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See detailPATHOGENIC ROLE OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE-ASSOCIATED MIRO1 MUTATIONS IN THE MITOCHONDRIAL-ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM INTERPLAY
Berenguer, Clara UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

Parkinson´s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, in which only 5-10% of the cases are caused by genetic mutations. One of the main pathological hallmarks of PD is the loss of midbrain ... [more ▼]

Parkinson´s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, in which only 5-10% of the cases are caused by genetic mutations. One of the main pathological hallmarks of PD is the loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of diseased brains. These DA neurons require large amounts of energy for the maintenance of their pace-making activity and their complex dendritic and axonal arborizations, features that force them to rely on a fully functional mitochondrial network. In this regard, mitochondrial dyshomeostasis is a central factor in PD pathophysiology. Mitochondria are considered the powerhouse of the cells, and they are extremely dynamic organelles that are distributed throughout the entire neuronal body to meet the cellular energy demands. The maintenance of mitochondrial function requires their interaction with other cellular organelles, in particular, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Overwhelming evidence indicates that the mitochondrial-ER interface is a potential target of growing importance for the investigation of PD. Several PD-related proteins were found to be involved in the structural maintenance and signaling regulation of mitochondrial-ER contact sites (MERCs). In recent years, myriad studies have identified the mitochondrial GTPase Miro1 as a crucial player in PD pathology. Miro1 protein is not only an adaptor for mitochondrial transport, but also acts as a cytosolic calcium sensor and as an ubiquitination target for the mitochondrial quality control machinery. Moreover, Miro1 can localize to MERCs, where it functions as a regulator of the calcium exchange between both organelles. To date, no genetic link between Miro1 and PD has been identified, and the influence of Miro1 in the regulation of MERCs within the context of neurodegeneration is still underestimated. This current study explored the damaging effect of novel PD-associated heterozygous mutations in RHOT1, the gene encoding Miro1 protein, in a diseased genetic background. We first obtained skin fibroblasts from the affected PD patients harboring Miro1 mutations, which we further differentiated into iPSC-derived neurons. The characterization of the mutations in both patient-derived cellular models unveiled important impairments in mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and sensitivity to calcium stress, associated with alterations in the abundance and functionality of the MERCs. Consequently, downstream pathways to these mechanisms were affected, such as autophagy flux and mitochondrial clearance. From our results, we can conclude that PD-associated mutant Miro1 leads to crucial alterations in MERCs, consequently affecting downstream mechanisms such as calcium homeostasis and mitophagy. These dysregulations might lead to an increased sensitivity to stress and finally cell death. Our findings strongly support the key role of MERCs in the progress of neurodegeneration and establish RHOT1 as a rare genetic risk factor in PD. [less ▲]

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See detailTeacher Attitudes towards Ethnic Minority Students: Effects of Schools´ Cultural Diversity
Glock, Sabine UL; Kovacs, Carrie UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in British Journal of Educational Psychology (2019), 89

Background: Research exploring mechanisms driving inequalities in school systems, has found that biased teacher judgments contribute to observed disadvantages for ethnic minority students. Teacher ... [more ▼]

Background: Research exploring mechanisms driving inequalities in school systems, has found that biased teacher judgments contribute to observed disadvantages for ethnic minority students. Teacher judgments may be driven by explicit and implicit attitudes. Aims: The current research explored the effect of cultural diversity at schools (actual or imagined) on teachers’ attitudes toward ethnic minority students. Samples: One hundred and-five preservice teachers (90 female) with a mean age 26.20 of years (teaching experience: 57.55 weeks) participated in Study 1. Two hundred and thirty-one teachers (159 female) with a mean age of 41.00 years (teaching experience: 12.92 years) participated Study 2. Method: Cultural diversity was operationalized via a fictive description of a school (Study 1) or via the actual proportion of ethnic minority students at the school (Study 2). An Implicit Association Test assessed implicit attitudes toward ethnic minority students. Explicit attitudes were assessed via questionnaire. Results: Preservice teachers imagining a more culturally diverse school held more negative implicit attitudes toward ethnic minority students than those imagining a less diverse school. In contrast, in-service teachers actually working in more diverse schools held less negative implicit attitudes toward minority students. Preservice teachers associated teaching in culturally diverse schools with increased effort, whereas in-service teachers actually working in culturally diverse schools reported more enthusiasm toward teaching ethnic minority students. Conclusions: This research shows the challenge and the negative stereotypes preservice teachers associate with culturally diverse schools, while inservice teachers’ negative associations may be buffered by the actual experience of working with ethnic minority students. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Suchtverband verbënnt - 2. nationales Suchtsymposium, Kommunale Suchtprävention
Böwen, Petra UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

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See detailLandscape typology of urban forest ecosystem services
Boura, Marlène Delphine Fabienne UL

Presentation (2019, November 26)

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See detailModeling Parkinson's disease using human midbrain organoids
Monzel, Anna Sophia UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

With increasing prevalence, neurodegenerative disorders present a major challenge for medical research and public health. Despite years of investigation, significant knowledge gaps exist, which impede the ... [more ▼]

With increasing prevalence, neurodegenerative disorders present a major challenge for medical research and public health. Despite years of investigation, significant knowledge gaps exist, which impede the development of disease-modifying therapies. The development of tools to model both physiological and pathological human brains greatly enhanced our ability to study neurological disorders. Brain organoids, derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), hold unprecedented promise for biomedical research to unravel novel pathological mechanisms of a multitude of brain disorders. As brain proxies, these models bridge the gap between traditional 2D cell cultures and animal models. Owing to their human origin, hiPSC-derived organoids can recapitulate features that cannot be modeled in animals by virtue of differences in species. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a human-specific neurodegenerative disorder. The major manifestations are the consequence of degenerating dopaminergic neurons (DANs) in the midbrain. The disease has a multifactorial etiology and a multisystemic pathogenesis and pathophysiology. In this thesis, we used state-of-the-art technologies to develop a human midbrain organoid (hMO) model with a great potential to study PD. hMOs were generated from iPSC-derived neural precursor cells, which were pre-patterned to the midbrain/hindbrain region. hMOs contain multiple midbrain-specific cell types, such as midbrain DANs, as well as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. We could demonstrate features of neuronal maturation such as myelination, synaptic connections, spontaneous electrophysiological activity and neural network synchronicity. We further developed a neurotoxin-induced PD organoid model and set up a high-content imaging platform coupled with machine learning classification to predict neurotoxicty. Patient-derived hMOs display PD-relevant pathomechanisms, indicative of neurodevelopmental deficits. hMOs as novel in vitro models open up new avenues to unravel PD pathophysiology and are powerful tools in biomedical research. [less ▲]

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See detailA case study on the impact of masking moving objects on the camera pose regression with CNNs
Cimarelli, Claudio UL; Cazzato, Dario UL; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

in 2019 16th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS) (2019, November 25)

Robot self-localization is essential for operating autonomously in open environments. When cameras are the main source of information for retrieving the pose, numerous challenges are posed by the presence ... [more ▼]

Robot self-localization is essential for operating autonomously in open environments. When cameras are the main source of information for retrieving the pose, numerous challenges are posed by the presence of dynamic objects, due to occlusion and continuous changes in the appearance. Recent research on global localization methods focused on using a single (or multiple) Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to estimate the 6 Degrees of Freedom (6-DoF) pose directly from a monocular camera image. In contrast with the classical approaches using engineered feature detector, CNNs are usually more robust to environmental changes in light and to occlusions in outdoor scenarios. This paper contains an attempt to empirically demonstrate the ability of CNNs to ignore dynamic elements, such as pedestrians or cars, through learning. For this purpose, we pre-process a dataset for pose localization with an object segmentation network, masking potentially moving objects. Hence, we compare the pose regression CNN trained and/or tested on the set of masked images and the original one. Experimental results show that the performances of the two training approaches are similar, with a slight reduction of the error when hiding occluding objects from the views. [less ▲]

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See detailTrop d'impôts pour les célibataires au Luxembourg? (Bref aperçu historique comparatif sur la fiscalité des célibataires dans le monde).
Danescu, Elena UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

Le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, né dans sa forme actuelle en 1839, est issu, indirectement, de la révolution belge. Parmi les impôts indirects perçus sous le régime hollandais après 1815 figurent:le droit ... [more ▼]

Le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, né dans sa forme actuelle en 1839, est issu, indirectement, de la révolution belge. Parmi les impôts indirects perçus sous le régime hollandais après 1815 figurent:le droit de mouture sur les céréales, donc un impôt sur le pain, le droit d’abattage qui frappe les bouchers et éleveurs, l’impôt sur le vin qui touche les petits viticulteurs de la Moselle, les accises sur l’alcool qui pénalisent les distilleries industrielles du nord du pays et les milliers de petites distilleries familiales. En matière d’impôts directs, le jeune Grand-Duché hérite de la nouvelle philosophie de la fiscalité introduite par les Lumières et la Révolution française qui remplace l’impôt-tribut par l’impôt échange et introduit le principe d’égalité devant l’impôt et de proportionnalité, c.-à-d. d’impôt à taux unique (flat tax). L’histoire de la fiscalité est ensuite étroitement liée à l’histoire idéologique et politique de l’Etat-nation et de l’Etat social. La réforme fiscale actuelle mérite d'être analysée à la lumière de histoire. [less ▲]

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See detailParafermion braiding in fractional quantum Hall edge states with a finite chemical potential
Groenendijk, Solofo UL; Calzona, Alessio; Tschirhart, Hugo et al

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2019), 100

Parafermions are non-Abelian anyons which generalize Majorana fermions and hold great promise for topological quantum computation. We study the braiding of Z2n parafermions which have been predicted to ... [more ▼]

Parafermions are non-Abelian anyons which generalize Majorana fermions and hold great promise for topological quantum computation. We study the braiding of Z2n parafermions which have been predicted to emerge as localized zero modes in fractional quantum Hall systems at filling factor ν=1/n (n odd). Using a combination of bosonization and refermionization, we calculate the energy splitting as a function of distance and chemical potential for a pair of parafermions separated by a gapped region. Braiding of parafermions in quantum Hall edge states can be implemented by repeated fusion and nucleation of parafermion pairs. We simulate the conventional braiding protocol of parafermions numerically, taking into account the finite separation and finite chemical potential. We show that a nonzero chemical potential poses challenges for the adiabaticity of the braiding process because it leads to accidental crossings in the spectrum. To remedy this, we propose an improved braiding protocol which avoids those degeneracies. [less ▲]

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See detailDerivation of an exact, nonequilibrium framework for nucleation: Nucleation is a priori neither diffusive nor Markovian
Kuhnhold, Anja; Meyer, Hugues UL; Amati, Graziano et al

in Physical Review. E. (2019), 100(5), 052140

We discuss the structure of the equation of motion that governs nucleation processes at first order phase transitions. From the underlying microscopic dynamics of a nucleating system, we derive by means ... [more ▼]

We discuss the structure of the equation of motion that governs nucleation processes at first order phase transitions. From the underlying microscopic dynamics of a nucleating system, we derive by means of a nonequilibrium projection operator formalism the equation of motion for the size distribution of the nuclei. The equation is exact, ie, the derivation does not contain approximations. To assess the impact of memory, we express the equation of motion in a form that allows for direct comparison to the Markovian limit. As a numerical test, we have simulated crystal nucleation from a supersaturated melt of particles interacting via a Lennard-Jones potential. The simulation data show effects of non-Markovian dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailLa naturalisation du prince Félix. Un vote très spécial en 1919
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2019)

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See detailFeldtest und dynamische Simulation der außenliegenden Wandtemperierung
Schmidt, Christoph Wilhelm UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

The present work deals in detail with two new, thermally active components for building renovation, namely the external wall tempering (aWT) and the external air tempering (aLT). With the help of these ... [more ▼]

The present work deals in detail with two new, thermally active components for building renovation, namely the external wall tempering (aWT) and the external air tempering (aLT). With the help of these two components, existing buildings can be thermally activated as part of an energetic refurbishment. The installation of the two components is minimally invasive from the outside. Due to the position of the active layer in the wall structure, the use of very low fluid temperatures is possible (low-exergy approach). Initially the theoretical principles for both components were developed and presented in accordance with standard literature for thermoactive component systems. Then characteristic values for the evaluation of the components (efficiency and utilisation rates) were developed and based on the theoretical principles, implementation concepts for both components were subsequently developed. Finally, a large-scale implementation of the two components could be realized on a facade. The aim of the implementation was not only to present the "feasibility" of the componentes but also to generate measurement data for the following considerations. In the course of its development, some sources of error could be identified and a multiplicity of realizations were obtained. For example, for warranty reasons a compromise had to be made regarding the thickness of the plaster for plastering the capillary tube mats. Overall, both components were successfully implemented and put into operation. In coordination to the implementation the system costs of both components were determined. Here, similar values were achieved in the implementation as determined within the framework of sample planning (~70 €/m²). With the help of the measurement data from the field test areas of the two components and two laboratory test benches, suitable modelling approaches could now be developed, verified and finally validated. Then stationary as well as transient measurements were carried out and compared and a good agreement between modelling and measurements could be determined. The comparison between idealized modelling and real-life components, which are under the influence of the (partly not unambiguously attributable) environmental conditions, causes difficulties. For the aWT, a maximum useful heat flow of around 60 W/m² in over-compensatory heating mode was determined. The useful heat flow is defined as the heat flow from the tempering level into the interior of the building. In a low-exergy operating mode, however, ~15 W/m² is more likely. For such external components, the time constants are also relevant; for the aWT these are in the daily range, with dead times of 3-4 hours. At the same time, the thermal activation of the existing structure can make it usable as a storage mass. However, since validated simulation models are available after completion of the measurements, potential estimates and further considerations can be made at simulation level. The simulation studies carried out on the building level show the potential, but also the important "sticking points" of the components. In summary, it can be stated that the aWT is more suitable for binary operation than a kind of base load tempering. Again, the pump power requirement in relation to the thermal input must be taken into account for long running times. The lower the heating requirement of a building, the more likely it is that the aWT can also be used as a independent system. When considering the aWT alone, control strategies adapted to the inertia of the aWT are the key to high cover shares. The combination of aLT and aWT was found to be very suitable for the complete heating of a building. Here, the simulation achieves high cover ratios with low flow temperatures and simple control strategies. Thus the feasibility of the ideas was shown, realistic system costs were determined and the basics were created on model level in order to investigate the further interesting aspects of the components by means of simulations and on the basis of the field test areas. [less ▲]

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See detailUn cours hybride linguistique et interculturel au coeur d'un réseau transfrontalier de centres de langues
Lejot, Eve UL; Molostoff, Leslie UL

Presentation (2019, November 22)

Un cours hybride linguistique et interculturel au cœur d’un réseau transfrontalier de centres de langues Les universités de Luxembourg, Kaiserslautern, Liège, Lorraine, Sarrebruck et Trèves sont réunies ... [more ▼]

Un cours hybride linguistique et interculturel au cœur d’un réseau transfrontalier de centres de langues Les universités de Luxembourg, Kaiserslautern, Liège, Lorraine, Sarrebruck et Trèves sont réunies depuis dix ans en un réseau transfrontalier. Aujourd'hui, ces 6 universités partagent 19 programmes bi et tri-nationaux imposant chacun un semestre d'échange. Une étude menée en 2017 par les centres de langues de Luxembourg et de Sarrebruck a mis en évidence le manque de préparation des étudiants à ces semestres d'échanges et donc l'absence de bénéfices tirés de cette expérience. Suite à ce constat, les centres de langues de ces universités ont décidé de mettre en commun leurs expertises respectives pour développer un outil d'accompagnement linguistique et interculturel à destination des étudiants. De ce partenariat est né le cours hybride bilingue franco-allemand Language Centres Greater Region – Préparation interactive, linguistique et culturelle à un semestre d'échange. Le cours est composé d'un parcours en ligne (hébergé sur la plateforme Moodle et divisé en cinq étapes : « Préparation avant le départ », « L'arrivée », « La vie sur place », « Les études » et « La validation des études »), d'activités en tandem, mais également de deux workshops de deux jours durant lesquels tous les étudiants (toutes universités confondues) se retrouvent. A l'issue d'une phase pilote et de deux semestres de cours, nous constatons que les étudiants intéressés par la plateforme ne sont pas exclusivement des étudiants de la Grande Région. Ce sont des étudiants Erasmus qui viennent dans nos universités ou nos étudiants respectifs qui partent en dehors de la Grande Région. Par ailleurs, à un niveau institutionnel, les services des relations internationales et de vie étudiante ont montré un intérêt (lors de Staff weeks, réunions internes ou conférences) pour le cours et pour une adaptation de celui-ci à leur université. Par conséquent, nous avons développé deux nouvelles alternatives : le « parcours pays » et le « parcours vierge » que nous allons présenter lors de cette communication. Les 4 « parcours pays » - France, Belgique, Allemagne et Luxembourg- sont le résultat d'un écrémage des spécificités liées aux villes des universités à partir desquelles les premiers parcours du projet Grande Région ont été créés. Nous avons fait en sorte de ne conserver que les activités pouvant s'appliquer à l'échelle nationale (exemple du CROUS pour la France, des contrats de location pour l'Allemagne, la prise de parole en cours pour la Belgique francophone et une recette de cuisine pour le Luxembourg). Le « parcours vierge » est une version destinée à partager l'expérience de notre réseau universitaire avec d'autres réseaux transfrontaliers – par exemple franco-espagnol. Il a été présenté à l'Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour qui est, avec l'UniGR, un de nos deux partenaires associés sur le projet. Le parcours que nous proposons nécessite d'être linguistiquement et culturellement adapté. Un soutien aux universités souhaitant adapter ce parcours est organisé sous forme d'un workshop de formation de formateurs. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Entstehung einer Hauptstadtregion als deutsch-belgische Beziehungsgeschichte
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2019, November 22)

Vom 14. Mai - 23. Juli und vom 19. September - 31.Oktober 1972 fand zunächst im Kölner Museum Schnütgen und dann in den Brüsseler Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire die bis heute größte Schau rheinisch ... [more ▼]

Vom 14. Mai - 23. Juli und vom 19. September - 31.Oktober 1972 fand zunächst im Kölner Museum Schnütgen und dann in den Brüsseler Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire die bis heute größte Schau rheinisch-maasländischer Kunst statt. Unter dem Titel „Rhein und Maas. Kunst und Kultur 800-1400“ wurde sie zu einem großen Publikumserfolg, der auch in der Scientific Community der Kunsthistoriker einige Aufmerksamkeit erregte. Die Entstehung der Ausstellung sagt einiges über die Geschichte der Wissenschaftsbeziehungen zwischen Deutschland und Belgien seit 1945 aus, aber auch, so die Ausgangshypothese meines Beitrags, über die Veränderungen der in Belgien vorherrschenden Mental Maps von Deutschland seit der Verlagerung des politischen Schwerpunktes an den Rhein mit der Gründung der Bundesrepublik. Der belgische Deutschlanddiskurs knüpfte dabei durchaus an bereits bestehende Deutschlandbilder an, die gerade das Maasland als Zwischenraum inszenierten , doch kam durch das Zusammenrücken der westeuropäischen Länder im Zuge von Kaltem Krieg und beginnender europäischer Integration, gerade auch unter dem Signum des Abendlandes, eine neue Dimension ins Spiel. Mentalitätsgeschichtlich hob die rheinische Bonner Republik die durch den Ersten Weltkrieg hervorgerufene Distanz zwischen dem belgischen Staat und (West-)Deutschland auf, politikgeschichtlich fanden deutsche und belgische „Suche nach Sicherheit“ (E. Conze) ein enges Kooperationsfeld. Zum Zentrum der belgischen Aktivität im Rheinland wurde Köln, das nach dem durch die Wahl als Regierungssitz notwendig gewordenen Verlassen Bonns durch die belgischen Truppen in Deutschland 1950 zu deren neuem Hauptquartier wurde. Dort etablierte sich zudem rasch das Belgische Haus als Drehscheibe für politischen, konsularischen, aber auch kulturellen Austausch. Die Ausstellung „Rhein und Maas“ dient als Aufhänger für den Beitrag, der sowohl das Ende einer langen Nachkriegszeit als auch das Ankommen Belgiens in der Bonner Republik herausstellen kann. Auch die Anfang der 1970er Jahre erfolgten ersten gegenseitigen Staatsbesuche geben Aufschluss über Inszenierung und Wahrnehmung der Hauptstadtregion. Der Beitrag wirft somit eine beziehungsgeschichtliche Perspektive auf Bonn-Köln-Düsseldorf zwischen 1949 und den 1970er Jahren und fragt mit Bezug auf die Hauptstadtregion auf die belgische(n) Wahrnehmung(en) des Rheinischen, aber auch nach Rückwirkungen auf Brüssel als belgischer und europäischer Hauptstadt. [less ▲]

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See detailAccords internationaux, Compétence et conclusion
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Jurisclasseur Fascicule 192-1 (2019)

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See detailAu-delà du cours magistral: Vers des apprentissages autonomes et collaboratifs basés sur de « grandes questions »
Busana, Gilbert UL; Reuter, Robert UL

Scientific Conference (2019, November 22)

Nous enseignions depuis quelques années un cours de première année sur "l'éducation à l'ère numérique", dans la formation initiale des futur-e-s enseignant-e-s du fondamental, sous forme d’un cours ... [more ▼]

Nous enseignions depuis quelques années un cours de première année sur "l'éducation à l'ère numérique", dans la formation initiale des futur-e-s enseignant-e-s du fondamental, sous forme d’un cours magistral afin de véhiculer certaines connaissances théoriques et pratiques dans ce domaine. Cependant, nous avons observé au cours des dernières années que (1) de nombreux étudiants échouaient à l'examen et que (2) beaucoup d'entre eux, lorsqu'ils étaient en 4e année, avaient oublié la plupart des fondements. Ces considérations nous ont amenés à repenser et à remanier nos méthodes d'enseignement et notre façon d'évaluer les résultats d'apprentissage des étudiant-e-s. Après une première implémentation de notre nouvelle approche pédagogique combinant diverses méthodes actives d'apprentissage au semestre d’hiver 2018 (décrite et réfléchie dans Reuter & Busana, 2018), nous avons effectué quelques modifications basées (a) sur nos propres observations et réflexions ainsi que (b) sur les commentaires des étudiant-e-s tirées de l’évaluation du cours (organisée par notre université). Dès à présent, plutôt que de les faire travailler sur de « grandes questions » (c.-à-d. des questions pour lesquelles il n'y a pas de réponses simples et faciles à consulter) au cours des séances en présentiel, nous demandons maintenant à nos étudiant-e-s (1) de construire individuellement des connaissances en amont du séminaire sur base de ressources fournies ou tirés de recherches bibliographiques autonomes ; (2) de les présenter, discuter et développer de manière collaborative en petits groupes pendant les séminaires ; puis (3) de les partager et discuter avec nous et leurs pairs et finalement (4) de les conserver dans un portfolio numérique personnel. L’évaluation des apprentissages des étudiant-e-s est effectuée à l’aide de ce portfolio numérique en fin de semestre. [less ▲]

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See detailTell Your Town – Sprache lernen, Integration fördern, Städte erkunden und entdecken
Reuter, Robert UL; Haberkorn, Marcus; Kemp, Valérie UL

in Busch, Matthias; Frisch, Julia; Wegner, Anke (Eds.) Europa leben lernen. Apprendre à vivre l’Europe. Tagungsband zur 1. „Edu.GR“-Tagung an der Universität Trier (2019, November 21)

Wie können ansässige und neu zugezogene Schülerinnen und Schülern in Rheinland-Pfalz und Luxemburg besser in ihren Regionen integriert werden, dabei ihre sprachlichen Fähigkeiten entwickeln und die ... [more ▼]

Wie können ansässige und neu zugezogene Schülerinnen und Schülern in Rheinland-Pfalz und Luxemburg besser in ihren Regionen integriert werden, dabei ihre sprachlichen Fähigkeiten entwickeln und die erforderliche Medienkompetenz erlernen? Diesen Fragen hat sich ein grenzüberschreitendes bilaterales Entwicklungs- und Forschungsprojekt gewidmet, wobei ein „Partizipativer Design“ Ansatz (Danielsson & Wiberg, 2006) angewandt wurde. Unter der Leitung eines Teams der Hochschule Trier wurde in Zusammenarbeit mit SchülerInnen und LehrerInnen der Escher Brill Schule und der Trierer Kurfürst-Balduin-Realschule sowie einem Team der Universität Luxemburg, während des Schuljahres 2016/2017, die mobile App „Tell Your Town" entwickelt. Ziel war es erfundene Geschichten an echten Schauplätzen in Trier und Esch auf Deutsch, Französisch, Englisch und Luxemburgisch in spielerischer Form zu erzählen. Die Geschichten, Schauplätze und Routen wurden in Design Workshops partizipativ erarbeitet. Ein Team an der Hochschule Trier setzte die App anschließend um und ein Team der Universität Luxemburg dokumentierte, analysierte und evaluierte die Benutzung der App durch die SchülerInnen in Feldversuchen in Trier und in Esch, mit Hilfe teilnehmender Beobachtungen, Videographie und Befragungen von SchülerInnen und LehrerInnen, um technische und pädagogische Rückmeldungen an die EntwicklerInnen und LehrerInnen zu geben. Bei diesem Projekt ist eine frei verfügbare App entstanden, welche die Benutzer dazu einlädt eine der beiden Städte „per pedes“ zu entdecken und dabei noch so einiges über die Geschichte der Stadt zu erfahren, was ihnen durch einen fiktionalen Reiseführer in interaktiven Dialogen vermittelt wird. Dabei wird die Geolokalisierungsfunktion des Smartphones genutzt um den Benutzer zu bedeutsamen Sehenswürdigkeiten zu führen, wo dann interaktive Minispiele oder Dialoge mit dem fiktionalen Reiseführer erfolgen. In der Route Esch steht die Geschichte des Luxemburgischen Bergbaus und den dortigen Minenarbeitern im Mittelpunkt. Die Route Trier handelt von einem Wettlauf zwischen Karl Marx und Nero. In diesem wird der Spieler von Karl Marx begleitet und lernt so bekannte Orte aus Trier kennen. Mit Hilfe der Feldversuche wurde sichtbar, dass die App großes Potential hat, um eine relativ autonome Erkundung der Städte zu initiieren und es auch den einheimischen SchülerInnen erlaubt, ihre Stadt mit neuen Augen bewusster wahrzunehmen. [less ▲]

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See detailMono-static Automotive Joint Radar-Communications System
Dokhanchi, Sayed Hossein UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

Scientific Conference (2019, November 21)

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See detailOptimization assisted Designing Mechanical Elements for Direct Metal Laser Sintering
Cao, Thanh Binh UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

The common question that many mechanical engineers have tried to answer is “how to maximize strength and working reliability of parts during designs while being able to minimize the parts’ weights?” The ... [more ▼]

The common question that many mechanical engineers have tried to answer is “how to maximize strength and working reliability of parts during designs while being able to minimize the parts’ weights?” The associated solutions attach the design methods, which need to be de-veloped to build up the parts. The better solutions are the more reliable and lighter parts could be built up. Hence, the fewer negative impacts on the environment could be yielded and the closer distance we could step towards the more sustainable future. Under the influences of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, many optimization methods have been being developed, aimed at supporting engineers on figuring out the above question. Despite having substantial developments in recent years, both the optimization methods and its applications in the mechanical design field are still far from being fully exploited. To evaluate the potential use of the methods, specific product developments are essentially considered and investigated. The Thesis work particularly dealt with the investigations of the optimization assisted design methods, employed to develop structures of some mechanical elements. These constructed elements were expected to have higher performance than those traditionally designed and were able to be practically produced. For gradually studying and evaluating the processes of design, it was proposed to divide the work into the five separating phases. Within the initial phase, the first scheme of the optimization assisted design was theoretically investigated. Such a scheme was relied on the combination of topology optimization and lattice optimization and was considered in association with the redesigning process of a motorcycle frame. The frame was selected for this starting phase due to the convenient definition of the design volume subjected to the optimizations. By handling the investigations in dealing with (i) the first resonance frequency, (ii) the mass, (iii) the buckling load factor, and (iv) the equivalent stress of the newly designed frame and those of the original one, the potential use of the design approach was revealed. In addition, the investigations pointed out that further studies are essentially taken place to search for more appropriate ways to apply this approach to design novel complex structures. During the next three consecutive phases, the more complicate optimization schemes were proposed and studied. The schemes were composed of three optimization steps, including free shape optimization, topology optimization, as well as lattice optimization. The studies were handled in conjunction with the processes of innovating the hydrogen valve structure, which holds the unexposed design space. Different novel configurations were developed for the valve within these phases, targeting the reduction of mass, the prolongation of fatigue life, as well as the structural compatibility of the designed valves with DMLS. In addition, the design of a test channel for the valve performed via the use of a fatigue based approach was also introduced in one of the three phases. It was aimed at providing a mean to detect multiple early valve’s damages. All of the built structures were then virtually evaluated to point out the effectiveness of the design works. Within the last phase, experimental tests were proposed to carry out. In this phase, the best possible valve structure was selected and was subjected to produce by DMLS along with post-machining afterwards. Upon completion of the fabrications, the in-house fatigue tests were tak-en place for the produced valves until damages or reaching 2E5 cycles. The obtained data of the tests provided further evidence to support the theoretical studies demonstrated in the first four phases. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 132 (4 UL)
See detailA note on a quantization via the Ran space
Kalugin, Alexey UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 UL)