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See detailStrategies to mitigate aliasing of loading signals while estimating GPS frame parameters
Collilieux, Xavier; van Dam, Tonie UL; Ray, Jim et al

in Journal of Geodesy (2012), 86(1), 1-14

Although GNSS techniques are theoretically sensitive to the Earth center of mass, it is often preferable to remove intrinsic origin and scale information from the estimated station positions since they ... [more ▼]

Although GNSS techniques are theoretically sensitive to the Earth center of mass, it is often preferable to remove intrinsic origin and scale information from the estimated station positions since they are known to be affected by systematic errors. This is usually done by estimating the parameters of a linearized similarity transformation which relates the quasi-instantaneous frames to a long-term frame such as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). It is well known that non-linear station motions can partially alias into these parameters. We discuss in this paper some procedures that may allow reducing these aliasing effects in the case of the GPS techniques. The options include the use of well-distributed sub-networks for the frame transformation estimation, the use of site loading corrections, a modification of the stochastic model by downweighting heights, or the joint estimation of the low degrees of the deformation field. We confirm that the standard approach consisting of estimating the transformation over the whole network is particularly harmful for the loading signals if the network is not well distributed. Downweighting the height component, using a uniform sub-network, or estimating the deformation field perform similarly in drastically reducing the amplitude of the aliasing effect. The application of these methods to reprocessed GPS terrestrial frames permits an assessment of the level of agreement between GPS and our loading model, which is found to be about 1.5 mm WRMS in height and 0.8 mm WRMS in the horizontal at the annual frequency. Aliased loading signals are not the main source of discrepancies between loading displacement models and GPS position time series. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial on "Geropsychology across Europe"
Ferring, Dieter UL; Lang, Frieder R.

in GeroPsych: Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry (2012), 25(3), 113-113

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See detailEuropäisierung der Städtepolitik? Das Beispiel 'CIPU' in Luxemburg
Becker, Tom UL

in Europa Regional (2012), 10(18.2010), 38-47

Europeanization of Urban Policy? The example of 'CIPU' in Luxemburg For many years, the ‘Europeanization’ of urban policy and urban development has been vividly discussed as a result of European and ... [more ▼]

Europeanization of Urban Policy? The example of 'CIPU' in Luxemburg For many years, the ‘Europeanization’ of urban policy and urban development has been vividly discussed as a result of European and intergovernmental initiatives in this particular policy field. Based on Radaelli’s concept of Europeanization, this paper examines the development of a European urban policy as well as its increasing importance and impact on the Luxembourgish urban policy with the example of the National Information Cell for Urban Policy (Cellule nationale d’Information pour la Politique Urbaine – CIPU), established in 2008. The empirical evidence shows that the competent Luxembourgish institutions have recognized that European urban policy is of vital importance to the sustainable and polycentric development of Luxembourg. Due to the establishment of CIPU, greater account is taken of the potential of cities and the current challenges that they are facing. This is achieved, among other things, by means of better coordination and an improved provision of information for Luxembourgish stakeholders, a more efficient concentration of means and measures as well as extended opportunities for local stakeholders to influence European policy-making. [less ▲]

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See detailLes langues sur le marché de l’emploi du grand-duché de Luxembourg
Fehlen, Fernand UL

in Belkacem, Rachid; Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle (Eds.) Le travail frontalier au sein de la Grande Région Saar-Lor-Lux (2012)

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See detailNontidal ocean loading: amplitudes and potential effects in GPS height time series
van Dam, Tonie UL; Collilieux, X.; Wuite, J. et al

in Journal of Geodesy (2012), 86(11), 1043-1057

Ocean bottom pressure (OBP) changes are caused by a redistribution of the ocean’s internal mass that are driven by atmospheric circulation, a change in the mass entering or leaving the ocean, and/or a ... [more ▼]

Ocean bottom pressure (OBP) changes are caused by a redistribution of the ocean’s internal mass that are driven by atmospheric circulation, a change in the mass entering or leaving the ocean, and/or a change in the integrated atmospheric mass over the ocean areas. The only previous global analysis investigating the magnitude of OBP surface displacements used older OBP data sets (van Dam et al. in J Geophys Res 129:507–517, 1997). Since then significant improvements in meteorological forcing models used to predict OBP have been made, augmented by observations from satellite altimetry and expendable bathythermograph profiles. Using more recent OBP estimates from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) project, we reassess the amplitude of the predicted effect of OBP on the height coordinate time series from a global distribution of GPS stations. OBP-predicted loading effects display an RMS scatter in the height of between 0.2 and 3.7 mm, larger than previously reported but still much smaller (by a factor of 2) than the scatter observed due to atmospheric pressure loading. Given the improvement in GPS hardware and data analysis techniques, the OBP signal is similar to the precision of weekly GPS height coordinates. We estimate the effect of OBP on GPS height coordinate time series using the MIT reprocessed solution, mi1. When we compare the predicted OBP height time series with mi1, we find that the scatter is reduced over all stations by 0.1 mm on average with reductions as high as 0.7 mm at some stations. More importantly we are able to reduce the scatter on 65 % of the stations investigated. The annual component of the OBP signal is responsible for 80 % of the reduction in scatter on average.We find that stations located close to semi-enclosed bays or seas are affected by OBP loading to a greater extent than other stations. [less ▲]

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See detailAssimilation of GRACE terrestrial water storage into a land surface model: Evaluation and potential value for drought monitoring in western and central Europe
Li, B.; Rodell, M.; Zaitchik, B. F. et al

in Journal of Hydrology (2012), 446-447

A land surface model's ability to simulate states (e.g., soil moisture) and fluxes (e.g., runoff) is limited by uncertainties in meteorological forcing and parameter inputs as well as inadequacies in ... [more ▼]

A land surface model's ability to simulate states (e.g., soil moisture) and fluxes (e.g., runoff) is limited by uncertainties in meteorological forcing and parameter inputs as well as inadequacies in model physics. In this study, anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were assimilated into the NASA Catchment land surface model in western and central Europe for a 7-year period, using a previously developed ensemble Kalman smoother. GRACE data assimilation led to improved runoff estimates (in temporal correlation and root mean square error) in 17 out of 18 hydrological basins, even in basins smaller than the effective resolution of GRACE. Improvements in root zone soil moisture were less conclusive, partly due to the shortness of the in situ data record. GRACE data assimilation also had significant impacts in groundwater estimates including trend and seasonality. In addition to improving temporal correlations, GRACE data assimilation also reduced increasing trends in simulated monthly TWS and runoff associated with increasing rates of precipitation. The assimilation downscaled (in space and time) and disaggregated GRACE data into finer scale components of TWS which exhibited significant changes in their dryness rankings relative to those without data assimilation, suggesting that GRACE data assimilation could have a substantial impact on drought monitoring. Signals of drought in GRACE TWS correlated well with MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data in most areas. Although they detected the same droughts during warm seasons, drought signatures in GRACE derived TWS exhibited greater persistence than those in NDVI throughout all seasons, in part due to limitations associated with the seasonality of vegetation. Mass imbalances associated with GRACE data assimilation and challenges of using GRACE data for drought monitoring are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. [less ▲]

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See detailProbing Quantum Confinement within Single Core–Multishell Nanowires
Martínez-Criado, Gema; Homs, Alejandro; Alén, Benito et al

in Nano Letters (2012), 12(11), 5829-5834

Theoretically core–multishell nanowires under a cross-section of hexagonal geometry should exhibit peculiar confinement effects. Using a hard X-ray nanobeam, here we show experimental evidence for carrier ... [more ▼]

Theoretically core–multishell nanowires under a cross-section of hexagonal geometry should exhibit peculiar confinement effects. Using a hard X-ray nanobeam, here we show experimental evidence for carrier localization phenomena at the hexagon corners by combining synchrotron excited optical luminescence with simultaneous X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Applied to single coaxial n-GaN/InGaN multiquantum-well/p-GaN nanowires, our experiment narrows the gap between optical microscopy and high-resolution X-ray imaging and calls for further studies on the underlying mechanisms of optoelectronic nanodevices. [less ▲]

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See detailInventing Diseases: Kleptomania, Agoraphobia and Resistance to Modernity
Lenz, Thomas UL; MagShamhráin, Rachel

in Society (2012), 49(3), 279-283

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See detailHierarchies of local monotonicities and lattice derivatives for Boolean and pseudo-Boolean functions
Couceiro, Miguel UL; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Waldhauser, Tamás UL

in Miller, D. Michael; Gaudet, Vincent C. (Eds.) 42nd IEEE International Symposium on Multiple-Valued Logic, ISMVL 2012, Victoria, BC, Canada, May 14-16, 2012 (2012)

In this paper we report recent results in [1] concerning local versions of monotonicity for Boolean and pseudo-Boolean functions: say that a pseudo-Boolean (Boolean) function is p-locally monotone if each ... [more ▼]

In this paper we report recent results in [1] concerning local versions of monotonicity for Boolean and pseudo-Boolean functions: say that a pseudo-Boolean (Boolean) function is p-locally monotone if each of its partial derivatives keeps the same sign on tuples which differ on less than p positions. As it turns out, this parameterized notion provides a hierarchy of monotonicities for pseudo-Boolean (Boolean) functions. Local monotonicities are tightly related to lattice counterparts of classical partial derivatives via the notion of permutable derivatives. More precisely, p-locally monotone functions have p-permutable lattice derivatives and, in the case of symmetric functions, these two notions coincide. We provide further results relating these two notions, and present a classification of p-locally monotone functions, as well as of functions having p-permutable derivatives, in terms of certain forbidden “sections”, i.e., functions which can be obtained by substituting variables for constants. This description is made explicit in the special case when p=2. [less ▲]

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See detailAustrian Corporatism and Gradual Institutional Change in the Relationship between Apprenticeship Training and School-based VET
Graf, Lukas UL; Lassnigg, Lorenz; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Busemeyer, Marius R.; Trampusch, Christine (Eds.) The Political Economy of Collective Skill Systems (2012)

Within the context of collective skill formation systems, Austria presents a case in which a well-developed vocational education and training (VET) system provides a differentiated set of pathways for ... [more ▼]

Within the context of collective skill formation systems, Austria presents a case in which a well-developed vocational education and training (VET) system provides a differentiated set of pathways for youth as they prepare their transitions from school to work. If we wish to draw lessons from a comparison of collective skill systems, the dynamic relationship between a strong dual apprenticeship training system and a robust school-based training system is one of the key factors differentiating VET in Austria from the VET systems in Germany and Switzerland. Indeed, we argue that the Austrian collective skill system as well as contemporary changes within it cannot be understood without understanding full-time vocational schooling in Austria. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Career Expectations of Medical Students: Findings of a Nationwide Survey in Germany
Gibis, Bernhard; Heinz, Andreas UL; Jacob, Rüdiger et al

in Deutsches Ärzteblatt International (2012), 109(18), 327-332

Background: Demographic change, technical progress, and changing patterns of service use influence the future demand for physicians in the German health care system. The attitudes of medical students ... [more ▼]

Background: Demographic change, technical progress, and changing patterns of service use influence the future demand for physicians in the German health care system. The attitudes of medical students towards their later work in the health system is important for current health care planning. For that reason a nationwide survey aimed to identify major trends in preferred specialty, workplace characteristics (regional location, hospital) and perceived hindrances for clinical work. Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 34 closed questions was developed at the University of Mainz in 2009 and administered over the Internet in June and July 2010 to all medical students in Germany. The questions addressed the students’ intentions regarding specialty training, location of practice, workload, and regional preference, as well as potential reasons why they might choose not to practice clinical medicine in the future. Results: 12 518 web-based questionnaires were filled in (approx. 15.7% of all medical students in Germany in 2010). The mean age was 24.9 years, with 64% female and 36% male. Favored specialties were internal medicine (42.6%), family medicine (29.6%), pediatrics (27.0%) and surgery (26.8%). Nearly all respondents (96%) stated that they attached importance to compatibility of work and family life. Working in a salaried position (92.2%) was preferred to working in private practice (77.7%). General practice, in particular in rural locations, was significantly less favored than work as a specialist in cities. Conclusion: Although the coming generation of physicians anticipate working in clincial settings in the future, shortfalls in the areas of primary care and in rural locations are likely if medical students adhere to their preferences stated in the questionnaire. [less ▲]

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See detailGeocenter motion and its geodetic and geophysical implications
Wu, X.; Ray, J.; van Dam, Tonie UL

in Journal of Geodynamics (2012), 58

The horizontal transport of water in Earth’s surface layer, including sea level change, deglaciation, and surface runoff, is a manifestation of many geophysical processes. These processes entail ocean and ... [more ▼]

The horizontal transport of water in Earth’s surface layer, including sea level change, deglaciation, and surface runoff, is a manifestation of many geophysical processes. These processes entail ocean and atmosphere circulation and tidal attraction, global climate change, and the hydrological cycle, all having a broad range of spatiotemporal scales. The largest atmospheric mass variations occur mostly at synoptic wavelengths and at seasonal time scales. The longest wavelength component of surface mass transport, the spherical harmonic degree-1, involves the exchange of mass between the northern and southern hemispheres. These degree-1 mass loads deform the solid Earth, including its surface, and induce geocenter motion between the center-of-mass of the total Earth system (CM) and the center-of-figure (CF) of the solid Earth surface. Because geocenter motion also depends on the mechanical properties of the solid Earth, monitoring geocenter motion thus provides an additional opportunity to probe deep into Earth’s interior. Most modern geodetic measurement systems rely on tracking data between ground stations and satellites that orbit around CM. Consequently, geocenter motion is intimately related to the realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) origin, and, in various ways, affects many of our measurement objectives for global change monitoring. In the last 15 years, there have been vast improvements in geophysical fluid modeling and in the global coverage, densification, and accuracy of geodetic observations. As a result of these developments, tremendous progress has been made in the study of geocenter motion over the same period. This paper reviews both the theoretical and measurement aspects of geocenter motion and its implications. [less ▲]

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See detailRezension über: Eva Blome: Reinheit und Vermischung
Dembeck, Till UL

in Zeitschrift für Interkulturelle Germanistik (2012), 1(3/2012), 189-192

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See detailInvariant Preservation in Interative Modelling (Extended Version)
Amrani, Moussa UL; Lúcio, Lévi; Syriani, Eugene et al

Report (2012)

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See detailOn the influence of a patterned substrate on crystallization in suspensions of hard spheres
Dorosz, Sven UL; Schilling, Tanja UL

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2012), 136(issue 4), 1-5

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See detailGuy Fawkes, 2011 : Ein Beitrag zur politischen Ikonografie des Aufstands
Kohns, Oliver UL

in kultuRRevolution (2012), (61/62), 19-26

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See detailSuburbaner Raum. Annäherungen an Gegenstand, Inhalt und Bedeutungszuweisungen
Hesse, Markus UL

in Schenk, Winfried (Ed.) Suburbane Räume als Kulturlandschaften (2012)

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See detailInduced pluripotent stem cells generated from adult bone marrow-derived cells of the nonhuman primate (Callithrix jacchus) using a novel quad-cistronic and excisable lentiviral vector.
Wiedemann, Anastasia; Hemmer, Kathrin; Bernemann, Inga et al

in Cellular reprogramming (2012), 14(6), 485-96

Regenerative medicine is in need of solid, large animal models as a link between rodents and humans to evaluate the functionality, immunogenicity, and clinical safety of stem cell-derived cell types. The ... [more ▼]

Regenerative medicine is in need of solid, large animal models as a link between rodents and humans to evaluate the functionality, immunogenicity, and clinical safety of stem cell-derived cell types. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is an excellent large animal model, genetically close to humans and readily used worldwide in clinical research. Until now, only two groups showed the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the common marmoset using integrating retroviral vectors. Therefore, we reprogrammed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (MSCs) of adult marmosets in the presence of TAV, SB431542, PD0325901, and ascorbic acid via a novel, excisable lentiviral spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV)-driven quad-cistronic vector system (OCT3/4, KLF4, SOX2, C-MYC). Endogenous pluripotency markers like OCT3/4, KLF4, SOX2, C-MYC, LIN28, NANOG, and strong alkaline phosphatase signals were detected. Exogenous genes were silenced and additionally the cassette was removed with a retroviral Gag precursor system. The cell line could be cultured in absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and could be successfully differentiated into embryoid bodies and teratomas with presence of all three germ layers. Directed differentiation generated neural progenitors, megakaryocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteogenic cells. Thus, all criteria for fully reprogrammed bone marrow-MSCs of a nonhuman primate with a genetically sophisticated construct could be demonstrated. These cells will be a promising tool for future autologous transplantations. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Auflösung des Dramas als Form des Sozialen (Peter Szondi, Gottfried Keller)
Kohns, Oliver UL

in Kohns, Oliver; Liebrand, Claudia (Eds.) Gattung und Geschichte. Literatur- und medienwissenschaftliche Ansätze zu einer neuen Gattungstheorie (2012)

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