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See detailAnalysis of signal transduction pathways linking L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation to breast cancer cell invasion
Lommel, Maiti UL

Doctoral thesis (2015)

The organisation of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated by abundant actin-binding proteins. Functional alteration of these proteins contributes to pathologies such as cancer where structural and ... [more ▼]

The organisation of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated by abundant actin-binding proteins. Functional alteration of these proteins contributes to pathologies such as cancer where structural and functional modifications of the actin cytoskeleton are linked to uncontrolled cell motility and signalling. The actin-bundling protein L-plastin has initially been detected in haematopoietic cells where it plays a role in the immune response. L-plastin is also ectopically expressed in several solid tumours and is often considered as a metastatic marker. L-plastin is known to be phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo with residue serine 5 (Ser5) being the major phosphorylation site. Ser5 phosphorylation increases the F-actin-binding and -bundling activity of L-plastin and regulates actin turn-over. Recent findings demonstrate that L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation is crucial for invasion and metastasis formation. This research work has unravelled the signalling pathways leading to L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation in breast cancer cells. Previously, protein kinase A, protein kinase C and phosphoinositide-3-kinase have been reported to play a role in L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation depending on the cell type and environment. This work however reveals that RSK kinases are the predominant kinases responsible for L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation in breast cancer cells. In vitro kinase assays revealed that RSK1 and RSK2 are able to directly phosphorylate L-plastin on Ser5 and a whole genome microarray analysis pointed to an involvement of the ERK/MAPK pathway in this event. The involvement of this pathway was consolidated by activation and inhibition studies as well as by siRNA-mediated knockdowns. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation occurs via the downstream ERK/MAPK pathway kinases, RSK1 and RSK2. Moreover, a computational modelling approach enabled us to show that RSK is the most important activator of L-plastin in breast cancer cell lines compared to other previously identified kinases. We performed migration and invasion assays which showed that RSK knockdown, besides reducing L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation, also impaired breast cancer cell migration and invasion. The identification of a novel substrate of RSK kinases whose phosphorylation is important for cancer cell invasion underlines the importance of RSK in cancer progression and highlights RSK as a promising drug target in certain invasive carcinomas. [less ▲]

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See detailJudicial Deference as a Principle of GAL? The Case of the WTO
Fahner, Johannes Hendrik UL

Presentation (2015, December 04)

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See detailPush out test of novel deep steel decking-failure modes and influence of transversal loading
Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Obiala, Renata; Nellinger, Sebastian et al

in Association for Steel-Concrete Composite Structures (2015, December 03)

This paper presents the results of push-out test specimens on shear connectors for composite beams, which are placed centrally in the ribs of novel formed deep steel decking. These deck shapes have not ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the results of push-out test specimens on shear connectors for composite beams, which are placed centrally in the ribs of novel formed deep steel decking. These deck shapes have not been well considered in the development and the calibration studies of EN 1994-1-1. The presented tests have been designed to investigate the additional failure modes and the corresponding load-slip behaviour, with special consideration of the newly occurring failure modes in the rib. In addition, the vertical loading of the slab has been considered in the push-out tests by a transverse load, acting with the help of a supplementary hydraulic jack. The differences between a concentric and eccentric transverse loading and a constant and variable transverse loading was investigated in the test series. [less ▲]

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See detailProjektpräsentation
Jagos, Anna UL

Presentation (2015, December 02)

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See detailDIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF IL-6-TYPE CYTOKINES, THEIR INTERPLAY WITH HYPOXIA AND RESULTING EFFECTS ON THE METABOLISM
Zimmer, Andreas David UL

Doctoral thesis (2015)

IL-6-type cytokines signal mainly via the Jak/STAT pathway using the common receptor chain gp130. They are implicated in various biological processes such as differentiation, apoptosis, tissue ... [more ▼]

IL-6-type cytokines signal mainly via the Jak/STAT pathway using the common receptor chain gp130. They are implicated in various biological processes such as differentiation, apoptosis, tissue regeneration and proliferation. However, one of their main functions is the regulation of inflammatory processes, especially the initial induction of an inflammatory response. They hereby exert key steps in the onset as well as in the termination of an inflammation and in the promotion of the shift from the innate to the adaptive immune response. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) IL-6 has been identified as a key factor in the onset as well as in the progression of this cancer. In this study we first investigated the effects of the IL-6-type cytokine IL-27 on hepatic cells. By evaluating IL-27 signalling in several HCC cell lines as well as hepatic cells, we could demonstrate that IL-27 does, in contrary to other IL-6-type cytokines, activate STAT1 and STAT3. A transcriptional and protein read-out of STAT3 was not found in hepatic cells. Thus, IL-27 exerts interferon γ-like functions only in the liver. Interestingly, we could further show that the IL-27 signalling can still be repressed by the canonical IL-6-type cytokine feedback regulator SOCS3, following a pre-stimulation with other IL-6-type cytokines. The second part of this thesis focused on the effects of the IL-6-type cytokine Oncostatin M (OSM) on the cellular metabolism. We hereby evaluated to which extent OSM-mediated STAT3 activation can induce a Warburg-like, highly glycolytic, metabolic phenotype under normoxia. OSM induced the expression of HIF-1α, a key factor mediating the shift to a highly glycolytic phenotype, in several HCC cell lines and immortalized hepatocytes. In the non-neoplastic hepatocyte cell line, PH5CH8, this led to the induction of a more glycolytic metabolic phenotype. The observed changes in these immortalized hepatocytes did not fully resemble the metabolic state seen under hypoxia, since mainly the observed induction of PDK1 seems to explain the effect. Overall we could not observe strong effects on glycolytic enzymes or other canonical HIF-1α target genes involved in metabolism, on a transcriptional or protein expression level in the investigated cells. Interestingly we found that HIF-1α does not seem to be mediating all the early adaptions of the cellular metabolism to hypoxia. The early inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex could be shown to be independent of the HIF-1α-mediated up-regulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, but might rather be induced by reactive oxygen species, created during the switch from normoxia to hypoxia. In summary we could show that in the liver IL-27 exerts interferon γ-like effects. Additionally, cytokine-activated STAT3 does not per se induce a glycolytic metabolic phenotype and HIF-1α is not necessary for some of the early adaptions of the cellular metabolism to hypoxia. [less ▲]

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See detailFundamentals and advances in magnetic hyperthermia
Perigo, Elio Alberto UL; Hemery, Gauvin; Sandre, Olivier et al

in Applied Physics Reviews (2015), 2

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See detailVibrational and optical properties of MoS2: From monolayer to bulk
Molina-Sanchez, Alejandro UL; Hummer, Kerstin; Wirtz, Ludger UL

in Surface Science Reports (2015), 70(4), 554-586

Molybdenum disulfide, MoS2, has recently gained considerable attention as a layered material where neighboring layers are only weakly interacting and can easily slide against each other. Therefore ... [more ▼]

Molybdenum disulfide, MoS2, has recently gained considerable attention as a layered material where neighboring layers are only weakly interacting and can easily slide against each other. Therefore, mechanical exfoliation allows the fabrication of single and multi-layers and opens the possibility to generate atomically thin crystals with outstanding properties. In contrast to graphene, it has an optical gap of ~1.9 eV. This makes it a prominent candidate for transistor and opto-electronic applications. Single-layer MoS2 exhibits remarkably different physical properties compared to bulk MoS2 due to the absence of interlayer hybridization. For instance, while the band gap of bulk and multi-layer MoS2 is indirect, it becomes direct with decreasing number of layers. In this review, we analyze from a theoretical point of view the electronic, optical, and vibrational properties of single-layer, few-layer and bulk MoS2. In particular, we focus on the effects of spin–orbit interaction, number of layers, and applied tensile strain on the vibrational and optical properties. We examine the results obtained by different methodologies, mainly ab initio approaches. We also discuss which approximations are suitable for MoS2 and layered materials. The effect of external strain on the band gap of single-layer MoS2 and the crossover from indirect to direct band gap is investigated. We analyze the excitonic effects on the absorption spectra. The main features, such as the double peak at the absorption threshold and the high-energy exciton are presented. Furthermore, we report on the the phonon dispersion relations of single-layer, few-layer and bulk MoS2. Based on the latter, we explain the behavior of the Raman-active A1gA1g and View the MathML sourceE2g1 modes as a function of the number of layers. Finally, we compare theoretical and experimental results of Raman, photoluminescence, and optical-absorption spectroscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailA modal logic for games with lies
Teheux, Bruno UL

Presentation (2015, December 01)

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See detailLe multilinguisme dans le feuilleton de Batty Weber, 1913–1920
Millim, Anne-Marie UL

in Synergies Pays Germanophones (2015), 8

Résumé : cette contribution relativise l’éloge du multilinguisme, de l’interculturalité et de la « Mischkultur » souvent attribués à l’écrivain, feuilletoniste et éditeur luxembourgeois Batty Weber ... [more ▼]

Résumé : cette contribution relativise l’éloge du multilinguisme, de l’interculturalité et de la « Mischkultur » souvent attribués à l’écrivain, feuilletoniste et éditeur luxembourgeois Batty Weber (1860–1940). Cette analyse des premières années (1913–1920) de son feuilleton Abreisskalender (1913–1940) montre la complexité, les difficultés, autant que les avantages, intellectuels et identitaires, de la condition multilingue, perçus, vécus et transmis par Weber dans le contexte des idées et idéologies courantes de l’époque. Bien qu’il préconise la tolérance envers les problèmes de prononciation et de style des locuteurs plurilingues, il a tendance à exiger une perfection d’expression de monolingue. [less ▲]

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See detailA Class of Improved Wake Interaction Model for the Coordinated Control of Wind Farms
Pan, Lin UL; Voos, Holger UL; Darouach, Mohamed

in IEEE Conference Publications (Ed.) IEEE International Chinese Automation Congress (CAC), 2015 (2015, December 01)

This paper is focused on the Wind Energy (WE) systems and Wind Farms (WFs) optimization in Luxembourg. It describes the overview of the wind resources in all the WFs and presents a class of Improved Wake ... [more ▼]

This paper is focused on the Wind Energy (WE) systems and Wind Farms (WFs) optimization in Luxembourg. It describes the overview of the wind resources in all the WFs and presents a class of Improved Wake Interaction Model (IWIM) for Coordination and Optimization Control (CnOC) of WFs. Based on Wind Power (WP) assessment of WFs, the statistical method is used to model the distribution of Wind Speed (WS) and Wind Direction (WD). Some simulation figures about the Wind Rose (WR) and WF optimization demonstrate the description and assessment of WP in detail. These assessments are expected to enhance the effectiveness of exploitation and utilization of WP in WFs of Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailComposite Learning Control With Application to Inverted Pendulums
Pan, Lin UL

in IEEE Conference Publications (Ed.) IEEE International Conference - Chinese Automation Congress (CAC), 2015 (2015, December 01)

Composite adaptive control (CAC) that integrates direct and indirect adaptive control techniques can achieve smaller tracking errors and faster parameter convergence compared with direct and indirect ... [more ▼]

Composite adaptive control (CAC) that integrates direct and indirect adaptive control techniques can achieve smaller tracking errors and faster parameter convergence compared with direct and indirect adaptive control techniques. However, the condition of persistent excitation (PE) still has to be satisfied to guarantee parameter convergence in CAC. This paper proposes a novel model reference composite learning control (MRCLC) strategy for a class of affine nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties to guarantee parameter convergence without the PE condition. In the composite learning, an integral during a movingtime window is utilized to construct a prediction error, a linear filter is applied to alleviate the derivation of plant states, and both the tracking error and the prediction error are applied to update parametric estimates. It is proven that the closed-loop system achieves global exponential-like stability under interval excitation rather than PE of regression functions. The effectiveness of the proposed MRCLC strategy has been verified by the application to an inverted pendulum control problem. [less ▲]

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See detailThe clash of European concepts regarding central bank independence: The Franco-Germanic (“Latin-Teutonic”) dispute on the ECB’s role during the euro crisis
Gren, Jakub UL

in Milenkovic, Marko (Ed.) European Union and Legal Reform 2013 (2015)

The global financial crisis – which, in the European Union, has further transformed into the EU sovereign debt crisis (the euro crisis) – has shaken the foundations of the Economic and Monetary Union as ... [more ▼]

The global financial crisis – which, in the European Union, has further transformed into the EU sovereign debt crisis (the euro crisis) – has shaken the foundations of the Economic and Monetary Union as established in 1992, particularly regarding the stabilising role of the European Central Bank (ECB). As a result, two blocks of countries emerged: the first consisted of the northern eurozone countries (less affected by the crisis), which advocated for strict ECB independence and the continuation of its limited price stability mandate (“the Teutonic block”); the second included the southern eurozone countries, which suffered great difficulties in acquiring financing for their public debts and called for the ECB to take a more politically active role. This paper argues that such contradictory approaches are inevitable in a heterogeneous entity like the European Union (specifically, the eurozone) and need not necessarily undermine the future of the eurozone as a whole. Indeed, the 50 years of European integration led by the Franco-Germanic engine indicate that such different standpoints are nothing extraordinary. The remaining challenge is to transform them into ‘productive tension’ to keep the European project on the move. [less ▲]

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See detailPremier bilan d'un débat national
Pauly, Michel UL

in Vincent ARTUSO, La « question juive » au Luxembourg (1933-1941). L’Etat luxembourgeois face aux persécutions antisémites nazies. Rapport final (2015)

Avant-propos dressant un bilan provisoire du débat autour du 'rapport Artuso' sur l'attitude de la Commission administrative de 1940 la question juive au Luxembourg

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See detailÊtre adulte en sortant de structures d’Aide sociale à l’enfance, le capital social au cœur de la définition de l’autonomie
Kerivel, Aude UL

in Vie sociale (2015), Nouvelle série n°12

While the passage from youth to the age of adulthood is no longer generally signified at a specific age, for young people from child protection services this is not the case as it clearly corresponds to ... [more ▼]

While the passage from youth to the age of adulthood is no longer generally signified at a specific age, for young people from child protection services this is not the case as it clearly corresponds to the age of departure from the placement. Leaving the child protection structure is a crucial step. Professionals’ work involves preparing young people for leaving and thus “helping them towards autonomy”. This article deciphers factors that have an impact on this moment of time and can affect what happens later. It discusses the “injunction to be autonomous” and its’ consequences as signified at a relatively early age compared to other groups of young people. Young people from child protection do not have the benefit of a time period enabling them to live through life experiences and they are not permitted to be “young”. Furthermore, these young people and their families often have no social capital. This article shows how can professionals take theses aspects into account in their work with them. [less ▲]

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See detailL’apprentissage langagier avec l’App iTEO
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Gretsch, Gérard

in Synergies pays germanophones. Gerflint (2015), 8

The education system in Luxembourg requires highly developed language competences in three languages. This situation is challenging for all children. The iPad app iTEO records and edits oral language and ... [more ▼]

The education system in Luxembourg requires highly developed language competences in three languages. This situation is challenging for all children. The iPad app iTEO records and edits oral language and offers innovative methods to develop languages. Children draw on their language repertoires, thereby translanguaging, and work autonomously and collaboratively in order to produce oral texts. This article presents, first, the efforts of two children in year 1 who record themselves in French on iTEO, and, second, the pedagogical practices in that class as well as changes over time. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscussant. In Q. Liu (Ed.), Complex problem solving
Greiff, Samuel UL

Scientific Conference (2015, December)

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See detailVulnerabilities of Government Websites in a Developing Country – The Case of Burkina Faso
Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; Ouoba, Jonathan; Ahmat, Daouda et al

in 7th International Conference on e‐Infrastructure and e‐Services for Developing Countries (2015, December)

Slowly, but consistently, the digital gap between developing and developed countries is being closed. Everyday, there are initiatives towards relying on ICT to simplify the interaction between citizens ... [more ▼]

Slowly, but consistently, the digital gap between developing and developed countries is being closed. Everyday, there are initiatives towards relying on ICT to simplify the interaction between citizens and their governments in developing countries. E-government is thus becoming a reality: in Burkina Faso, all government bodies are taking part in this movement with web portals dedicated to serving the public. Unfortunately, in this rush to promote government actions within this trend of digitization, little regards is given to the security of such web sites. In many cases, government highly critical web sites are simply produced in a product line fashion using Content Management Systems which the webmasters do not quite master. We discuss in this study our findings on empirically assessing the security of govern- ment websites in Burkina Faso. By systematically scanning these websites for simple and well-known vulnerabilities, we were able to discover issues that deserved urgent attention. As an example, we were able to crawl from temporary backup files in a government web site all information (hostname, login and password in clear) to read and write directly in the database and for impersonating the administrator of the website. We also found that around 50% of the government websites are built on top of platforms suffering from 14 publicly known vulnerabilities, and thus can be readily attacked by any hacker. [less ▲]

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See detailDissecting the Act of God: An Exploration of the Effect of Religion on Economic Activity
Litina, Anastasia UL; Carpantier, Jean-Francois UL

Scientific Conference (2015, December)

This research establishes that religiosity has a persistent effect on economic outcomes. First we use a sample of migrants in the US to establish that religiosity at the country of origin has a long ... [more ▼]

This research establishes that religiosity has a persistent effect on economic outcomes. First we use a sample of migrants in the US to establish that religiosity at the country of origin has a long lasting effect on the religiosity of migrants. Second, exploiting variations in the inherited component of religiosity of migrants, our analysis uncovers the causal effect of religiosity on economic activity using a panel of countries for the period 1935-2000. The empirical findings suggest that i) church attendance has a positive impact on economic outcomes; ii) religious beliefs in the existence of god, hell, heaven and miracles have no systematic effect on economic outcomes, and iii) stronger faith is associated with prosperity. Moreover we extend our analysis to uncover the channels via which religiosity operates. Notably, the positive effect of religious participation and of stronger faith on economic outcomes operates via the creation of social capital and the development of traits, such as hard work and thrift, that are conducive to growth. [less ▲]

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