender violence of the heterosexual couples has left a painful legacy to the LGBT community. Recent researches show that rates of IPV in LGBT are similar to or higher than the rates found ... [more ▼]

The “classic” gender violence of the heterosexual couples has left a painful legacy to the LGBT community. Recent researches show that rates of IPV in LGBT are similar to or higher than the rates found for heterosexual women. Though hardly worked, it seems to be that existing approach programs turn out to be incomplete and insufficient to address this problem in heterosexual women, being practically unknown in sexual minorities. The greater part of health professionals seems to have a vague and unclear knowledge of many basic LGBTQ+ concepts and specific health needs (social isolation, substance abuse, eating disorders, intimate partner violence, cancer prevention, etc...) The reality is that most of nowadays family physicians are not conscious nor trained to identify no manage the differences in professional help need between sexual minorities and heterosexual patients. [less ▲]

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See detailTaxation, Data and Destination - An Analysis of the Compatibility of a Digitalized Destination-Based Corporate Tax and a Destination-Based Cash-Flow Tax with International and EU Tax and Data Protection Law Frameworks
Sinnig, Julia Ruth UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The digitalized economy poses challenges and issues to traditional corporate taxation that require modifications in the way companies are taxed under international tax law. The thesis discusses two tax ... [more ▼]

The digitalized economy poses challenges and issues to traditional corporate taxation that require modifications in the way companies are taxed under international tax law. The thesis discusses two tax proposals to face some of the main issues, such as the intangibility of business assets and operations, the lack of physical presence of businesses in market jurisdictions, as well as non-taxation under both corporate income tax and value added tax in these jurisdictions. One of the tax proposals is the destination-based cash-flow tax that has been elaborated on mainly in economic literature. The other proposal has been drafted by the author and is named "digitalized destination-based corporate tax". The thesis analyzes the business and legal context in which the two taxes would operate: beyond the testing of the two model taxes against several digitalized business models, the relevant legal frameworks known in taxation and composed by double taxation conventions, EU law and WTO law are analyzed. Moreover, considering that the place of destination is determined by reference to the place of customers or users, corporate taxpayers likely need to collect and process (personal) data of these third parties in order to determine their place of tax liability. Thus, the thesis also examines potential data protection law interferences. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovation Networks from Inter-organizational Research Collaborations
Esmaeilzadeh Dilmaghani, Saharnaz UL; Piyatumrong, Apivadee UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Heuristics for Optimization and Learning (2020)

We consider the problem of automatizing network generation from inter-organizational research collaboration data. The resulting networks promise to obtain crucial advanced insights. In this paper, we ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of automatizing network generation from inter-organizational research collaboration data. The resulting networks promise to obtain crucial advanced insights. In this paper, we propose a method to convert relational data to a set of networks using a single parameter, called Linkage Threshold (LT). To analyze the impact of the LT-value, we apply standard network metrics such as network density and centrality measures on each network produced. The feasibility and impact of our approach are demonstrated by using a real-world collaboration data set from an established research institution. We show how the produced network layers can reveal insights and patterns by presenting a correlation matrix. [less ▲]

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See detailViolence Against Female Doctors, its influence on professional mental health and prevention
Tkachenko, Victoria; Tekin, Nil; Kurpas, Donata et al

in The World Book of Family Medicine (2020)

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See detailVertical Land Movements and Sea Level Changes on South Georgia, South Atlantic Ocean: Results from 7 Years of Geodetic and Oceanographic Observations on a Remote Island
Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Hibbert, Angela et al

Scientific Conference (2020, December 16)

South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, is a small remote land mass that supports various ground-based instrumental observations (Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), tide gauge ... [more ▼]

South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, is a small remote land mass that supports various ground-based instrumental observations (Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), tide gauge, meteorological and seismic) in an otherwise largely under sampled oceanic region. Moreover, the South Atlantic Ocean plays an important role in global ocean circulation, con-necting the deep thermohaline circulation of the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans, whilst also linking to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the South, where the lack of continental barriers allows a free exchange of water between the major ocean basins. Hence, South Georgia po-tentially lies within a region susceptible to climatic changes before these can be felt further afield. In 2013 and 2014 a total of five GNSS stations were installed covering the area of the main island (approximately 170 x 50 km) with two of those being located close to the King Edward Point (KEP) Research Station and the GLOSS tide gauge (ID 187). Furthermore, precise levelling campaigns in 2013, 2014, 2017 and 2020 supported the analysis of local ground instabilities near the tide gauge. Through these activities the tide gauge datum within the Permanent Ser-vice for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) has been established, which in turn, makes the derived KEP mean sea level (MSL) record highly valuable for long-term studies and satellite altimetry cali-brations. In this study, we will present the vertical land movement estimates from seven years of GNSS observations, five precise levelling campaigns, and will discuss their impact on the sea level record from the KEP tide gauge and nearby satellite altimetry sea surface heights. Our results confirm uplift all over South Georgia Island while the area at KEP and particularly the jetty with tide gauge are subsiding relative to the rest of the island. Using this information we correct the MSL record for the vertical land movements and investigate its signals together with those from nearby satellite altimetry tracks. [less ▲]

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See detailPressure Sensing with Nematic Liquid Crystal and Carbon Nanotube Networks
Murali, Meenu UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The study of colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in liquid crystals (LCs) is well known. In most of the works, the particles are mixed into the LC to form suspensions with well-dispersed particles ... [more ▼]

The study of colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in liquid crystals (LCs) is well known. In most of the works, the particles are mixed into the LC to form suspensions with well-dispersed particles. However, when nanoparticles are physically connected to form networks, the overall macroscopic properties of the ensemble are directly linked to the specific properties of the nanoparticles. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are excellent electrical conductors possessing extremely high aspect ratio, which results in a very low concentration threshold needed to obtain percolation. Therefore, they form conductive networks with extremely small amounts of CNTs. Another advantage of carbon nanotubes is their capability to transport large current densities without damage by electromigration, maintaining a stable resistance, and having scattering-less paths across several microns. Moreover, the electromechanical properties of CNTs make them an ideal candidate in pressure sensing technology. The doctoral thesis presented here describes two different approaches to integrate and utilise CNTs in an LC matrix. In the first case, we show that a variety of nanoparticles that are dispersed in LC can be attracted and assembled onto a LC defect line generated in a predetermined location, thereby creating a vertical interconnect of nanoparticles. The second consists of CNT sheets mechanically drawn from a CNT forest and an LC cell is then built on top, and the second consists of a template-based assembly of dispersed CNTs onto defect lines in LCs. In this case, we study the electrical and optical properties of CNT sheets in the presence and absence of liquid crystals based on their DC electrical characterization with distributed electrical contacts. Finally, we discuss how these two approaches can be used to successfully fabricate pressure-sensing devices. The pressure response in both these sensors is achieved based on the change in resistance of the CNTs, induced by the structural variations under the external applied pressure. Both the pressure sensors developed here are easy to fabricate, cost-effective, and recoverable owing to the elasticity and softness of the LC. [less ▲]

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See detailA Survey of Information Entropy Metrics for Complex Networks
Omar, Yamila UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Entropy (2020)

Information entropy metrics have been applied to a wide range of problems that were abstracted as complex networks. This growing body of research is scattered in multiple disciplines, which makes it ... [more ▼]

Information entropy metrics have been applied to a wide range of problems that were abstracted as complex networks. This growing body of research is scattered in multiple disciplines, which makes it difficult to identify available metrics and understand the context in which they are applicable. In this work, a narrative literature review of information entropy metrics for complex networks is conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Existing entropy metrics are classified according to three different criteria: whether the metric provides a property of the graph or a graph component (such as the nodes), the chosen probability distribution, and the types of complex networks to which the metrics are applicable. Consequently, this work identifies the areas in need for further development aiming to guide future research efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailOutdoor STEAM integrated framework in elementary schools in Luxembourg using MathCityMap and GeoGebra 3D Calculator
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

Scientific Conference (2020, December 15)

In elementary schools in Luxemburg, sciences and mathematics are generally taught in class based essentially on textbooks. However, the findings of multiple studies on understanding and applying skills in ... [more ▼]

In elementary schools in Luxemburg, sciences and mathematics are generally taught in class based essentially on textbooks. However, the findings of multiple studies on understanding and applying skills in STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics) report that students need hands-on activities on real-world objects. Furthermore, in times of the COVID-19 pandemic, where numerous restrictions and risks dominate teaching inside the classroom, outdoor learning is safer and offers many opportunities. Hence, we created outdoor mathematical trails with a STEAM integrated approach for elementary schools using the free educational software MathCityMap and the dynamic mathematics software GeoGebra 3D. In these outdoor trails, students used a set of promising technologies, i.e. AR (Augmented Reality) or GPS, to support STEAM education. Based on results from our first study on outdoor mathematical trails in June 2020 (in review), we developed and evaluated a framework on outdoor STEAM integrated teaching. This framework was used for further outdoor task and trail creations in elementary schools, which we investigated by conducting semi-structured interviews with students and teachers. Hence, we will present how this framework was used in elementary schools to create outdoor mathematical trails and describe how it affected the students' learning. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring Governance Issues between the SRB and the ESM in the Use of the Common Backstop
Lupinu, Pier Mario UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

To date, the resolution of the Banco Popular Español, being the first and only resolution case in the euro area, has had the “benefit” of bringing to light several shortfalls of this crisis management ... [more ▼]

To date, the resolution of the Banco Popular Español, being the first and only resolution case in the euro area, has had the “benefit” of bringing to light several shortfalls of this crisis management system. Back then, thanks to the sale of business, the need of the use of the Single Resolution Fund (SRF) has been avoided, prompting criticism on whether the fund had sufficient means to overcome a major widespread crisis. During the period elapsed from the last financial crisis, the euro area banking sector has built capital and liquidity buffers, which were aimed at protecting them for future shocks. Although it is now widely accepted that crises are of a cyclical nature, new risks and the high interconnectivity of today’s economic activities brought an unexpected crisis due to the current pandemic. The consequences of this unprecedented event in modern history had severe effects to the worldwide economy, mostly for the boundless block of labour activities, which caused severe losses for households, enterprises and governments that consequently affected the financial intermediation function of the banks. Concerning the European Stability Mechanism (ESM), the current pandemic has had the effect to put temporary on hold the discussion on the revision of the ESM Treaty, including its role as a Backstop to the SRF, so that the Mechanism could experience a new role through the ESM Pandemic Crisis Support. In such a framework, this paper aims to bring back the attention to the unfinished path in the establishment of the Common Backstop by addressing an important element of risk, namely its decision-making process. The main aim is to explore possible governance issues, which could hamper a timely and effective use of the Common Backstop, in the case that the SRF would be depleted and no alternative funding sources would be available. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-reversal symmetry violations and entropy production in field theories of polar active matter
Borthne, Øyvind L; Fodor, Etienne UL; Cates, Michael E

in New Journal of Physics (2020), 22

We investigate the steady-state entropy production rate (EPR) in the hydrodynamic Vicsek model (HVM) and diffusive flocking model (DFM). Both models display a transition from an isotropic gas to a polar ... [more ▼]

We investigate the steady-state entropy production rate (EPR) in the hydrodynamic Vicsek model (HVM) and diffusive flocking model (DFM). Both models display a transition from an isotropic gas to a polar liquid (flocking) phase, in addition to travelling polar clusters and microphase-separation in the miscibility gap. The phase diagram of the DFM, which may be considered an extension of the HVM, contains additional structure at low densities where we find a novel crystal phase in which a stationary hexagonal lattice of high-density ridges surround low density valleys. From an assessment of the scaling of the EPR at low noise, we uncover that the dynamics in this limit may be organised into three main classes based on the dominant contribution. Truly nonequilibrium dynamics is characterised by a divergent EPR in this limit, and sustains global time-reversal symmetry (TRS) violating currents at zero noise. On the other hand, marginally nonequilibrium and effectively equilibrium dynamics have a finite EPR in this limit, and TRS is broken only at the level of fluctuations. For the latter of these two cases, detailed balance is restored in the small noise limit and we recover effective Boltzmann statistics to lowest nontrivial order.We further demonstrate that the scaling of the EPR may change depending on the dynamical variables that are tracked when it is computed, and the protocol chosen for time-reversal. Results acquired from numerical simulations of the dynamics confirm both the asymptotic scaling relations we derive and our quantitative predictions. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-Evaluation of Surface Meteorological Data and GNSS-derived Water Vapor with Re-analysis Information for South Georgia Island, South Atlantic Ocean
Erkihune, Eshetu Nega UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL et al

Poster (2020, December 11)

As one of the most important components of the global hydrologic cycle, atmospheric water vapor shows significant variability in both space and time over a large range of scales. This variability results ... [more ▼]

As one of the most important components of the global hydrologic cycle, atmospheric water vapor shows significant variability in both space and time over a large range of scales. This variability results from the interactions of many different factors, including topography and the presence of specific atmospheric processes. One of the key regions for affecting global climatic variations lies in the sub-Antarctic zone over the Southern Ocean with its Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the associated Antarctic Convergence. There, in this cold and maritime region, lies South Georgia Island with its weather and climate being largely affected by both the dominating ocean currents and the strong east ward blowing winds in this zone. While the island forms an important outpost for various surface observations in this largely under-sampled and extremely remote region, it also forms a barrier for these winds due to its high topography, which, in turn, leads to various local meteorological phenomena, such as foehn winds. Surface meteorological data have been available for several stations near King Edward Point (KEP) on South Georgia for much of the 20th century. Since 2013 and 2014, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data have been available at five locations around the periphery of the island and during a few months in 2016 also radiosonde data have been collected at KEP. This study aims at investigating the consistency between the different surface meteorological data sets such as temperature, pressure and wind direction/speed that have been collected at KEP and a nearby GNSS station on Brown Mountain (BMT) for which we also compare the precipitable water vapor estimates. A cross-evaluation of these data sets with model values from the ERA-Interim re-analyses is carried out to further investigate the performance of both instruments and models. Overall, our preliminary results show high consistency between the surface meteorological observations and the re-analysis model values. It was our main objective to investigate the homogeneity and accuracy of the BMT observation time series through cross-evaluation with the series of the official WMO station at KEP. Air temperature and pressure at both sites from observation and model data are strongly correlated at hourly intervals, reaching correlation coefficients in the range of 0.966 - 0.968 for the former data set. The difference temperature time series shows seasonal variations but no obvious steps. The difference pressure time series is flat, also indicating no discontinuities. A cross-evaluation of the wind observations shows the distinct directional feature at KEP for a station in a valley where the winds are funneled through the valley. For BMT the wind observations confirm the main directions of winds but also show the openness of the station from all directions. The observations of temperature, pressure, humidity and GNSS-derived PWV clearly show the signatures of the frequent foehn events. [less ▲]

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See detailThe potential of Language Technology and AI
Schommer, Christoph UL

Speeches/Talks (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 132 (3 UL)
See detailTest
Erkihune, Eshetu Nega UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL et al

Poster (2020, December 11)

test

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See detailSupporting Families and Children Beyond COVID-19: Social protection in high-income countries
Richardson, Dominic; Carraro, Alessandro; Cebotari, Victor UL et al

Report (2020)

COVID-19 constitutes the greatest crisis that high-income countries have seen in many generations. While many high-income countries experienced the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, or have had ... [more ▼]

COVID-19 constitutes the greatest crisis that high-income countries have seen in many generations. While many high-income countries experienced the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, or have had national recessions, the COVID-19 pandemic is much more than that. COVID-19 is a social and economic crisis, sparked by a protracted health crisis. High-income countries have very limited experience of dealing with health crises, having their health and human services stretched beyond capacity, restricting the travel of their populations or having to close workplaces and schools – let alone experience of all of these things combined. These unique conditions create new and serious challenges for the economies and societies of all high-income countries. As these challenges evolve, children – as dependants – are among those at greatest risk of seeing their living standards fall and their personal well-being decline. This new UNICEF Innocenti report explores how the social and economic impact of the pandemic is likely to affect children; the initial government responses to the crisis; and how future public policies could be optimized to better support children. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 126 (9 UL)