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See detailMultipath Mitigation Maps feasibility and applicability as an International GNSS Service product
Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Elgered, Gunnar et al

Scientific Conference (2020, December 17)

There have been many advances in the modeling of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observables when estimating position and other parameters of interest. Some of these bias models are related to ... [more ▼]

There have been many advances in the modeling of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observables when estimating position and other parameters of interest. Some of these bias models are related to improvements of reference frames, phase center offsets and variations of transmitter and receiver antennas, satellite orbits and clocks, and troposphere. Nonetheless, multipath remains for the most part an unmodelled source of error which causes range errors in the GNSS observations. The associated effects show highly localized features and have a different impact for each receiver and antenna. Multipath errors can propagate, can cause in-situ position biases and are also contributing to the prevalent draconitic harmonic signals. In order to mitigate the problem we generate site-specific corrections by employing a suitable averaging scheme for the stacking of carrier phase residuals. Our processing is based on globally distributed static multi-GNSS observations using several scientific GNSS software packages (Bernese GNSS Software, NAPEOS, GAMIT-GLOBK, and CSRS-PPP). Our multipath stacking maps (MPS) use the stacking of carrier phase residuals generated by variable azimuth cell size (congruent cells) and by allocating carrier phase residuals in each cell to generate the correction maps, unlike the standard fixed azimuth cell resolution approaches. This reduces the binning of fewer residuals at higher elevation angles. Before stacking, we also apply rigorous statistical outlier screening tests for each one-way post-fit carrier phase residual assigned to each of the congruent cells. We thus correct the multipath effects by subtracting the stacked multipath map from the post-fit carrier phase residual. Using this technique we produce a model available in the form of the Antenna Exchange (ANTEX) file format, that can potentially be implemented in routine GNSS analysis with no or little additional overhead for individual analysis centers (ACs). In this study, we assess the feasibility and applicability of the MPS maps as an International GNSS Service (IGS) product for routine GNSS analysis. We demonstrate the multipath stacking technique to result in a significant reduction of the variation in the one-way post-fit carrier phase residuals from multi-GNSS observations. [less ▲]

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See detailMETABOLIC MODELLING BASED APPROACH TO IDENTIFY TAILORED METABOLIC DRUGS
Bintener, Tamara Jean Rita UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with no efficient cure. Even though the currently existing cancer therapies show promising results in early detected cancers, the treatment of late ... [more ▼]

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with no efficient cure. Even though the currently existing cancer therapies show promising results in early detected cancers, the treatment of late state cancers and metastases still presents many obstacles. The development of treatment resistance and non-responsive cancer hampers the already time-consuming endeavour of drug development. To overcome these hurdles, researchers started to turn to computational approaches to unravel the mechanisms of cancer in terms of onset, development, resistance mechanism, metastasis, and immune invasion among others. The advent of systems biology came not only with the ability to generate large amounts of data but also novel approaches and techniques to analyse them. For example, metabolic modelling approaches can integrate -omics data into a computational representation of metabolism and reconstruct context-specific metabolic models via model-building algorithm such as FASTCORE (Vlassis et al., 2014), FASTCORMICS (Pacheco et al., 2015), and rFASTCORMICS (Pacheco et al., 2019b). Since then, context-specific metabolic models have gained a large area of application that ranges from understanding basic metabolism of microbes, in silico engineering and optimisation of different bacterial strains to applications in human diseases such as biomarker identification and drug target prediction in several diseases, including cancer. In this thesis, I give an overview on metabolic modelling approaches with a focus on cancer and different methods of drug discovery based on the prediction of in silico targets that enable finding cancer-specific targets to advance personalized medicine. To this end, I have developed a drug prediction workflow that has been successfully used to predict and validate three drugs for repurposing in colorectal cancer using context-specific metabolic models reconstructed via rFASTCORMICS (Pacheco et al., 2019b). Furthermore, we have reconstructed 10 005 context specific models for cancer and its controls to investigate the metabolic differences and rewiring strategies used in cancer. A second application of the workflow for melanoma is currently in progress, several drugs have been predicted for repurposing in melanoma and will be tested in vitro on different melanoma cell lines. Additionally, the most promising drugs will also be tested in combination with current melanoma treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailUnlawful Content Online: Towards A New Regulatory Framework For Online Platforms
Ullrich, Carsten UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The thesis reviews the online intermediary liability framework of the E-Commerce Directive (in Articles 12 - 15) along two research questions. 1) Is the current legal framework regulating content ... [more ▼]

The thesis reviews the online intermediary liability framework of the E-Commerce Directive (in Articles 12 - 15) along two research questions. 1) Is the current legal framework regulating content liability of online platforms under the ECD still adequate when it comes to combating illegal content? 2) Are there alternative models for intermediary regulation that are better suited to include internet intermediaries in the fight against illegal content? These questions were formulated against the premises that unlawful content online has been a persisting and growing problem and that the position of online intermediaries today makes enhanced responsibilities on their part necessary. The thesis undertakes to analyse the nature of the enforcement challenges in the EU when trying to engage online platforms under the current liability framework, and charts out an alternative approach to holding online platforms responsible. Chapter 3 reviews the current intermediary framework in the EU and the horizontal challenges of holding internet intermediaries liable. This is analysed against the backdrop of the proliferation of the internet and online platforms, sketched out in the preceding Chapter 2. Due to the ambiguity and outdatedness of the ECD provisions, on the one hand, and different national secondary liability traditions, on the other hand, the liability protections of online platforms have been interpreted and applied differently by EU Member States, and most importantly courts, leading to an uneven and ineffective enforcement landscape. Chapter 4 analyses sectoral provisions that cover different kinds of offences related to unlawful content and their interactions with the ECD and national legislation on intermediary liability. The thesis evaluates enforcement efforts in the areas of defamation, hate speech, terrorist content, copyright, trademarks, product safety and food safety. While none of the national (sectoral) approaches reviewed appear to be effective when trying to enlist intermediaries in the fight against unlawful content, the latter have built up powerful own private enforcement systems that have come to rival and run counter to public interests and fundamental rights. Chapter 5 introduces case studies of online enforcement in the areas of product and food safety, based on interviews conducted with market surveillance authorities in the EU. The specific enforcement system of EU product regulation poses particular challenges, but also offers some useful lessons for the eventual framework proposed in Chapter 6. This system eschews today’s liability cornerstones and the reliance of self-regulatory tools favoured by EU and national legislators so far. Instead it proposes an enhanced responsibility system, based on harmonised technical standards as used in the EU's New Approach regulatory method. Technical standards would define duty of care obligations in the guise of risk management approaches, which focus on defined (sectoral) harms that arise from the business practices of online platforms. They incorporate prospective responsibilities, such as for example safety by design for user onboarding, user empowerment, or (algorithmic) content management, as well as specific retrospective responsibilities relating to e.g. notice and takedown or content identification system. The standard can be adapted to the type of harm/violation, thus taking account of the specific fundamental rights and public interests involved on a sectoral level. [less ▲]

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See detailThe legacy of intimate partner violence in heterosexual and gay (LGBTQ) communities. New challenges for the family doctor.
Klusova Noguiná, Elena; Chety, Ula; Conde-Valvis, Sara et al

in Baum, Erika; Ungan, Mehmet; Steylaerts, Carl (Eds.) The World Book of Family Medicine (2020)

The “classic” gender violence of the heterosexual couples has left a painful legacy to the LGBT community. Recent researches show that rates of IPV in LGBT are similar to or higher than the rates found ... [more ▼]

The “classic” gender violence of the heterosexual couples has left a painful legacy to the LGBT community. Recent researches show that rates of IPV in LGBT are similar to or higher than the rates found for heterosexual women. Though hardly worked, it seems to be that existing approach programs turn out to be incomplete and insufficient to address this problem in heterosexual women, being practically unknown in sexual minorities. The greater part of health professionals seems to have a vague and unclear knowledge of many basic LGBTQ+ concepts and specific health needs (social isolation, substance abuse, eating disorders, intimate partner violence, cancer prevention, etc...) The reality is that most of nowadays family physicians are not conscious nor trained to identify no manage the differences in professional help need between sexual minorities and heterosexual patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (0 UL)
See detailViolence Against Female Doctors, its influence on professional mental health and prevention
Tkachenko, Victoria; Tekin, Nil; Kurpas, Donata et al

in The World Book of Family Medicine (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (8 UL)
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See detailOn reductions of local and global Galois representations modulo prime powers
Torti, Emiliano UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 144 (24 UL)
See detailTaxation, Data and Destination - An Analysis of the Compatibility of a Digitalized Destination-Based Corporate Tax and a Destination-Based Cash-Flow Tax with International and EU Tax and Data Protection Law Frameworks
Sinnig, Julia Ruth UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The digitalized economy poses challenges and issues to traditional corporate taxation that require modifications in the way companies are taxed under international tax law. The thesis discusses two tax ... [more ▼]

The digitalized economy poses challenges and issues to traditional corporate taxation that require modifications in the way companies are taxed under international tax law. The thesis discusses two tax proposals to face some of the main issues, such as the intangibility of business assets and operations, the lack of physical presence of businesses in market jurisdictions, as well as non-taxation under both corporate income tax and value added tax in these jurisdictions. One of the tax proposals is the destination-based cash-flow tax that has been elaborated on mainly in economic literature. The other proposal has been drafted by the author and is named "digitalized destination-based corporate tax". The thesis analyzes the business and legal context in which the two taxes would operate: beyond the testing of the two model taxes against several digitalized business models, the relevant legal frameworks known in taxation and composed by double taxation conventions, EU law and WTO law are analyzed. Moreover, considering that the place of destination is determined by reference to the place of customers or users, corporate taxpayers likely need to collect and process (personal) data of these third parties in order to determine their place of tax liability. Thus, the thesis also examines potential data protection law interferences. [less ▲]

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See detailVertical Land Movements and Sea Level Changes on South Georgia, South Atlantic Ocean: Results from 7 Years of Geodetic and Oceanographic Observations on a Remote Island
Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Hibbert, Angela et al

Scientific Conference (2020, December 16)

South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, is a small remote land mass that supports various ground-based instrumental observations (Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), tide gauge ... [more ▼]

South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, is a small remote land mass that supports various ground-based instrumental observations (Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), tide gauge, meteorological and seismic) in an otherwise largely under sampled oceanic region. Moreover, the South Atlantic Ocean plays an important role in global ocean circulation, con-necting the deep thermohaline circulation of the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans, whilst also linking to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the South, where the lack of continental barriers allows a free exchange of water between the major ocean basins. Hence, South Georgia po-tentially lies within a region susceptible to climatic changes before these can be felt further afield. In 2013 and 2014 a total of five GNSS stations were installed covering the area of the main island (approximately 170 x 50 km) with two of those being located close to the King Edward Point (KEP) Research Station and the GLOSS tide gauge (ID 187). Furthermore, precise levelling campaigns in 2013, 2014, 2017 and 2020 supported the analysis of local ground instabilities near the tide gauge. Through these activities the tide gauge datum within the Permanent Ser-vice for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) has been established, which in turn, makes the derived KEP mean sea level (MSL) record highly valuable for long-term studies and satellite altimetry cali-brations. In this study, we will present the vertical land movement estimates from seven years of GNSS observations, five precise levelling campaigns, and will discuss their impact on the sea level record from the KEP tide gauge and nearby satellite altimetry sea surface heights. Our results confirm uplift all over South Georgia Island while the area at KEP and particularly the jetty with tide gauge are subsiding relative to the rest of the island. Using this information we correct the MSL record for the vertical land movements and investigate its signals together with those from nearby satellite altimetry tracks. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovation Networks from Inter-organizational Research Collaborations
Esmaeilzadeh Dilmaghani, Saharnaz UL; Piyatumrong, Apivadee UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Heuristics for Optimization and Learning (2020)

We consider the problem of automatizing network generation from inter-organizational research collaboration data. The resulting networks promise to obtain crucial advanced insights. In this paper, we ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of automatizing network generation from inter-organizational research collaboration data. The resulting networks promise to obtain crucial advanced insights. In this paper, we propose a method to convert relational data to a set of networks using a single parameter, called Linkage Threshold (LT). To analyze the impact of the LT-value, we apply standard network metrics such as network density and centrality measures on each network produced. The feasibility and impact of our approach are demonstrated by using a real-world collaboration data set from an established research institution. We show how the produced network layers can reveal insights and patterns by presenting a correlation matrix. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring Governance Issues between the SRB and the ESM in the Use of the Common Backstop
Lupinu, Pier Mario UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

To date, the resolution of the Banco Popular Español, being the first and only resolution case in the euro area, has had the “benefit” of bringing to light several shortfalls of this crisis management ... [more ▼]

To date, the resolution of the Banco Popular Español, being the first and only resolution case in the euro area, has had the “benefit” of bringing to light several shortfalls of this crisis management system. Back then, thanks to the sale of business, the need of the use of the Single Resolution Fund (SRF) has been avoided, prompting criticism on whether the fund had sufficient means to overcome a major widespread crisis. During the period elapsed from the last financial crisis, the euro area banking sector has built capital and liquidity buffers, which were aimed at protecting them for future shocks. Although it is now widely accepted that crises are of a cyclical nature, new risks and the high interconnectivity of today’s economic activities brought an unexpected crisis due to the current pandemic. The consequences of this unprecedented event in modern history had severe effects to the worldwide economy, mostly for the boundless block of labour activities, which caused severe losses for households, enterprises and governments that consequently affected the financial intermediation function of the banks. Concerning the European Stability Mechanism (ESM), the current pandemic has had the effect to put temporary on hold the discussion on the revision of the ESM Treaty, including its role as a Backstop to the SRF, so that the Mechanism could experience a new role through the ESM Pandemic Crisis Support. In such a framework, this paper aims to bring back the attention to the unfinished path in the establishment of the Common Backstop by addressing an important element of risk, namely its decision-making process. The main aim is to explore possible governance issues, which could hamper a timely and effective use of the Common Backstop, in the case that the SRF would be depleted and no alternative funding sources would be available. [less ▲]

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See detailA Survey of Information Entropy Metrics for Complex Networks
Omar, Yamila UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Entropy (2020)

Information entropy metrics have been applied to a wide range of problems that were abstracted as complex networks. This growing body of research is scattered in multiple disciplines, which makes it ... [more ▼]

Information entropy metrics have been applied to a wide range of problems that were abstracted as complex networks. This growing body of research is scattered in multiple disciplines, which makes it difficult to identify available metrics and understand the context in which they are applicable. In this work, a narrative literature review of information entropy metrics for complex networks is conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Existing entropy metrics are classified according to three different criteria: whether the metric provides a property of the graph or a graph component (such as the nodes), the chosen probability distribution, and the types of complex networks to which the metrics are applicable. Consequently, this work identifies the areas in need for further development aiming to guide future research efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailTuning halide perovskite energy levels
Canil, Laura; Cramer, Tobias; Fraboni, Beatrice et al

in Energy and Environmental Science (2020)

Solar energy is playing a significant role in the development of a world powered by clean energy sources. In this context, halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are considered one of the most promising ... [more ▼]

Solar energy is playing a significant role in the development of a world powered by clean energy sources. In this context, halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are considered one of the most promising research lines thanks to their high efficiencies and flexibility, combined with an easy and cheap fabrication process. The possibility of combining different materials and compositions is an excellent advantage of PSCs. However, still, a big limit is posed by the need for a proper energy level alignment between the layers of materials comprising devices. Therefore, it is of utmost interest to develop methods allowing to tune the energy levels of the different materials. In semiconductors physics, a common technique to achieve this purpose is to functionalize the surface of the materials with dipolar molecules. Nevertheless, this has been rarely applied to perovskites because of the highly rough surface of the films. In this study, we show that it is possible to use this technique in hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite semiconductors systematically and tune the direction and magnitude of the shift by controlling the deposition process. These findings offer a toolbox to simplify the application of halide perovskites in optoelectronic devices. [less ▲]

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See detailAutonomous Formation Flight using Solar Radiation Pressure
van Dam, Tonie UL; Thoemel, Jan UL

in CEAS Space Journal (2020)

Autonomous formation flight enables new satellite missions for novel applications. The cost and limits of propulsion systems can be overcome if environmental resources are being benefitted of. Currently ... [more ▼]

Autonomous formation flight enables new satellite missions for novel applications. The cost and limits of propulsion systems can be overcome if environmental resources are being benefitted of. Currently, atmospheric drag is used in low Earth orbit to this end. Solar radiation pressure, which is of similar order of magnitude as aerodynamic ram pressure, is, however, always neglected. We introduce this force and show that it can be exploited. We demonstrate through simulations that a formation geometry is established quicker if the solar radiation pressure is modeled. [less ▲]

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See detailOutdoor STEAM integrated framework in elementary schools in Luxembourg using MathCityMap and GeoGebra 3D Calculator
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

Scientific Conference (2020, December 15)

In elementary schools in Luxemburg, sciences and mathematics are generally taught in class based essentially on textbooks. However, the findings of multiple studies on understanding and applying skills in ... [more ▼]

In elementary schools in Luxemburg, sciences and mathematics are generally taught in class based essentially on textbooks. However, the findings of multiple studies on understanding and applying skills in STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics) report that students need hands-on activities on real-world objects. Furthermore, in times of the COVID-19 pandemic, where numerous restrictions and risks dominate teaching inside the classroom, outdoor learning is safer and offers many opportunities. Hence, we created outdoor mathematical trails with a STEAM integrated approach for elementary schools using the free educational software MathCityMap and the dynamic mathematics software GeoGebra 3D. In these outdoor trails, students used a set of promising technologies, i.e. AR (Augmented Reality) or GPS, to support STEAM education. Based on results from our first study on outdoor mathematical trails in June 2020 (in review), we developed and evaluated a framework on outdoor STEAM integrated teaching. This framework was used for further outdoor task and trail creations in elementary schools, which we investigated by conducting semi-structured interviews with students and teachers. Hence, we will present how this framework was used in elementary schools to create outdoor mathematical trails and describe how it affected the students' learning. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 159 (4 UL)
See detailMaking History Together: Public Participation in Museums
Cauvin, Thomas UL; Konstantinou, Katerina; Boccalatte, Paola et al

Scientific Conference (2020, December 15)

The international online symposium brought together scholars, museum professionals and heritage practitioners to discuss how participatory history is constructed, developed, and implemented in museums ... [more ▼]

The international online symposium brought together scholars, museum professionals and heritage practitioners to discuss how participatory history is constructed, developed, and implemented in museums. 'Making History Together: Public Participation in Museums' took place on 15 December 2020 and has brought together participants and case studies from all over the world. Sessions include discussions on co-creation and co-production, community of interpretation, digital public participatory practices, empowerment, and overall impact on making history in museums. [less ▲]

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See detailPressure Sensing with Nematic Liquid Crystal and Carbon Nanotube Networks
Murali, Meenu UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The study of colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in liquid crystals (LCs) is well known. In most of the works, the particles are mixed into the LC to form suspensions with well-dispersed particles ... [more ▼]

The study of colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in liquid crystals (LCs) is well known. In most of the works, the particles are mixed into the LC to form suspensions with well-dispersed particles. However, when nanoparticles are physically connected to form networks, the overall macroscopic properties of the ensemble are directly linked to the specific properties of the nanoparticles. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are excellent electrical conductors possessing extremely high aspect ratio, which results in a very low concentration threshold needed to obtain percolation. Therefore, they form conductive networks with extremely small amounts of CNTs. Another advantage of carbon nanotubes is their capability to transport large current densities without damage by electromigration, maintaining a stable resistance, and having scattering-less paths across several microns. Moreover, the electromechanical properties of CNTs make them an ideal candidate in pressure sensing technology. The doctoral thesis presented here describes two different approaches to integrate and utilise CNTs in an LC matrix. In the first case, we show that a variety of nanoparticles that are dispersed in LC can be attracted and assembled onto a LC defect line generated in a predetermined location, thereby creating a vertical interconnect of nanoparticles. The second consists of CNT sheets mechanically drawn from a CNT forest and an LC cell is then built on top, and the second consists of a template-based assembly of dispersed CNTs onto defect lines in LCs. In this case, we study the electrical and optical properties of CNT sheets in the presence and absence of liquid crystals based on their DC electrical characterization with distributed electrical contacts. Finally, we discuss how these two approaches can be used to successfully fabricate pressure-sensing devices. The pressure response in both these sensors is achieved based on the change in resistance of the CNTs, induced by the structural variations under the external applied pressure. Both the pressure sensors developed here are easy to fabricate, cost-effective, and recoverable owing to the elasticity and softness of the LC. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-reversal symmetry violations and entropy production in field theories of polar active matter
Borthne, Øyvind L; Fodor, Etienne UL; Cates, Michael E

in New Journal of Physics (2020), 22

We investigate the steady-state entropy production rate (EPR) in the hydrodynamic Vicsek model (HVM) and diffusive flocking model (DFM). Both models display a transition from an isotropic gas to a polar ... [more ▼]

We investigate the steady-state entropy production rate (EPR) in the hydrodynamic Vicsek model (HVM) and diffusive flocking model (DFM). Both models display a transition from an isotropic gas to a polar liquid (flocking) phase, in addition to travelling polar clusters and microphase-separation in the miscibility gap. The phase diagram of the DFM, which may be considered an extension of the HVM, contains additional structure at low densities where we find a novel crystal phase in which a stationary hexagonal lattice of high-density ridges surround low density valleys. From an assessment of the scaling of the EPR at low noise, we uncover that the dynamics in this limit may be organised into three main classes based on the dominant contribution. Truly nonequilibrium dynamics is characterised by a divergent EPR in this limit, and sustains global time-reversal symmetry (TRS) violating currents at zero noise. On the other hand, marginally nonequilibrium and effectively equilibrium dynamics have a finite EPR in this limit, and TRS is broken only at the level of fluctuations. For the latter of these two cases, detailed balance is restored in the small noise limit and we recover effective Boltzmann statistics to lowest nontrivial order.We further demonstrate that the scaling of the EPR may change depending on the dynamical variables that are tracked when it is computed, and the protocol chosen for time-reversal. Results acquired from numerical simulations of the dynamics confirm both the asymptotic scaling relations we derive and our quantitative predictions. [less ▲]

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